Juan Bassegoda Nonell Gustavo García Gabarró La cátedra de Antoni Gaudí

Sunday, March 28, 2010

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Google translation of Spanish book on Gaudi roots.

Juan Bassegoda Nonell
Gustavo Garcia CG
The chair of Antoni Gaudí
Analytical study of his work
In 1956 he was created by Ministerial Order of 3 March, the Special C.tedra
Antonio Gaud. at the Escola T? dÕArquitectura cnica Superior de Barcelona
(ETSAB). Its first director was Jos. Fontanals R.fols Francisco (1889 -
1965) and, since April 23, 1968, is directed by the undersigned this
text. The C.tedra, that as of October 19, 1998 has passed
Real C.tedra called Gaud., in 1997 was awarded the Medal
Gold M.rito in Fine Arts.
Since its creaci.n, the Royal C.tedra Gaud. has carried out work
continued towards the figure and work of the architect. As early as 1969 did.
the national monument declaraci.n for Gaud's buildings ..
Also, between 1967 and 1977 directed. instalaci.n the restauraci.n and the
C.tedra headquarters in Halls G.ell, which have received the
Doctor Honoris Causa, among others, George R. Collis Llu.s i Josep Sert.
He has designed exhibitions, taught courses and conferences and has participated
at numerous conferences. Tambi.n has supervised doctoral theses on
subjects of his specialty and, specifically, five of them on Gaud .. These
new doctors are portorrique.a a japon.s, a two Spanish-taiwan.sy
. Oles.
One of them, Gustavo Garc.a Gabarra., Was awarded Apto cum
laude for the development of the ideas in the doctorate courses
C.tedra on the particular architecture of Gaud naturalist. and studying
the formal and bows geometr.a caten.ricos.
Apart from the material of this thesis exception, along with the exposici.n of
the fundamental principles of Gaudin by the director of the
C.tedra, has composed this volume, which come to be the substrate, the substance
and the idea n.cleo arquitect.nica, timeless and inspired by Antoni
Gaud ..
Juan Bassegoda Nonell
Director of the Royal C.tedra Gaud.
Forms of the architecture of Gaud. (John Bassegoda Nonell)
Early works (1873-1885 )....................... ...... 13
Oriental influence (1883-1888) ........................ ... 13
Neogoticismo (1883-1909) ............... 15
Naturalism (1895-1916) ...............18
Geometr.a regulated (1908-1917) ......... 22
Definitive style (1892-1926) .............. ...... 23
PERSONALITY AND THOUGHT Antonio Gaud .................. 25
CRONOLOGêA .................... 33
BARCELONA Gauda ..................................................... 34
Approaching Gaud. (Gustavo Garc.a Barge.)
Introducci.n ............................................... 39
Inspiraci.n in nature ............ 43
The creative process .................43
Nature creates C.mo ............. 44
Architecture creates C.mo ............ 46
Geometr.a in architecture and nature ..... 48
The geometr.a ................... ................... 48
Geometr.a architecture ................................ 48
Geometr.a in nature ................................. 50
Forms natural arquitect.nicas ...............
Formal Geometr.a ................... .......... 52
Regulated forms in nature .................................. 54
Natural shapes in the architecture of Gaud........... .............. 56
Incorporated natural forms of architecture ................... 70
Advantages of aplicaci.n ..................................... . 70
The key discovery ................................................ 72
The s.ntesis arquitect.nica Gaud. ............................. 74
Gaud. and neogoticismo
G.ticas structures to Gaud. (Gustavo Garc.a Barge.) ....... ....... 79
Gaud. and architecture ............................................ g.tica .... 79
G.ticas Developments ...................
The superaci.n of g.tico ................................. 81
G.tico, neog.tico and Gaud. (John Bassegoda Nonell) .... 84
The Levantine g.tico ....................... 85
The catal.n neog.tico ................ .......... 85
El neog.tico Gaud. ............................ 86
The superaci.n of g.tico .......... .... 86
Early works (1873 - 1885)
Gaud. began. his studies in architecture at the
Faculty of Barcelona in 1969.
Because of its limited resources was econ.micos
forced to work as a draftsman with various
architects and the builder Jos.
Fonts? Mestres, director of the works of
new park of the Ciutadella. In Style
ecl.ctico, typical of the. little, design .. the rail
m.s Square Aribau later call and
iron gate that closes the entire building. Tambi
. N collabor. in the proposed market
Born and met.lica structure drawing. source
for the center of the market that, unfortunately,
was destroyed, although there are project and
During the race done. A number of projects
for the corresponding subjects
which emphasizes the color and the price of
watercolor drawings. Project. a door
for a cemetery, a great source for the square
de Catalunya, a courtyard for a building p.blico,
a pier and, draft final
career, an auditorium or a room degrees
From 1873 collabor. in the construction
. No housing, as. as the center of meetings
. Ny a building on Cooperative f.brica Mataronesa,
the first to be established. in Espa.a
with an idea of their property f.brica
workers, an idea that interest. in Gaud. in accordance
with their ideas about the problems youth
social. Gaud. drawing. tambi.n's banner
.. to the company and in 1885, directed. decoraci.n of the
f.brica a building on a big party in the
involving the families of the workers.
Gaud. converted. inside the ship in a forest
you called. atenci.n powerfully the
In 1878 Gaud. received. commissioned by the City Council
Barcelona to project two models
of gas lamps to place them in key
streets and squares.
Present. two models, one of three arms
and a six, combining stone base
with the trunk and arms with cast iron
bronze and opal the lampposts.
Drafted. a large memory in which
Demo tour. have thoroughly studied systems
of gas iluminaci.n large cities
the world.
In the end only two lamps were placed
six arms in the Placa Reial, inaugurated in
September 1879, and two of three branches in
Palau Square.
In this initial per.odo the works of Gaudí.
are unique and do not reflect their todav.a
m.s personal style.
Eastern Influence (1883 - 1888)
In the. Last quarter of the nineteenth century began. to take shape
arquitect.nica a European trend in
that mixed the neogoticismo and exoticism.
In the end, this mix gave rise to Modernism.
In some architects tried Espa.a
inspiraci.n find foreign schools. Llu.s
Dom? Jos nech i Montaner. Casanovas Vilaseca
atra.dos felt by German-architecture
Architectural forms
Juan Bassegoda Nonell
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Casa Vicens (1883-1888)
mana, despu.s booming of Franco-Prussian War.
Gaud., Which le.do Sort By Walter Pater and
John Ruskin Search. exoticism, to trav.s of
English architecture in the Far East, especially
in the architecture of India, Persia and
There are four youth work
Gaud. which is evidenced by its inter.s East.
El Capricho (1883-1885), the poblaci.n of
Comillas, Seaside Cant.brico in
Espa.a North, is a building covered with
cer.mica glazed with a tall slender tower
cil.ndrica reminiscent of a minaret of Isphahan.
T.cnicas todav.a no innovations, but
is a step forward in their personal style.
La Casa Vicens (1883-1888), in the neighborhood of
Gracia, st. within these forms
East, especially the use of cer.mica
glazed. In this building, Gaud. introduced
catedr.tico use of the bow in the cascade of jard.ny
naturalism in the grid with palmetto leaves
cast iron. Tambi.n students in this house. the
dise.o furniture and interior decoraci.n
papier mach. brightly painted.
At Finca G.ell (1883-1887), outside
Barcelona, Gaud. Construct., among other
elements, the porter.a, the stables and riding school
the entrance to the vast park around
Eusebio G.ell house. Externally the buildings
have a sparkling oriental
coatings by cer.micos, but
structural forms present inside
new. Arcos and b.vedas caten.rico profile and
c.pulas hiperboloidales.
G.ell Palace (1886-1888), in the neighborhood
old Barcelona, is the work of greater magnitude
with a great new solutions n.mero
in the structure and the spaces and distribuci.n
vol.menes also conjugated with an aspect
East. The decoraci.n owed. in part
Gaud., Although the artists involved tambi.n
Clap.sy Alejo Alejandro de Riquer and architect
Camilo Olivares.
Neogoticismo (1883-1909)
Gaud. was a patron and architect colleague
Juan Martorell Montells (1833-1906),
very religious man, a builder of churches and
seg.n neog.tico convents in style ideas
the architect and essayist E. E. Viollet-le-Duc.
Colabor. Martorell in several works as
and assistant. l learned. neogoticismo of the
. Little. Gaud. cre.a that was g.tico m.s
hist.ricos structural styles. Architects
Renaissance, Dec., were simple
decorators. Despu.s to study the structures
g.ticas conceived. ways to improve
Medieval those solutions but, in late
nineteenth century, made a series of projects within
neog.tico the l.nea of Martorell. Decor. the
two separate chapels convent schools in Sant
Andreu del Palomar (Barcelona, 1880) and Tarra-
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
G.ell Farm Stables
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
G.ell Palace (1886-1888)
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Episcopal Palace of Astorga (1889-1893)
gona (1879), with altars, and siller.as monstrances
purely neog.ticos choir. This Tambi.n
as planned. Sacramento Sant.simo Hood
of the parish church of Sant F? lix of
Alella (1883), although the work has not arrived. performed.
To Don Jose. Mar. Bocabella, creator of
Temple of the Sagrada Familia, designed .. an altar
oratory of wood carving in forms
In 1887 he was responsible for completing a
Catholic school in Sant Santa Teresa
Gervasi, initiated by a master builder
Gaud., Introduced substantial changes
in the initial draft, but he could not change the
rectangular building, which was already
on the first floor. The finished building. with
the characteristic forms of a medieval fortress
crowned with battlements, but inside, a
elegant and well matched sets
brick arches end up producing caten.ricos
absolute novelty effect and strong
From 1887 proyect. the palace
Bishop of Astorga (Le.n), a hearing catal.n
. A a Gaud. from many a.os.
This work was made with granite, and its composition
. N, being original, has a strong content
g.tico, especially in the pointed b.vedas
rib of the ground and first floors. The address
. No work was abandoned by Gaud. 1893
and current do not correspond to the project covered
While working at Astorga was commissioned
in Gaud. an apartment house in Le.n, the
Booty House (1891-1892), located in the
Plaza de San Marcelo and built to the four
winds. It is of limestone, neog.ticas l.neas
and an original slate roofing system.
In s.tano and ground floor stores Sort
and offices of a textile industry.
The case of Bellesguard (1900-1909) is different.
This is a separate building on the hillside
of the Collserola in place
there was a medieval house of King Mart.n property
I Arag.n. In its report Gaud. made a
work inspired by the g.tico catal.n fifteenth century
although plant. new and bold solutions
Naturalism (1895-1916)
It is for the creative m.s per.odo
Gaud. to develop their ideas freely
architecture inspired by nature.
Understanding that the nature
l.nea there straight nor level and s. In contrast,
an immense variety of curved shapes, changed.
the normal procedure to project above
a map and launched it. directly to the third
dimensi.n through all kinds of models and
The hac.a of wood, plaster, clay,
met.lica fabric of cart.n wet or wire.
Gaud's love. to nature centers.
in a careful and naive forms observaci.n
of plants, animals and monta.as.
Admir. the beauty of it, apercibi.ndose
that nature has no intentions est.ticas,
but functional. No work was done
of art, but elements that serve to
reproducci.n growth and species.
Arr. conclusi.n that the search functionality
it comes to beauty and that if you search
beauty by direct v.a s.lo is reached
filosof.a the teor.a est.tica or art. Gaud.
was a simple man, an enemy of ideas
abstract that could see the reality of things
unbiased professional deformation.
Within its naturalistic works may include
Casa Calvet (1898-1899), whose façade
situ. a mushroom colecci.n to please
Mr. Calvet, who was mic.logo. The project
façade was made by a plaster model of
1:10 scale.
In the winery G.ell (1895-1897), in
Garraf coast, levant. a building with its own
local stone that perfectly combines
with the surrounding rocky shore.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Bellesguard (1900-1909)
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Casa Batlló. (1904-1906)
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Casa Batlló. (1904-1906)
In the Parc G.ell is where patent is m.s
the naturalistic concept of architecture and landscape
Gaud .. Adjustment. the ways of the streets to
topograf.a the land, project. viaducts
not remove the original field and plot. with
the rough local stone, building on
demolition of a cave, where sac. rocks
different colors that distributed it. arm.nicamente
throughout the site. Batlle houses. (1904-1906)
and Mil. (1906-1912) was the climax
of natural architecture. The first, covered
of pieces of colored glass and surmounted
cer.mica org.nicas shapes of glass, and the
second, with its cliff side, appear
s.mbolos two separate sea and land. Other
samples with this arrangement are in
the windows of the cathedral Mallorca (1903 -
1914), in the Resurrecci.n of Christ on the mountain-
. To Montserrat (1903-1916) and other works
minors. Nature is reflected in the architecture
Gaud. Like. trees on the surface
of a lake.

çııÖÖçşGeometr.a regulated (1908-1917)
I could not understand Gaud. that architects
base their buildings in the simple geometry
. To the line, plane and s.lidos regular
since such forms or non-existent or very
rare in nature, which, by contrast, is
fibrous structures with extraordinary items
which are the bones, wood, m.sculos
and tendons: an l.neas geometr.a of lines in
space into four types of surfaces,
the helices, the conical, the hyperboloids and
hiperb.licos paraboloids; surfaces Abundant
. Chasms in nature and therefore. Tiles and
functional and natural work, and have not
hardly been used by architects.
The geometr.a aplicaci.n of formal and
caten.rico arc, otherwise functional mec.nica
Where m.ltiples present in nature, was
constant in the architecture of Gaud., including
since its inception, such as arcs
caten.ricos the stable of the farm or G.ell
Cascade de la Casa Vicens, the hyperboloids
Palace of the columns or paraboloids G.ell
hiperb.licos cover the porter
. G.ell to the Parc, but in two of his m.s
significant works are such geometr.a
This is so obvious.
In 1909 he was commissioned to Gaud. the construction
. N of a building of low cost to install
Provisional Schools of the Sacred
Family pending finalization of the Temple
semis.tanos which was thought to set up schools and
Only by using b.vedas partitioned, inclined
rolling on the walls, and deck,
tambi.n walled, consisting of two conical
director plane, joined by a guidance
it was an iron j.cena, levant. a
school with three classrooms and cost m.nimo.
This simple but inspirad.sima work of Gaud.
then had a great divulgaci.n between
architects' drawings and comments that
she did Le Corbusier during his stay in
Barcelona in 1928.
However, in the Temple of the Sagrada
Family, which Gaud. development. through models
1:25 scale plaster for the set and to
1:10 for the structure of the ships between 1916 and
1926, when the full development is more
depuraci.n geom.trica. The study of the models
destroyed in 1936 and reconstructed from
1939, now displayed in the museum of the Temple
to understand and carry out continuity
of the works which makes the Holy
Aut.ntica family in a school of architecture
in which architects work and study different
nationalities with the modern m.s t.cnicas.
The reclusi.n Gaud. at Holy Family
not wanting to accept other assignments, is explained
by inter.s sufficiently developed to leave
its teor.a geom.trico a naturalist-
architecture that allows its continued
great work and opens up great possibilities for new
generations of architects.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Definitive style (1892-1926)
The final and definitive style Gaud. had its development,
and continues teni.ndolo in the works of
Sagrada Familia, this building that the architect seg.n
requires several generations to be completed
and is in s. same laboratory
an.lisis m. away and the solutions based on
geometr.a regulated and balanced structures.
But the process of arriving at these forms
used. in the work of the Holy Family, especially
per.odo in the end of his life, between 1914 and
1926, Sort started much earlier in two other
unbuilt projects and special inter.s.
In 1892, the second will marqu.s de Comillas
request. a building project for
Franciscan Missions in T.nger Cat.licas (Morocco)
to house a church, schools
and a hospital.
Gaud. students. the project, which might end
a A.O. Finally, the idea was abandoned, and
the Franciscans considered too
large, luxurious building, which have 60 deb.a
meter high central tower and a plant
quatrefoil with axes of 60 x 60 m.
The sloping walls, windows in way
of hyperboloid and paraboloid-shaped towers
of revoluci.n never be built,
but the form designed for towers T.nger
used. on the facade of Birth
Holy Family since 1903.
A Gaud. it hurt. not much to build
T.nger Missions, and when she ocasi.n
to design a building of large proportions,
opt. for balanced solutions as
that test. T.nger in the draft.
Received in 1908. the visit of two businessmen
Americans, he commissioned a project
hotel for the city of New York. Gaud.
imagine. a building of nearly 300 meters high
caten.rico profile shaped to achieve a
perfect equilibrium of the structure.
The project has not yet come. surely materialize
by the disease that dej. in Gaud. in
degree of extreme weakness between 1909 and 1910.
These two trials were conducted
magn.ficos few incentives to advance
final form of the Sagrada Familia.
The elegance of the towers of the draft
T.nger and the colossal audacity of the project
New York allowed for Gaud. perform
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Casa Mil. (1906-1911)
final models of the structure of the Holy
Family, simplifying the m.ximo their studies
on ruled surfaces in the form of hyperboloids
and paraboloids hiperb.licos and forms
slender, streamlined and elegant.simas, the
columns of the nave of the Temple
Sagrada Familia.
Adem.s in 1909, just his interview despu.s
with employers, construct. the peque.o
Provisional Building Schools for the
Sagrada Familia, which is covered in b.veda
conoid form of master plan, area
econ.mica extremely stable and regulated, with
I closed the study of forms, or peque.as
huge, ranging from Schools
Holy Family, through the draft
T.nger, the New York hotel.
This was turned into reality espl.ndida
in the structure of models of the Sagrada
Family despu.s the death of the teacher.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Personality and Thought
Antoni Gaud.
To understand the figure of Antoni Gaud. Cornet
(1852-1926) should be borne in mind that your
work is not only arquitect.nica; is
ms, it is not work as historians arquitect.nica
understand the architecture. His work not
can be judged seg.n traditional schemes
not lie within a narrow l.mites
particular style, nor can it assess
to. liter vantage of ning.n disc.pulo
The work of Gaud. has transcended time
and studies. little that was done.
The result of a large capacity observaci.n
inter.s and passionate by nature, learning
. directly than passionately
pod.a see in the sky, clouds, water, rocks,
plants, animals and monta.as.
In his family were jam.s architects but
only artisans, especially beaters
copper or boilermakers. Not the deformaci.n Ten.
characterizes professional families
architects. At the same time was extremely
naive, this does not preclude it extremely
circumspect. Ve.a things as they are, without prejudice,
and not as men sometimes want
be. A carpenter, John Munn., Collaborator
Gaud. for many a.os, Dec.: "Gaud. has
clear head. "Throughout their careers.
pr.cticas solutions are simple and functional
succeeded. surprising results.
Observing the forms of architecture
Gaud. we may assume that their thinking was
complicated or convoluted. The sinuous walls
their ideas seem baroque buildings
somewhat irrational.
But such thing is not correct since, as inspired
in nature, his compositions are highlighted
architects from the beginning
used a simple "forms geometr.a
abstract as l.nea or the plane, not
exist in nature.
In a process l.gico simplificaci.n and
abstracci.n, the architects have done their
projects and built their buildings using
only two auxiliary instruments: the comp
. S, square. Both drawing on
flat as stone or wood cutting have
comp.s always used, square.
Flat and straight, two-dimensional shapes,
is passed to the three dimensions with the
regular polyhedron, cube, tetrahedron, octahedron,
icosahedron and pentagonal dodecahedron, forms
Hallowed and even identified with the elements
of earth, fire, water, air and
quintessence, as proposed in his Timaeus Plat.n
and developed their disc.pulos. If these forms
can trace the square, serves the comp.s
to draw c.rculos and spheres, which have always been
common architecture.
In the architecture of all time
made from comp.s and square, you can
say that all the pillars are prisms, all
cylinder columns, all hemispheres c.pulas
and all covers. dihedral angles or
pir.mides. This. Tv is so dear to the
architects, is found from in pir.mides
fara.nicas Al Gizah, several thousand
a.os, even in the new entrance to the courtyard
Par.s Louvre museum, Li Peh, completed
not long ago.
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Gaud., With its naive observaci.n of
nature, he perceived. that these forms
regular or non-existent in it, or are very rare.
When they are cubes of pyrite, or
prisms topped with glass pir.mides
rock, or cinnabar pentagonal dodecahedra are
lead to a natural history museum, as
rare or curious things.
Impressed by the beauty of forms
natural that could contemplate at length in
spent summers in a house peque.a
Riudoms area of town, and by the light of
Tarragona landscape of the field, he noted. that
Nature produces decorative forms bell.simas
in the mineral, animal and plant, but
at the same time, I understood. the prop.sito
Nature was not to create works of art, but
items first. tiles and functional.
A rose has a nice bright color
perfume, not to inspire poets and painters,
but to attract insects and promote the function
. No reproductive plant. A prop.sito
fully functional. When Gaud. used.
plants, flowers or animals on the decoraci.n of
its buildings, was taking natural forms
as they are in reality, without the prop.sito of
many architects in history that the tambi.n
used after intelectualizaci.n art.stica,
for submission to simetr.as, or compositions disimetr.as
The conclusi.n Gaud. was very simple. If the
architect search functionality in their works,
finish. finding beauty. If you are looking directly
beauty, s.lo get. teor.a find the
art, or filosof.a est.tica, abstract ideas
in Gaud. not interested in ever.
Moreover, Gaud. could see in nature
magn.ficas many structural forms.
It is undeniable that there is no better column
determined that the trunk of one. tree or bones
over the human skeleton. No c.pula
even on the cr.neo perfecci.n of a man and
ning.n building has the stability of a mountain
. A.
If nature works always looking
functional solutions, and who is. subject to
inexorable law of gravity, it is wise
study accredited by the natural structures
a.os million in perfect order.
Knowing the essence of these structures
Gaud was intenci.n. take to the field of
Observ. that many of the natural structures
est.n composed of fibrous materials
such as wood, bone, or m.sculos
The fibers, viewed from the standpoint geom
. Trich are l.neas straight and curved surfaces
in space, composed of l.neas straight
geometr.a defined formal call, which focuses
only four different surfaces: the
helix, the hyperboloid, the conoid and the paraboloid
hiperb.lico. Gaud. saw these surfaces
the nature and transfer. to architecture.
The helicoid is the form taken by the trunk
Eucalyptus and Gaud. use it. in columns
Teresian College busts. The hyperboloid is
f.mur shape and Gaud. use it. in
columns of the Sagrada Familia. The conoid is
a common form in the leaves. trees and
Gaud. as us. on the covers of Schools
Provisional of the Holy Family. The paraboloid
hiperb.lico is the form adopted by the
tendons between the fingers and Gaud. it
Construct. b.vedas on the porch of the crypt
the church of the colony G.ell.
The ruled surfaces are formed with a
l.neas indefinite straight set, called
generators, that slide over other l.neas,
straight or curved, called guidelines. For this
raz.n, adem.s the great use of them does
nature, are extremely f.ciles to apply to
construcci.n. Gu.as placing two straight lines, which
may be two strips of wood, non-parallel
in space, which constitute the framework,
f.cilmente can build courses of brick
with a cord that rests on the slats.
The resulting shape is a paraboloid hiperb.lico,
as was done in the walls and the b.vedas
G.ell crypt of the Colonia.
The innate sense of that Ten. est.tica
Gaud. is manifest. easily and l.gica
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Colonia Guell (1908-1917)
in the model of the project estereost.tica
G.ell colonial church. Once this course of
plan of the church at 1:10 on a board
Wood was placed on the roof of the cabin
suspend.an works and strings of points
supon.a where they tore the pillars.
Above the catenary formed by the twine,
hung canvas bags conten.an pellets
Lead like a weight ten thousand times
less than the load that would have supon.a
that support the arch. The set of bags of pellets
originated the deformaci.n of cords.
It obten.a a fotograf.a of the model and
invert.ay obten.a this would form, absolutely
precise and accurate, the structure of
building without making any operaci.n
c.lculo and no possibility of error. Forms
of cords correspond.an to stress l.neas
stretched structure, to reverse the
photo, l.neas obten.an the pressures from the
compressed structure. An absolutely m. away
Call accurate and simple. atenci.n of the
engineers and mathematicians.
All the architecture of Gaud. est. conceived
m. away by these intuitive and elementary
permit.an you achieve balanced forms very
similar to those provided by nature.
The bell towers of the Sagrada Familia
revoluci.n paraboloids and correspond to the
forms that dropped the wet sand
from above, ie a perfectly disposici.n
equilibrium based on the law of gravity.
Gaud. cre.a that the architect must have a
innate sense of balance. The architect conceived
a building structure and passes the way a
engineer to calculate matem.ticamente
that way. If the engineer confirms that the
structure is stable, all is well. If it is not as.,
Dec. Gaud., the architect must change, not
project, but their craft. It is better to devote
the theater or pol.tica, but not the edificaci.n.
Adem.s, Gaud. Ten. a great advantage over
other architects. Ya ni.o students. the office
Forging of iron in the forge of his own to
Reus. Then, in Barcelona, in workshops
Punt Eudaldo., Becomes familiar. with carpinter.a,
cast iron and plaster casts. This
pod.a so ordering his operatives things l.gicas
entend.an that very well. Always Cont'd
these operators and, when these envejec.an
and retiring, he continued with his apprentices.
He did not like to draw your projects, but
building model. Used. t.cnicas always traditional
, effectively. surprising results.
In many of his works used. call
septate or b.veda b.veda Catalan common system,
from the fifteenth century construcci.n
thin b.vedas formed only by two or
three brick thick, united by their faces
peque.as with plaster or lime mortar. With this
s.lo procedure does not forge. b.vedas septate,
as well as covers or Bellesguard
Casa Batlló ..
Fortunately, Gaud. Don Eusebio took
G.ell since 1910 G.ell Count, a special
that allowed patrons. develop their
ideas with total freedom. Knowledge. the work of
Gaud. by a simple window that was in
Universal Exposici.n Par.s in 1878 and,
Barcelona return to Search. the author of that design-
. O and no longer separated. of. l until his death in
1918. The friendship of G.ell i Gaud. dur. forty
and was much m.s a.os a relaci.n between
client and architect. In 1906 both went to
live in separate houses G.ell Parc, so
ocasi.n had to talk and be almost
daily. For his patron, Gaud. proyect. the
Finca pavilions G.ell (1884-1887), the
G.ell Palace (1886-1888), the Bodegas G.ell
(1895-1897), Church of the Colony G.ell
(1908-1917), the Parc G.ell (1900-1914) and other
minor works.
In his retirement from the Sagrada Familia, work in
which inici. its direcci.n in 1883 and in which
was working until 7 June 1926
three d.as before his death due to
an accident when he was hit by a streetcar
. A, Gaud. arrived. debug exquisite extremes
. N its architecture and formal geometr.a
received. many visitors to the conversations.
and those who shared his own teor.as. Some
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
their sentences were collected by architects j.venes
admirers of the master's work, as
Berg.s, Martinell, R.fols, Puig Boada, etc.
Some of them are worth playing.
Dec.: Ola sabidur.a is superior to science,
comes from ÇsapereÈ or taste, refers
the fact concreto.Ó
OLa elegance is the sister of poverty, but
not confuse poverty with the miseria.Ó
Ö The art, which is male fertilizes the
science, which is femenina.Ó
OLa ideal quality of the work of art is
armon.a, which pl.sticas arts born of light,
that gives relief and decorating. The architecture is
ordenaci.n of luz.Ó
The phrases HONORED the Gaud. were
collected by their disc.pulos as Gaud. no
was given to writing. Throughout his public life.
art.culo one in 1881, but was very talkative and
he liked to explain the Holy Temple
Family groups of visitors. On Sundays
ma.ana by going to Mass at the cathedral and then
hac.a a long walk to the lighthouse at the breakwater
port. Sun acompa.arle architect
Juan Berg.s, who scored. many long sentences
mon.logos the teacher, who did not pod.a
interrupt. C.sar Martinell, another architect,
visit. many times the shop Gaud. in
Sagrada Familia and anot. m.s it interesting.
All phrases Gaud. were collected in the

çııÖÖçşForms of the architecture of Gaud.
Sagrada Familia (1884-1926)
The book Pensament Gaud. (1976) Isidro
Puig Boada. The architect J. tambi.n F. R.fols
work. in the office of Gaud. in Temple
m.s for two a.os and public. in 1929
biograf.a first teacher, which shows
many of the drawings reproduced Archive
Gaud. which was destroyed by anarchists
in July 1936.
References to the youth of Gaud. are
very low and only knows his record of
baptized on June 26, 1852 at the Church of
Sant Pere de Reus, notes from the school where
students. high school and his record acad.mico
School of Architecture, where he
t.tulo from architecture on March 15, 1878.
Remained. unmarried and lived until his death.
with his family until he left. alone. Student
habit. rental houses in various econ
. Mico with his brother Francisco, a student
Medicine. Then lived. with his father and his niece
Rosa Egea hu.rfana Gaud., first in several
houses in the center of Barcelona and since 1906 in
G.ell Parc House, which was the sample and
nobody bought .. All. his father died Francisco
Gaud. A.os Serra at 93, in 1906, and his niece
Rosa, in 1912.
In his youth cont. with good friends
as Eduardo Toda, then diplom.tico, Josh.
Ribera, medical m.s catedr.tico later, the
I deal with. in Barcelona Reus and then the sculptor
Lorenzo Matamala and architect Juan Martorell.
Just Juan Martorell was a great
Gaud help. they know that you start. in
gr.fica est.tica study, that was not explained
then at the School of Architecture, and was. l
who proposed Gaud. for architect of the Sagrada
Family adem.s to present to families
G.ell Comillas. Gaud. Dec. Martorell that
was a sage and a saint. It is very interesting
comment that Gaud. acquired. Martorell two
ense.anzas decisive in his life, knowledge
neog.tica architecture and est.tica gr.fica.
The first served. to understand this style
eminently medieval directed to the structure and
the latter to overcome g.ticas and solutions
enter the world of forms balanced.
When in 1883, influenced by Martorell,
Gaud. assumed. the direcci.n of the works of
Sagrada Familia, was found. with a building
A. Ó begun under a previous project
neog.tico strictly, the architect Francisco
Villar Lozano Ten. initiated crypt.
First, Gaud. sigui. how Martorell
in the first project that firm. in March
1885, but eight a.os despu.s already formalized. te.ricamente
the general idea of the new temple with forms
absolutely original. From 1890 to
his death in 1926, Gaud. prepared. four solutions
different structure, refine increasingly
best style and ingenious disposici.n est.tica.
He was preparing plaster models of the complex and
details of the temple at different scales and, although
These models were destroyed in July of
1936, could be rebuilt and are the elements
that have enabled the successors of
Gaud., Sugra.es (1926-1937), Quintana (1939 -
1960), Bonet Gar. and Puig Boada (1960-1992), and a
Jordi Bonet and his team currently pursuing
the developing construcci.n also to trav.s
plaster models, the shapes of the temple, which has
covered as part of their b.vedas.
Gaud. cont. many admirers in
time, but never worry. to advertise
of his work. In 1910 Eusebio G.ell gast.
a lot of money to mount a large exposici.n
Gaud. at the Grand Palais in Par.s. Were made
models, drawings, enlargements fotogr.ficas,
etc. that filled the entire ground floor of the Grand
Palais. Well, Gaud. is neg. to go to Par.s and
exposici.n held. without their presence.
Your vocaci.n was only architectonic .-
nica and did in his life that nothing m.s
architecture. No cas., Did not write. (A s.lo
art.culo in his life in 1881), just traveled.,
not engaged. nor did the other distracci.n pol.tica
his beloved architecture.
It was naive man, t.mido, high sensitivity
and able to understand the ways of
architecture observing nature.
Closely linked to his homeland and his family, conserv
. lifetime of stress caracter.stico
cre.a Reus area and that that part of Cata-
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
lu.a was the ideal place for art.stica creaci.n.
Commented Jan Molema, engineer holand.s
Gaud scholar. that. ste cre.a a person
As was so smart m.s m.s close
Reus been born. Without falling into this exaggeration
. No, the truth is that Gaud. thought that
Sea basin was the place id.neo Mediterr.neo
for the birth of works of art. Light
reaches 45 degrees and illuminates the perfecci.n
objects, which can be viewed without any distortions
. N. The people of Mediterr.neo, seg.n
Gaud., Are sint.ticas, while the people of
north are anal.ticas. The need for an.lisis
understand the secrets of the world, but the Creation
. N art.stica is based s.ntesis.
His great love for the landscape and the land of the
Pa.s of Mediterr.neo be increased on
filtered by the religious esp.ritu Gaud ..
He loved nature in the sense of San Francisco
of As.s. If nature is God's work and
it arquitect.nicas forms are obtained,
est mean that. continuing the work of
Creator. Gaud. said that God of Creation continued
. N to trav.s of man and solicitors. deserve
this creative act.
His religion was active and not merely
follow the advice of eclesi.sticos. Many
sometimes argued. with them but, in general,
cont. the friendship of distinguished personalities
of the church as the bishops of Vic, in
Mallorca or Astorga.
He liked to discuss issues of liturgy,
but not enter pl.ticas quer.a on teolog.a.
Preferred. provided the concrete to the abstract. Its
architecture is extremely po.tica, but. l no
poes.a liked writing. The verses Dec.
gave him a headache, which did not stop. that
was a friend of poets like mos.n Jacinto Verdaguer
and Francesc Matheu.
The expresi.n their thinking became
trav.s always architecture. The architect
taiwan.s Teh-Chien Hou made his doctoral thesis
on Gaud. and it argues that Gaud. performed.
metaf.rica architecture, that is, it was a
fil.sofo expressed. their ideas through
construcci.n buildings.
No EMPE .. in reading philosophy books
. To or architecture. Assiduously Le.a loanna
Liturgique the Abbe de Solesmes, Dom Gueranger,
lit.rgico timetable for an explanation of
religious parties and their modes of celebraci.n. A
Asked after his treatise was cu.l
favorite architecture, said outside the se.alando
window of his study, that the. tree to all. is ve.a
was his best book of architecture.
Your producci.n arquitect.nica is limited to a
small group of buildings, but the Holy
Family s. m.s alone is quite a building.
Since 1969, seventeen of his works are monuments
Espa.a national and protected est.n
by law.
Gaud. was able to improve their work
constantly, never considered finished
and adem.s, so the building constru.a
integral from the foundation and structure to
minors and complementary decorative details.
Dise .. furniture, glass, iron parts
forged and all kinds of auxiliary elements
without repeating never ning.n model.
Each building Gaud. has its special
caracter.sticas and does not resemble any of the
dem.s. Each was designed in
integrity and is a unit in which
all the elements perfectly coordinated est.n
and are unique to each building.
When Gaud. died. installed in 1926 had
the new building in Dessau Bauhaus,
Walter Gropius designed. It was the crowning moment
rationalism of Le Corbusier, Siegfried
Giedion and CIAM congresses.
This architecture forms geom.tricas
simple, purely abstract concepci.n,
re.ida was the work of Gaud., which considered
Baroque and irrational.
Subsequent architects generaci.n
sigui. without understanding the thinking and Gaudí
it was not until the exposici.n Gaud. of
1952, the centenary of his birth, for
cr.ticos and treatises that discovered the
value of the architecture of Gaud ..
M.s later came the avalanche of books,
art.culos, exhibitions, courses, conferences and
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
enthusiasm for Gaud., but less interested
have been the architects, as is standard
common among them to take the considered model
teachers and repeat a thousand times their solutions.
The problem with Gaud. is that it is a
inimitable character and their imitations
tried have failed.
The lecci.n Gaud. for the future is not
copy their solutions, but to seek inspiration
. N in nature. There is such a variety of solutions
in natural forms never
runs the risk of repetition.
Gaud. found. amazing work structures
rationally and l.gica and adem.s of
timeless way, nature does not go out of fashion,
to the styles rev.s hist.ricos.
In the. Walking around rom.nica Sort
constru.an cathedrals then, oaks,
cypresses and oaks. When did the great
g.ticas works, about growing segu.an
oaks, cypresses and oaks. Today, Ms, surrounding
the glass and steel buildings continue to grow
them. trees, which on liking contin.an
all, because nature never tire.
The architecture of Gaud., To seek solutions
directly in nature, not tiring
ever, and still do today and when
. Viv.a. l This architecture est. timeless
because they do not intend to make art, but forms
functional. tiles.
The famous phrase Gaud., Original wave
is to return to origins, means that the origin of
everything is nature, created by God.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
1852, 25 June. Birth of Gaud.
1852, 26 June. Baptismal Sant Pere de Reus
1863 Start of studies P.as Schools
1869 Transfer to Barcelona to study architecture
1873 Joined the Provincial School of Architecture
1876. Death of mother Gaud.
March 15 1878. Obtenci.n the architect t.tulo
1880. Altar for the College of Jes.s-Mar.
1884. Start working on the Sagrada Familia
1884-1887. Farm G.ell Pavilions
1885, 19 March. First project for Holy
1886-1888. G.ell Palace
1887-1888. Teresian College
1889-1893. Episcopal Palace of Astorga
1891-1892. House of Boots in Le.n
1895-1897. Bodegas de Garraf G.ell
1898-1899. Casa Calvet
1900-1909. Tower Bellesguard
1901-1902. Puerta de la Finca Miralles
1903-1916. First Mystery of Gloria in Montserrat
1903-1914. Reform of the Cathedral of Mallorca
1904-1906. Casa Batlló.
1906. He moved to live in the Parc G.ell
1906, 29 October. Death of Francis Gaud.
Serra, father of Gaud.
1906-1911. Casa Mil. "La Pedrera"
1908-1917. Crypt of the Church of the Colony
1910. Exposici.n Gaud. at the Grand Palais
1912, Jan. 11. Death of Rosa Egea Gaud.,
niece of the architect
1914. Death of his colleague Francisco
1918, July 9. Eusebio death G.ell
1925. Finalizaci.n the steeple of Saint Barnabas
. Holy Family
1926, June 7. Gaud. is hit by a
1926, 10 June. Gaud. dies in hospital
Santa Cruz de Barcelona
June 12. He is buried in the chapel of Carmen
the crypt of the Sagrada Familia
1936, July 20. Fire of the crypt and subsequent
profanaci.n Gaud's grave.
1939. Identificaci.n of cad.ver and reposici.n in
1952. Top of the facade of the Pasi.n. Exhibition
. N Centennial
1956. C.tedra Creaci.n the Gaud.
1969. Gaud works. are declared monuments
1984. Three works by Gaud. are part of the list
World Heritage of UNESCO:
Casa Mil., the Palace and the Parc G.ell
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
Gaud. Barcelona
In 1869 Gaud. traveled. Reus to Barcelona City
that s.lo dejar.a for short visits to other places.
Student habit. modest pensions
near the School of Architecture and work.
as a draftsman of several architects to
pay for their studies. Drafted. a diary, very
incomplete, which is preserved in the Museum
Reus. In summer volv.a to their home Reus
parents. Did social concerns, and patri.ticas
intellectuals and was a partner of two entities hikers
with which they visit. monuments
of Catalu.a and southern France. After the
career, alkyl. a modest studio in the third
floor Call Street, next to City Hall and
m.s forward, with his father and his niece hu.rfana,
habit. Both houses of the Eixample in Barcelona to
his transfer in 1906, the Parc G.ell. The. ECENT
eight months of his life did not move. of Sacred
Family, where Ten. a bed next to his workshop.
Most of his work is in the city
Barcelona or its surroundings. Houses
Mil., Batlle. and Calvet in the Eixample, home
Vicens and Parc G.ell in the village of Gr.cia,
despu.s joined Barcelona as Sant
Mart. Proven? als, where we find the Holy
Family, or Bellesguard in Sant Gervasi de Cassoles,
where est tambi.n. Teresian College, and
G.ell Finca in Les Corts de Sarri .. In the historic
est old city. G.ell Palace.
Near Barcelona are several works
Matar from the Cooperative. (30 km) to the
crypt of the church of the Colonia Santa G.ell
Coloma de Cervello. (15 km), the First Mystery
Gloria del Rosario Monumental de Montserrat
(60 km) and Bodegas G.ell in elGarraf
(25 km).
Gaud. was a partner, for a short time, the
Ateneo Barcelon.s, but soon withdrew. of
social life. Divid.a your day in various works
ma.ana and the Sagrada Familia by
later. On Sunday, the Mass in the cathedral and long
alg.n walks architect friend. From time to
when asist.aa concerts at the Palau de la M.sica
or visit any exposici.n of art. He was a partner
Art.stic C.rcol of Sant Lluch, entity that grouped
cat.licos the artists, and participated in the
procesi.n of the feast of Corpus Christi. The well-known
fotograf.a Gaud. out of the cathedral
together with the procesi.n was taken on June 16
1924. Gaud., Especially in its. Tv
. Little, vest.a very poorly, and when the Holy
Econ.micos family had problems, he resigned.
even his modest salary for the benefit of
work. In the afternoon, having finished his day's work,
dirig.a was walking from the Sagrada Familia
the church of Sant Felip Neri, very close
cathedral, where resid.a his spiritual director,
Father Alfonso Mas. Barcelona City Council
only require. two works in all its
life. The first draft of gas lamps,
were placed only in the Placa Reial and
of Palau (1879), and the reform of the room
City Council meetings for Exposici.n
1888. This project could not perform
by intrigues of another architect, who first
finally assumed. reform.
Their study in the Holy Family was very
singular. He was with the priest's house, above
a almac.n. It is a room compon.a
draughtsmen, an office and a laboratory peque.o
fotogr.fico. It was destroyed in the fire
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
June 1936, but retained a number of
fotograf.as conducted in June 1926, immediately
Gaud die despu.s .. Ceilings
est.n covered inside with models
plaster sculptures of the Temple, which
Isolation and decoraci.n obten.a t.rmico.
Fotogr.fico In the laboratory, with overhead light
Sort a set of four mirrors permit.a see
Figure photographed in five different positions
the front and the four reflected in the mirrors.
Realize. in his study of resistance tests
materials and the bells sound
Temple tube. Recib.a visiting groups,
t.cnicos particular school or to the
pasi.n explaining with great ideas of
religious architecture. He had as effective partners
Francisco Berenguer Mestres, that
not being an architect, was very useful
in Gaud., asisti.ndole from 1883 to 1914, in A. Ó
who died .. Succeeded him. the first assistant
Sunday architect Sugra.es Gras, that from
June 1926, he was director of works to
1936. Also cont. with the invaluable help
the sculptor Lorenzo Matamala Pi.ol modeler,
that knowledge. the works of the Parc de la Ciutadella
in 1875 and went on. meeting. in Gaud. until
His son Juan Matamala Flotats, tambi.n
sculptor, work. in several of the sculptures
Nativity façade and in 1960 wrote them. a
Gaud biogr.fico interesting book .. Architects
Barcelona admired Gaud. but
tambi.n considered him a very rare type, different
of all his colleagues. Josep Puig,
catal.n famous modernist architect,
visit. House works Mil. in the absence of
Gaud., And made him explain to the contractor system
parab.licos arches of the roof.
It was Gaud. friend of Dr. Albert Schweitzer,
I went. Barcelona several times for concerts
of. organ. Other friends Gaud. were
m.dico Pedro the Santal., architect Jaime
Bay., Sculptor Jos. Llimona and his brother
Juan, a painter of m.rito, Jesuit Father Ignatius
Casanovas, the poet Joan Maragall and above
of all, his patron Eusebio G.ell Bacigalupi.
The special way of projecting and directing
Gaud works. was described by the contractor
Jos. Bay .. Explained. that decorate the facade
de la Casa Batlló., Gaud. mand. up to the dawn-
. Iles to scaffolds, each with a basket of
pieces of one color crystal. Then
architect from the ride was ordered Gr.cia
the disposici.n of different spots
color, that were setting mortar alba.iles
lime through the broken glass.
To make the chimneys and ventilators
the roof of the Casa Mil. he said. the modeler
Juan Beltran c.mo make plaster models of
at 1:10, then Gaud. personally correg.a
l.quido plaster and esp.tula. To
models of the gates of the estate G.ell
Teresian College or us. lead strips
for certain im.genes of the Sagrada Familia
for the Parc drag.n G.ell, material met.lica.
To the relief of the ladder Parc
G.ell, built wooden molds
the carpenter, within which were placed
two thick brick of a cent.metro
forming a thick b.veda peque.a. It is extra-
. B.veda to the mold and placed above the
cut tile mosaic. This means that
All parts are prefabricated, as. as
inclined columns and undulating bench. This
prefabricaci.n system was unknown in
Barcelona, though this was followed by other
To understand the architecture of Gaud. is
must make an effort to imaginaci.n, but not
to trav.s of the est.tica teor.as, or the
cr.ticas current flows. To understand Gaud.
we should concentrate on his work and his personality.
I walked. a long way to improving
in the course of his life and struggle that followed. a
in.dita and unknown route. You can say
redid the way of architecture intenci.n
not surpass nature, but to undergo
her to guess who is the creator of forms and
structures par excellence.
It was a task f.cil and Gaud. Dedic. her
every moment of his life with exclusi.n of
any other activity.
Forms of the architecture of Gaud.
You can say that what life practice.
arquitect.nico was a priesthood. Spirituality
the architecture of Gaud. start of materiality
of nature understood as God's work,
that is the Great Architect of the world.
The figure of Gaud. is now presented as
an isolated fen.meno disconcerting
usual change of styles and movements art.sticos.
It is said that Gaud. not involved. of
Modern Movement, which is true, by the
raz.n simple that the motion is not
modern or ancient, is dynamism, progress and
One of the ideas expressed by Gaud. was
not to try to create something non-existent, but from
of something existing and perfected.
Thus, using traditional materials
as brick, wood, lime and sand,
succeeded. completely new ways for m.s
The novelty is noted only in the field
architecture, since all these forms exist
in nature for centuries.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud

1. R.fols, J. F. Gaud., 1852-1926. Ed Canosa, Barcelona,
1929, p. 13.
2. Bassegoda, J. Report of the doctoral thesis of G. Garc.a
Barge., 1993 (Bassegoda, report), p. 4
3. Bassegoda, J. The great Gaud .. Ed Ausa, Sabadell, 1989
(Bassegoda, grain)
4. Bassegoda, grain, p. 11.
5. Bassegoda, grain, p. 14.
"Believe in my experience, wisdom m.s hallar.s
. To the woods than in books, the
. Trees and rocks that you ense.ar.n
that teachers can not. "
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
The pretensi.n of this text is to raise awareness of
clear, simple and did.ctica, principles
followed by Antoni Gaud. to carry out a
arquitect.nica work that seg.n own words
R.fols, tries to decipher "the secrets of
c.smico great mystery "1
It took many a.os to study
Gaud., Its personality, its architecture and
hist.rico environment in which both gathered
to the end of the road, get to respond,
a clear and intelligible, "qui.n was and qu.
Antoni Gaud was proposed. Cornet, the surprising
creator of all shapes and m.s artist. all
consideraci.n cr.tica "2
But to properly expose these principles,
need to first explain the origin of
continuaci.n ideas to be proposed.
These ideas est.n essentially based
on investigations carried out and
collected since the C.tedra documentaci.n Gaud.
during. a.os. last 30
An important culminaci.n of this work
was given in 1989 to the publicaci.n ra.z El
great Gaud. 3 In this work, so recog.a
detailed all the knowledge hist .-
rich about Gaud. and his work, in addition inclu.a
. S a brief initial letter entitled "Architecture
Gaud .. Origin, forms and future ', 4 where
qu essentially explained. means and c.mo
must understand the architecture of Gaud ..
In. L stated that Gaud. and to his work
They should be seen separately from the history of
architecture because they have little to do with it.
The m. away used to treat about
other architects are not worth speaking of Gaud.,
precisely because the procedures followed
by. ste to carry out their work far
greatly from those used by his colleagues
before and despu.s of. l.
The reasons. Last of Gaudí architecture
must be sought, following the speech
of that letter, in the careful observaci.n
nature, which Gaud. received. "The m.s
Lessons pure architecture ".5
However, to get into this knowledge,
deb.a explored. little in which we live.
Gaud., His life, the environment around him. and
impressions of it all drew their collaborators,
disc.pulos and friends. 'By studying
phrases collected by his admirers, consider
structural systems employment., how
decoraci.n transpose their buildings,
Approaching Gaud.
Gustavo Garc.a Barge.
its relationships with characters. walking, etc., the
pod.a saw not reduce the study of Gaud. to
a phase of Modernism. "6
Those contempor.neos Gaud. had
a cultural renaissance sensaci.n very strong
conscious that the ideas put into
pr.ctica by the master, new ways abr.an
in the manner of making and understanding of architecture.
But inexplicably, everything was falling
gradually forgotten, if not in the reduced
c.rculos of investigaci.n, s. on the
proyecci.n pr.ctica of the principles advocated;
and therefore, the buildings have been erected
despu.s Gaud. have little or no advantage
"the idea of architecture that, between 1878 and
1926, Gaud. Lanz. the world and that in so few
occasions has been correctly understood "7
In this way, "little by little, he haci.ndose
light around a singular architecture, so
parec.a not unique architecture "8
On the other hand, during the. ECENT a.os has
reborn in a strong worldwide expectaci
. No to the work of Gaud .. However, their
architecture is now valued as a fen.meno
ex.tico or extra.o, habi.ndose lost that sense
of liberaci.n that occurred between their contemporary
. Neos earlier this century.
Exposici.n This is, therefore, to give
a Gaudí architecture visi.n adjusted
those original ideas that forged.
Now therefore, the question arises are cu.les
these new ideas in which Gaud. bas. architecture.
The Gaud disc.pulos and admirers. repeated
often one can expresi.n
desentra.ar this cuesti.n help. Ignasi
Llobet Brugueras wrote. in 1952, during
of the centenary of the birth of
Gaud., A art.culo entitled "Nature in the
Gaud work. "9 where you can read:" Re-
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
6. Bassegoda, Report, p. 1.
7. Bassegoda, Report, p. 4.
8. Bassegoda, Report, p. 1.
9. Brugueras, I. Nature in the work of Gaud .. V Certamen
Reading Center Reus, Volume I, pp. 581-588.
Reus, 1952.
Facade of the Nativity (Holy Family) Crespinell hot (near Reus)
To put an end's studies about beauty
objective ... "10
Anyone who has focused his study
the field of est.tica, sabr. there is no ground
ms feud slippery or comparable regarding
to. ste. It is well known expresi.n
popular tastes nothing about writing. " By
Therefore, it is shocking that someone could direct
their studies in pursuit of the "objective beauty."
However, the fundamental idea of architecture
Gaudí revolves around concepci.n of
that beauty is not isolated, te.rico, abstract
or away from the pr.ctica com.n, which arises
suddenly, as if by magic, but responds
m.s a very specific concept in
which give a balanced and Integration relaci.n
. N between the different requirements, usually
Functional, which serves a
concrete work.
The model can guide us generously
perfecci.n this path of being., as
it was for Gaud., nature, where recognition.
the work of the Supreme Creator.
The man, throughout its history has been
relaci.n taking models to which they have
ordered the intellectual or housework
each. civilizaci.n little and by calling
relaci.n things by which they kept in each
c.nones or times for such models and te.ricos
not for what they really are, in a clear
and objective.
The architecture of Gaud., However,
comes and tells us that there is a referent. unique and
v.lido to build something as. as CONSTITUTION
. No universal, to which any work must
be subject and in funci.n of. sta, should be chosen
id.neas solutions for each particular case.
This universal constituci.n is none other than
the acting by the laws of nature, to
that will inevitably be exposed ver.n all
buildings, the law of gravity,
mec.nicas laws governing the strength of materials,
This new architecture concepci.n
opens new possibilities and infinite sample
pl.sticas t.cnicas and different from s., is
coherent and rational and econ.micos t.rminos
the capricious reh.ye undergoing bondage
the absurd fashions in architecture.
Thus, the architecture of Gaud.
ense.a that nature uses in its evoluci.n
creative, a number of ways, principles and processes
which may well be applied to field
the composici.n arquitect.nica. . His is the speech
that this exposici.n acompa.a, illustrated by
life and work of Antoni Gaud. Cornet, who
"Recognition. In the nature of the teacher of all
arts and sciences "11
But this observaci.n of nature and
extrapolaci.n of its principles to the field of
arquitect.nica composici.n not occur
mim.tica form or as a product of
sue.o rom.ntico, but by carefully Observation
. Fen.menos n natural, together with the special
pose.a intuici.n to the architect.
It is said that one f.cil. Tree, an animal skeleton
or a seashell creations are exceptional
but these elements can not be
simply copied, but rather to understand
cu.les are the relationships between
shape, funci.n, structure and composition
. N that determines final. From ah., And to
the light of natural laws to which these models
obey natural, podr.n are adopting solutions
of aplicaci.n v.lida in the art of building
. Ste was the path followed by Antoni
Gaud .. "All his seemingly complex world
formal, full of brilliant qualities certainly
expressive ", 12 is reduced to about b.squeda
compositional criteria, usually of order
functional,. l observ. in natural models
since ni.o when suffering from certain
Approaching Gaud.
10. Brugueras, I. Op cit, p. 584.
11. Bassegoda, grain, p. 13.
12. Bassegoda, J. Aproximaci.n to Gaud .. Ed Doce Calles.
Aranjuez, 1992.
reum.ticas conditions, due. change games
with long hours compa.eros Observation
. N of nature in that environment Field
Tarragona was a lover of all its
vida.13 and all., "a great book of nature", 14
as dir. m.s a.os later learned. to decipher
m.s the meaning of the beautiful, while
pr.cticas, shapes in space.
But nature does not always be read
naked eye. Gaud. I understood. that there is a
veil between it and human reasoning to be
an.lisis apart.ndose go through the study and
the reflexi.n.
"Nature creates forms that are. Tiles and
decouple beautiful without ever one thing from another "15
So a beautiful flower has no bright colors to
m.s be pretty, but to "meet needs
strictly functional, "16 ie, to attract
to it to certain insects and ensure that
reproducci.n thus the species.
Ace then Gaud. take advantage. experience
who selflessly gave the
nature, an experience that has been enriched
for millions of a.os and evolving
in the same medium, subject to the same
laws that are irretrievably
All buildings subject of men.
Following this process, Gaud. arrived. to rationalize
many principles for architecture
natural, and this task is performed. out, so
very special for the. a.os their last ten
life, where the historians as HONORED
they disappeared and abandoned by the alleged
vicissitudes of old age in the Temple
the Sagrada Familia.
The exposici.n of these ideas, forming
podr.a what constitute a "treaty Gaudin,
not designed to find the philosopher's stone
can turn the art of erecting buildings on a
objective process, as it never was, but to open
a new way that can enrich reflexi.n
to. l and man.
Gaud. was never fond of digressions
est.ticas was not a man linked to
intellectual currents or supporter of complex
te.ricos concepts, but was primarily a
acci.n man, and ah. eman. its prol.fica
work. This work is characterized. by the sense
pr.ctico of things to draw on a adem.s
car.cter intuitive, naivety, lack
of prejudice, spontaneity and an overflowing
imaginaci.n. Therefore, the architecture is
admired "for professionals in architecture,
but tambi.n by simple people
the ni.os' .17
Conscious, therefore, that the foundation of
the ideas here. it must be sought abordar.n
on experiences from his remote Aparici
. N has conducted nature, not
encontrar.n with them especializad.simos or
te.ricos complex concepts, but are treated.
the topic in a simple and open to calling
things by what they are, may be
m.s much understandable and effective.
Nor is intended to encourage imitaci.n
Gaudí forms without m.s since. sta never
"Has achieved desirable results, because
is the form that should be imitated, but its principles "
18 ways to not repeat the same nature,
but all respond to the same laws.
"No one is tired. To contemplate the
and p.jaros. trees "19 and tired of
builders, architects and their clients
repetici.n of buildings in each of the styles
arquitect.nicos that have occurred over
"Gaud. Lanz. A cry for freedom and worth. The
so fortunate circumstance penalty to take "19
to get to the architecture of the labyrinth in which
has been locked m.s spinning and spinning.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
13. Berg.s, J. Gaud., I lÕhome lÕobra. Ed. Ariel, Barcelona,
1953, p. 14.
14. Berg.s, J. Op cit., P. 123.
15. Bassegoda, J. Geometr.a regulated and architecture. Real
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Barcelona, 1989, p. 451.
16. Bassegoda, grain, p. 13.
17. Bassegoda, grain, p. 11.
18. Bassegoda, grain, p. 13.
19. Bassegoda, J. "Els arbres g.tics, Temple, Barcelona
gener-febrer 1994, p. 10.
Inspiraci.n in nature
"The Great Book of Nature is where
find the truth that presides over all
material manifestations, in. l we must
therefore be read to reach the making
. L.gica n of a work. "
Cardellach F.lix Aliv.s
The creative process
In the world we know will give f.sico
. Nicamente two creative forces: one is the
nature and the other man's hand,
that act.a always within the framework defined by the
Podr.a considered to. Sta. Tv as part
the first, ie natural creations,
SER.A but not entirely correct because, in
HONORED occasions, again and follow principles
of actuaci.n very different.
On the other hand, include c.mo in
Today, with recognition and praise
generalized by nature preserved in its
virgin state, there are serious doubts about the
convenience and the way in which man
must continue to act on it to dominate,
Approaching Gaud.
Cueva de Nerja (M.laga) Model of the facade of the Gloria (Holy Family)
and adue.arse colonize it. That is,
Ms today while no one doubts, so
least in the. The business of our Western culture
that must preserve and enhance heritage
natural, there is, associated with this feeling,
a collective consciousness that says, "no
m.s should build ", reflected in each
Once abundant m.s reglamentaci.n and regulations
which seeks to exercise control over m.ximo
any new initiative in this direction, involving
that "build m.s" to "destroy nature."
Fruits of this legislation and urban.stica
construction are our modern cities,
dehumanized, and the changes tambi.n
peque.as by stocks over
the. ECENT fifty a.os, radically opposed
qualitative and quantitative development
balanced hab.an followed during
previous centuries, with total absence of regulation.
The failure of such approaches should be looking for
on the basis of the same, and as., a 'no
m.s building should "be qualified deber.a
saying, "should not build bad", meaning
by "bad" one way of constructing that
m.s is increasingly removed from nature, which,
in turn, will never be able. be enjoyed in full
unbuilt, colonize and adue.arse of
it, as was shown. en. few passes.
It is therefore the paths to converge,
criteria and principles of the two creative forces
to avoid conflict between them.
Since nature has a law
we can not alter and which inevitably
we will subject it appears that
we must adapt our constructions that
. Natural scope in which they are located;. His is the
sense of seeking natural inspiraci.n
Gaud architecture ..
We can therefore question about c.mo
created nature, it has c.mo architecture
and cu.les are roads to follow
in the future, always under.'s original optical
Gaudí architecture.
Nature creates C.mo
Nature is eminently pr.ctica.
His creations have the purpose of responding,
m.s of how effectively to needs
As an example look at what happens
dise.o with an egg. The preocupaci.n
any principal is to create a wrapper ov.paro
where adem.s to be large enough
to house his cr.a and resistance m.xima
to give structural protecci.n,. sta is
under conditions appropriate m.s t.rmicas, which
to say the isolated environment m.ximo
exterior. L.gicamente, this will produce. when,
equal volume, surface exposici.n,
that is, housing or envelope, is the smallest. The
nature, then it is pr.ctica choose the catenoid,
ie the surface revoluci.n
id.nea guideline: the catenary, with getting
m.xima adem.s the resistance using m.nimo
material. Thus, the requirements of ov .-
unemployment coincide with the caracter.sticas
this curve, were articulated by Jean seg.n
Bernoulli in 1691.
An egg, a flower or a bone have a
composici.n responding to s.lidos and irrefutable
cient.ficos criteria far. hese reach
to explain and represent the soluci.n l.gica
in the context of compliance with certain laws
natural. Ace, any natural element that
meets these requirements is eliminated pr.cticas
or modified by the very nature as a function
. N of these laws.
This nature pr.ctica is guided in its process
created by two main principles:
namely evoluci.n and organicism.
The evoluci.n, understood as the caracter.stica
that will regulate the successive changes
occur in natural creations, has,
In turn, some rules that are actuaci.n
1) Experience
Each is designed to satisfy a series creaci.n
requirements, and the same is given
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
determined by previous experiences. It is
Based on a simple funci.n which is ordered
collection of data, which are gradually
enriching the solutions adopted. This
Thus, both knowledge and how
natural act are exclusively functional.
2) Continuity
This journey guided by the experience
has undertaken all of nature creaci.n
has interrupci.n. Starting never arises
again, much less solutions oponi.ndose
force, but that there is continuity
always supported the process with the relaci.n
past experience, that is, once started
the evolutionary path is never interrupted.
3) The apparent freedom
It seems that nature, when created, not
has a preset plan or follow a predetermined path.
As is clear from the first
the caracter.sticas set, created in funci.n of
external solicitations that are dictated
by experience and as such can be altered.
That is, in principle, the laws determining
the shape or color of an animal species
for the future are not intr.nsecas herself,
but they are determined, as dig.moslo., by
these external requirements.
But considering that these needs
tambi.n external belong to nature
est.n and therefore subject to the same laws,
is that creative freedom is so s.lo apparent
since each time the fish that
est chasing its tail. forced to choose between the
possible paths, the id.neo. We have before us
a teacher who can not go wrong.
For this reason, the branch growth
a. tree, for example, does not follow a path
anyone, but it is the id.neo aqu.l for
ensure balance and overall stability.
O tambi.n, for example, the trunks of
. Secci.n trees are generally circular,
because they work from the point of view
mec.nico to torsi.n, for their efforts leading to
on them a scourge of the wind in the branches. The
strength of materials c.mo ense.a us in
Here, the ideal working secci.n is circular.
But nature had not habr.a ning.n
qualms in making trees in the shape of our
IPN standard profiles if the requirements
mec.nicas had been the double-beam
Thus, the process of natural creaci.n
inevitably follow a path of perfection
. N in which there is no error. Nature
can not be wrong or correct but it evolves
The second principle is organicism, which
consists of. ntima relaci.n of balance that is
occurs in nature between each of the parties and
between these and the whole.
This caracter.stica two rules are derived
1) The party correlaci.n
Each of the elements that make up
dem.s act.a all about, and vice versa. This
alg.n change means that any party
involves another correlative in dem.s.
2) The character subordinaci.n
This principle states that certain parts
significaci.n have more functional than others,
so all attention can be ordered
. N to its importance. This means that this relaci.n
est between the parties. nested in a
Functional thereof. We
Humans, for example, without reaching podr.amos
of a hand, but never to coraz.n
stay alive. Thus, we can say
for example, that represent mam.feros
degree or level of animal life than marsupials,
and. hese in turn, I have regard to
ov.paros, without this meaning a perfecci.n
objective than any of them, nor
is objectively perfect the coraz.n m.s
the hand but, within its jerarquizaci.n
functional, each fits their tasks
espec.ficos. So nature continues to improve
molluscs and appeared braqui.podos
during dev.nico sil.rico and, like primary
Approaching Gaud.
ing as the monkey or gorilla, there are many
despu.s and from the first.
One of the important consequences m.s
correlaci.n of the parties is the principle of
similarity seg.n which, the functional relationships
governing the presence s.lo not necessary and
simult.nea of the various parts in combination
. N sistem.tica, but determine, adem.s,
proportions and dimensions of the form
b.sica altogether. For example, a bird that could double
other body dimensions, tendr.a
weighing about eight times greater, is
ie in proporci.n to their volume. But if it should
have exactly the same way, increased
so s.lo of scale, a surface tendr.a
wings. nicamente four times higher, despite
to support a higher increase in weight. The
proporci.n conclusi.n is that the surface
wing against the body should dimensi.n
be another in the larger bird.
This wise teacher who lives with us,
nature, is thus a source
inexhaustible knowledge that have their
garant.a validity to the experiences
for millions of a.os.
Architecture creates C.mo
Given this nature, eminently pr.ctica,
that always follows a path based ideal
seg.n on experience which will test,
discarding and refining solutions appears
how to make architecture, which,
trav.s of time has seen the birth and death
different styles and fashions, always subject to the
intellectual currents defined by each civilization
. N.
This architecture styles apparently
different has always been influenced and has been
true reflection of human thought in
. Little, but rarely been given due
atenci.n to nature and its laws, which since
the origin of the world have been accompanied .. ndonos.
The architecture of Gaud. looks like
geol.gica, bot.nica and zool.gica. The reasons for
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Mont Blanc Cologne G.ell Church
this portrait to be sought in Gaud., the
Contrary to the styles ocurr.a hist .-
rich Search. the inspiraci.n pr.ctica in nature
and his understanding of the buildings
based on the same laws as are plants
or animals.
Nature has always been at the side of
man, that does not mean that. ste has rendered him
atenci.n always due.
Given the senseless afici.n architects
to "invent" new forms that are then
repetici.n or combinaci.n of the above, as
be seen. geometr.a speaking of the great m.rito
Gaud. lies precisely in looking back
to nature for, as reconoci.ndola
and maintaining a generous teacher. nimo
humbled by it, not try to invent anything
but to discover everything.
For. Last of them, must be placed correctly our
posici.n strength and objective possibilities
on nature in order not to underestimate,
because the current situaci.n dominated
excessive praise for the progress tecnol.gicos,
may favor the idea that we are in a
situaci.n total domain of nature.
Situaci.n is really the domain of
nature, but destructive t.rminos not
constructive. While investigating c.mo
create men by a great show of
ingenier.a gen.tica, we were unable todav.a
Jude make us remove a hunger or a
flower that we can raise. nimo.
Approaching Gaud.

çııÖÖçşgeometr.a in architecture and
'... It's ace. That men prefer to
fen.menos account by the concept alg.n
te.rico general, a explicaci.n anyone,
take the trouble to build a
trav.s particularly the study of the parties. "
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
The geometr.a
The geometr.a is the language of architecture, or
That is, the means used to resolve issues
espec.ficamente arquitect.nicas, hence,
podr.a be defined architecture as art
to shape a specific needs. The
desempe.a the geometr.a role within the
architecture is comparable to playing the sound
m.sica for the language for literature
or the right for the abogac.a pr.ctica.
Good architecture has continued to give
formal solutions, ie geom.tricas, problems
arquitect.nicos all. towards you: construction,
functional, structural, etc., and time
has shown that such solutions are
m.s much effective than those adopted
means outside the geometr.a. For example, it has
expressed much evacuaci.n of effective m.s
means water-related geom.tricos
the law of gravity, to trust the seal
buildings to the waterproof qualities
certain materials. It turns out that these solutions
outside the geometr.a are good to supplement
to them, but never as a substitute.
For this the same nature, if you want
waterproof the exposed surface of a bird
continuously to the effects of water as
may be a duck, permeates your skin with oils
waterproof, but placed on. sta feathers
prepared the way we put
shingles on a roof.
Gaud. he asked. by qu. architecture is not
extra.dos geom.tricos podr.a take models of
the same type, where. hese satisfied with
m.xima effectively the problems that are everyday.
This simple but ingenious argument will
leads. known, and later to use m.s, forms
that were new to the architectonic constructions
. Niques but were in the world since millions
of a.os atr.s, and it was a challenge for
future of architecture, to run into adem.s
the l.gica resistance in a different way of building,
has never been fully understood.
Now consider the enormous importance
it has for the office of architecture
utilizaci.n and correct knowledge of the geometry
. A, analyze the resulting caracter.sticas
of their study and in both nature comparaci.n
as in architecture.
Geometr.a architecture
The geometr.a used by architects to
over the years has been based exclusively
in the two instruments utilizaci.n b.sicos,
namely the square and comp.s.
Any other instrument or tool
used by architects to draw their
projects or by the builders to rethink
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
its buildings have always been combinations
these two.
The comp.s allowed to take and pass measures
while drawing circles, and the
squad are drawn straight and perpendicular
appearing as. verticals and horizontals.
These simple operations have generated
HONORED of the past and continue building
haci.ndolo with the current, hence, the geometr.a
used by architects has developed
utilizaci.n provided by very
simple extra.das of te.rica abstracci.n that
have their origin in the geometr.a eucl.dea, which is
the regular forms geometr.a which was formulated
we remember, in the third century C.
The characteristic forms of this geometr.a Eucla .-
dea, which are all styles tambi.n hist
. Rich in architecture, are the tri.ngulos, square,
c.rculos, etc., and in space, prisms,
cubes, pir.mides, cylinders or spheres, among others.
Natural forms have appeared as s.lo
in architecture in the ornamentaci.n is
ie, devoid of any car.cter functional
which does not occur in nature have never
composici.n part of the structure and
critical of their works.
However, we must see some
arquitect.nicas demonstrations which, although not
influenced by this charge and habi.ndose te.rica
developed in direct contact with pr.ctica
constructive and constraints surrounding
(Climate, materials, etc.) S. have chosen forms
m.s much closer to natural.
Such is the case of vernacular architecture
architecture without architects, which offers many
examples, such as Galician or palloza
Catalan VI.A hut, two of the more known
between us, where the solutions adopted
are formally very close to m.s
natural environment in which they are located.
Other attempts to follow paths of composition
of this. towards you have failed for lack
pr.ctica contact with, and have been
reduced exclusively to a declaraci.n of
intentions. . His is an example of expressionism
remaining. for history, except for some
excepci.n, drawings, models and manifestos
Approaching Gaud.
Sagrada Familia Model Forest
The architecture of Gaud. found. balance
t.rminos perfect in these, while
recog.a concerns arising from this new
geometr.a natural and integrated with the rich tradition
. No construction of their land, which was a
perfect knowledge.
Today, architects are
drawing and constructing buildings with plans,
prisms and cylinders, as we come
making since ancient times.
Faced with this. Optic things, Gaud. imposed
the new forms b.squeda geom.tricas for
construcci.n be used in the building.
Extra.das's broad forms that
ofrec.a nature has generously and
to be served. to be adapting and improving
practical solutions to the needs
pr.ctica was in the architecture. And this
led proposal. out with the natural ingenuity
from whom no one formaci.n acad.mica Ten., what
permitted him. be open to solutions, and
exist in natural models, require
effort to be fully understood.
Geometr.a in nature
Like Gaud., They must therefore ask cu .-
they are the forms used by nature and
qu. inter.s can have your aplicaci.n, yes. his is
possible in the field of architecture. In this
cuesti.n, adem.s we find the foundations
formal architecture of Gaudí.
Addressing as general m.s geometr.a
of natural forms SER.A an attempt adem.s
of in.til extremely complex.
It is not here., Therefore, to develop a cat.logo
that resultar.a, while endless, so
inexpressive as a telef.nica gu.a but m.s
While attempting to shed some light on a
unexplored field such as. ste, contempl.ndolo
at any time since. optic leading to
architect to see the world with problems
and nuances associated with its particular task, because
ge.logos being many, m.dicos, bi.logos or
zo.logos who have studied in depth how
natural elements, one to Gaud. spoke.
of them from the point of view arquitect.nico.
On the other hand, it is recalled that the forms
geom.tricas that nature appears to us
in his creations do not have to inter.s
architecture by s. same or on a whim, but
on the effects relaci.n they serve. Post
we move in a given environment
for the natural and many times are we to serve
those same interests, we care to know
relations that bind them to the solutions geom
. Tric nature gives them.
Sometimes these natural forms will come
. N given directly, but sometimes
deber.n be deduced from the observaci.n
of fen.menos.
This is the principle that followed. Antoni Gaud.,
for example, for some fireplaces construcci.n
in a helical pattern. Gaud. saw no
fireplace helical in nature, but s.
observ., quiz. in his workshop calderer.a
father, describing the smoke rises c.mo c.rculos
through space, and that is why, providing
the chimneys of a helical shape, got it.
evacuaci.n promote the effect of smoke, which
s.lo before ascensi.n was entrusted to the persons who
produces lower density and higher temperature
of. hese against air.
It is worth noting here. that henceforth,
to discuss concrete ways referred geom.tricas
natural elements, we refer to
forms the comparable te.ricas precisely
because we intend to
thorough and accurate study, while recognizing
in nature a sensitive and cont .-
Continuous infusions variations of these models you .-
rich, because, as Goethe said,
. Sta precious secrets we keep
we are unable to reveal.
So when we say for example that
a lily is a developable helicoid or a
f.mur is a ruled hyperboloid, this means
simply that of all the models te.ricos
trav.s known to the descriptive geometr.a
. M.s hese are the approximate those
natural elements.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Ace then we can say that in nature,
geom.tricamente speaking, are
all possible ways, although some abundant
m.s than others. Ace, as we find little
Examples of regular figures, appear frequently
amorphous forms and unclassifiable. Y
while the former are used for decoration or
expose them in a natural history museum
so extraordinary that we find the
Leaving aside the latter without paying
more important because I do not understand.
It is precisely for this reason, the lack of
means we have to control that
we have neglected these forms seem
irregular acogi.ndonos is what we m.s
f.cil to objectify and play with the instruments
we have.
Consequently, natural forms in his
HONORED have remained hidden from the eyes of
architects and builders, especially by
lack of means. hese pod.an used to
know, control and be able to reproduce,
s.lo qued.ndose to do so with a
colecci.n peque.a forms have been called
regularly and that, although certainly
are responding to some concrete needs
are escas.simas in nature.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, Gaud. discovered.
a family of shapes, abundant.simas in
three kingdoms of nature, which can f.cilmente
be transferred to the architectonic construcci.n .-
nica simple to use as simple tools
as the string itself, used since
old by the alba.iles.
These are forms derived from the geometry
. A formal, straight l.neas move
space by following a few simple laws and
are then hidden in the continuity of
graceful curved surfaces in space.
Due to its simplicity, as. as the amount of
examples of them can be found in the
nature and the ease they pose
bring them into our building systems,
these forms the object of special atenci.n ser.n
to speak on, architectonic forms .-
natural niques.
Approaching Gaud.
Tribune foot bones of the Casa Batllo.
Forms natural arquitect.nicas
'The natural soluci.n a problem, art
without artifice. ptima compared to all
pre-tax rise that impresses
with its message, satisfying the same
t.cnico time requirements and
artist. "
Eduardo Torroja
Formal Geometr.a
As conclu.amos to talk about geometr.a
Nature, Gaud. discovered. family
in ways that deserve a detailed study by
abundance of examples of them
found in nature, for the interesting
relaci.n keep these forms with those
natural laws which satisfy, by the ability
expressive of the new possibilities
pl.sticas offered, for its simple generation
. N geom.trica and therefore its f.cil extrapolaci
. N the field of architectonic composici.n
. Nica.
These are the forms of formal geometr.a.
A ruled surface is defined by a
straight to curved surfaces defining moves
in space.
Just as a point desplaz.ndose
by the plane defines a curve l.nea this
line generator, called generative, define
. a continuous surface and infinite. And as. as
classify plane curves seg.n law
movement that continues to this point, areas
regulated can be classified into law funci.n
that gu.a to the line in its movement generating
trav.s space.
These ruled surfaces are classified into
two groups: developable and warped.
1) developable ruled surface
When the law of motion of the line
generating station is such that two consecutive positions,
pr.ximas infinitely, are in a
same plane, ie the generators are cut,
we refer to developable ruled surfaces.
These two generators tend to merge
l.mite and the plane formed by them to be. tangent
to the surface throughout the generator.
From here. These are ruled surfaces
they overlap on a plane without
deformaci.n produce any in its entirety,
ie, they are developable.
A prominent example of these surfaces is
the developable helicoid, which is the surface
engendered by a line moving over
a tangent manteni.ndose h.lice and keeping it
always the same. angle of inclination
. N.
The fundamental characteristic of this type
ruled surfaces, as its name
suggests, is that they can develop on a
plane without undergoing deformations, or the
m.s a colloquial way, we can build
with a sheet of paper, which does not occur. with
2) twisted ruled surface
Ruled surfaces are those that
law of motion is such that two generating
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
consecutive infinitely pr.ximas not est.n
in the same plane, ie the generators intersect.
The plane tangent to the surface to be., By
therefore different for each point of the generatrix,
although it contains. sta. In other words, for each generating
There is a bundle of tangent planes to the surface
in each of the points of it, being the
generating above the ridge beam tangent planes.
These were twisted ruled surfaces
m.s used by the Gaud. and deserve to be explained
and classified as simple m.s
did.ctica possible.
If we understand the warped surface as
all lines (generators) that are supported
three guidelines at the same time, we can classify
funci.n all in the nature of
these. lately, which is the same as classifying
seg.n the law of motion that the generating gu.aa
through space.
The guidelines, therefore, can be a straight line
(R), any curve (C) or an improper line
at infinity (RI), which is the case of a plane
Thus, taking these opportunities
three by three, we get all surfaces
seg.n warped the following table:
This. Latter case, three curves guidelines,
is the more general ruled surface and has no
espec.fica nomenclature.
Warped surfaces are again divided
in cu.dricas, corresponding to the first two
groups of the table, and conical, the others.
The first are those whose secci.n
flat is a c.nica or all of their guidelines are
straight, and are the hyperboloid of one sheet or regulated
and hiperb.lico paraboloid.
In the three guidelines ruled hyperboloid
lines are not parallel between s., while
in the paraboloid hiperb.lico, although they
be three lines, one of which is improper,
ie, st. at infinity, and the first two
are parallel to a plane called plane
When not all the guidelines are straight or
the flats are c.nicas we have
conoid, which are twisted ruled surfaces
whose guidelines are improper, an
line and any curve. . Sta. Tv can
tambi.n be any surface, ie
curve of contact between it and the conoid. The
ms case is the one known as guidelines
own a line and a circle.
You can raise the cuesti.n on qu. difference
real between the different surfaces
warped. This question takes on special meaning
when viewed portions peque.as
each of these surfaces, where they seem
confused between them.
To answer this we return to the example
flat curves. Take for example,
several portions of curves peque.as c.nicas,
ellipse, and hip.rbola par.bola. Podr.an Tambi.n
apparently confused between them, but we know
their difference lies precisely in the law
that generates its curvature changes. These changes
obey the law defining each curve
s.lo that is satisfied by the set of points
that form.
Similarly, in the ruled surfaces,
the law that defines the movement of their generating
in space, ie, differences
among its guidelines, the responsible ser.n
establish exactly the nature of their changes
Double-curved in space.
Another cuesti.n is on the nomenclature
of these surfaces. In our view, the
convoluted names with the name given to
matem.ticos, which first gave them
Approaching Gaud.
Hyperboloid regulated or
a sheet
Hyperbolic paraboloid
Conoid master plan
Cilindroide plane
to their equations trav.s anal.ticas, they do
geom.trica justice to their reality or to its simplicity
Regulated forms in nature
In all these areas mentioned above
find an infinite sample in the
nature and have been observed in all
fields who study the natural sciences
the bot.nica, the mineralog.a, the geolog.a, the biolog.a
or anatom.a, among others.
The aparici.n of these forms in nature
does not happen on a whim, but as a result of
pr.cticos grounded in simple processes
natural laws. This relaci.n between a form
determined and natural law that is generated
comprensi.n vital importance for the entire
Let us therefore make a brief review of trav.s
the three kingdoms of nature to look for
examples that best illustrate these ideas.
In the field of two character bot.nica
. Sticas b.sicas that convert the geometry almost
. To plant a branch of formal geometr.a.
On the one hand, we observe the composici.n
HONORED fibrous plants. These fibers
are equivalent to l.neas straight generatrix of
ruled surfaces, which slide in space
supported by other elements act.an
as guidelines.
Secondly, we observed the law
Profiles drawn on the severity and Catena parab.licos
. Rich in plant matter. These curves
plane produced in the leaves, branches and tops
the. trees by the gravitational action are
tambi.n flats in many figures
regulated, especially cu.dricas.
These premises are subject to many
forms of paraboloids and conical hiperb.licos
in plant leaves and flowers, as. as provisions
hiperboloidales on trunks and branches
the. trees.
The fibrous combinaci.n this disposici.n
with the laws of growth that continue to circulate
many plant species, such as stalks
around the branches and trunks, also produces
. S helical. Trunks are helical
eucalyptus and many types of vines. A
Lily, however, is a developable helicoid.
These forms have different space
curves, which give them more rigid and
structural resistance to the stresses to
being subject, as., a branch hiperboloidal
is stronger than a cil.ndrica m.s, and
paraboloid shaped blade is m.s hiperb.lico
r.gida a flat.
The geolog.a is the science that studies the composition
. No interior and exterior of the earth. His
observaci.n follows that the geometr.a tambi.n
rule has ample room in this science. The
plut.nicas forces that led to the folding
and the eruptions originated forms
the erosi.n and gravity have increasingly become
geom.tricas figures-like hyperboloids,
revoluci.n or paraboloids paraboloids
Although not revoluci.n paraboloid
a ruled surface can be considered
as a figure typical of the natural geometr.a
by its repeated presence in nature, since
D is the consequence of the properties
gravity of the par.bola, formal expresi.n
the lowering of loads in the plane.
A port is configured between two monta.as
erosi.n by making pieces of rock fall
direcci.n taking the slope of the m.xima
rectil.nea shaped and, in general t.rminos,
describes the generating of a hyperbolic paraboloid .-
The erosi.n e.lica in monta.as produces
in combinaci.n with gravitational forces,
revoluci.n paraboloid forms. This
results in the same way stalactites and t.mpanos
formed in the inner cavities
Cupulares forms of the dens and
caves have profiles and caten.ricos parab.licos
since they are naturally balanced seg.n the
pressure l.neas defining such profiles.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Approaching Gaud.
Grotto of Manacor (Mallorca)
Model of the Cologne G.ell
Other times, the combined acci.n some
of these effects occur. forms of hyperboloids
regulated, as the huge mass bas.ltica
known as Devil's Tower, in the state
U.S. Wyoming, or the composition
results on the limestone bank gave
rise to "the enchanted city" of Cuenca.
Geol.gicos folds make the
levels of the different strata te.ricos assimilate
to variables such as surface curvatures
geometr.a themselves of the duty.
Mineralog.a Within the branch of history
studying natural inorg.nicos bodies,
analyzes the cristalizaci.n, property for which
some minerals take forms poli.dricas
bodies constituting closed flat faces
. Angles constant. Here. find one of the
few examples in which nature uses a
geometr.a s.lidos based on regular. These
geom.tricos bodies are, as mentioned above,
which can be found in the geometr.a
architecture from the earliest times, as
as is elementary, and classifiable f.cilmente
can be drawn and built by comp
. S, square.
However, there are crystal field
org.nica studied by the biocristalograf.a that
presents ways typical of the geometr.a m.s
regulated than the eucl.dea.
The anatom.a is the branch of that biolog.a
est.ticas caracter.sticas studies the beings'
alive. Anatom.a of treaties, making
geom.trica reading of its parts, it follows,
as in the plant kingdom, the fibrous composici.n
of. stas. This fibrous nature of the bones,
m.sculos and tendons makes these forms
anat.micas have much to do with the geometry
. A formal, hence, as Leonardo da Vinci
drew the tendons of the shoulder, for example,
in perfect sinton.a geom.trica thus be .-
n the generators of a paraboloid hiperb.lico,
although this form was not known.
The tendons between the fingers of
tambi.n hand are generating paraboloids
hiperb.licos that occur when separate
two consecutive fingers; here., bones of
fingers, which are regulated hyperboloid make
guidelines, and tendons of uni.n, l.neas straight
of generators. Many of our bones,
like those of other animals, are almost hyperboloids
Regulated (the v.rtebras the f.mur, etc.), the
m.sculos in tensi.n can be conical or
hyperboloids, and ways that result in
surface of our bodies covered by
resemble skin or paraboloids hiperb.licos
In short, can be seen as proliferaci
. No examples of formal in nature geometr.a
is abundant.sima. It is interesting to observe
c.mo these forms are generated, not by whim,
but as a result of the impact of alg.n
fen.meno through either the law of gravity,
the acci.n the wind, the circular growth of certain
species, the eddies of air, water, sand or
smoke, or fibrous patterns of the material itself
org.nica, which are generating laws aut.nticas
of these forms, which in the end are not
l.gica soluci.n ms that simple and that pr.ctica
satisfies compliance with those laws.
A simple look at the ways arquitect.nicas
used by Antoni Gaud. able to find
geometr.a abundant formal solutions that
geol.gica up Appearances, bot .-
zool.gica unique or as the basis of forms
Gaudi is in the same geometr.a natural
where the examples were extra.dos
aplicaci.n.çııÖÖçşNatural forms in architecture
The geometr.a regulated and, within it surfaces
warped, are based on compositional
work of Antoni Gaud., that tom. example of
nature from an early age, using
that this peculiar geometr.a.
At first, this process begins
timidly, but by the end of
work we find examples in which the rigor
the generaci.n, the combinaci.n and commissioning work
This particular geometr.a were taken to
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
end. Such SER.A the case of the crypt
G.ell Cologne, considered gaudiano media
as the dress rehearsal prior to construcci.n
Temple of the Sagrada Familia, example. LAST
of all thought of Gaud ..
Antoni Gaud. was a pioneer when dealing, for
example, the first paraboloid b.vedas
hiperb.lico the history of architecture, which
are just at the entrance porch
to the crypt for the church of the colony G.ell.
But utilizaci.n that Gaud. made these
forms can not be classified as a mere
invenci.n as a whim, but rather m.s
as a great discovery, as hab.an
been taken as an example extra.dos models
directly from nature.
The. Nimo that gui. the architect was not
acad.mica formaci.n linked to, but concerns
m.s proven.an deep and distant from
observaci.n of the natural environment and went back
your ni.ez at Camp de Tarragona.
Proof of this Comment's own adem.s
Gaud., Safety is the one you atribu.an
car.cter himself to his work, linked to action
similar for children, some of compa.eros
ni.ez the architect that nothing could hab.an
obtained prior to work. ste developed Sort
Barcelona since he left. those
hab.an sharing sites.
In this sense, then, is doubtful classify
Gaud. only as an architect, as
the basis of their formaci.n does not resemble in nothing
even his contempor.neos in office. This
caracter.stica made it. the character id.neo
to perform a task in which prejudice
m.s acad.micos course that had not
obst.culos continuing to experimentaci.n.
Extra.das forms of history
Gaud architecture. used. with frequency m.s
pertenec.an oriental models, and this occurs
. Only in his early works. The ra.z of
est of these influences. documented relaci.n
a magazine and fotograf.as colecci.n the
known architect. at school during their
as a student and seems to be. nico fruit removed
This per.odo of formaci.n acad.mica together
d.rico temple G.ell Parc, where used.
a particular order visi.n d.rico.
M.s later, Gaud. completely penetrates
the imitaci.n of nature, increasingly alej.ndose
Approaching Gaud.
Torcal de Antequera (M.laga) Project T.nger Missions
m. away m.s of work followed until
time for architects, developing it into
a seemingly complex world of formal, full
expressive qualities of diamonds, not
ms was the result of applying to the problems
daily arquitect.nicos principles
extra.dos functionality b.sicos models
that provided nature. All of this
united, clear est., the overwhelming imaginaci.n
Gaud., produced impressive results
we admire in his work.
In a purely formal, the imitation
. No Nature made Gaud. no wonder
qu. deb.a give way to an element
determined, but rather qu m.s. ped.a form
. Ste to achieve the best possible way
in order to be commended. This
Thus, for example, carpentry frames
. To the Casa Batllo. c.mo observed knots
of wood, harder than the rest of the
piece, which define a sinuous peculiar to
m.s be outgoing to a regular work
grinding and polishing the frame.
This way actuaci.n demanded. perfect
knowledge of and materials used t.cnicas
in the work, and as. Gaud. it rode. a team
of craftsmen in their chores resum.an
tradici.n elaborate some trades that
culminaci.n llegar.an to them in their development.
The boldness with which they work t.cnica. in
wrought iron or structures alba.iler.a
septate was the happy result of a tradici.n
linked to land, Catalan, and has jam.s
restated similarly.
Note, then, qu. Gaud mode.
architecture introduced in these natural forms,
beginning with the Revolution paraboloid
. N and continuing with successive surfaces
The paraboloid revoluci.n
Before analyzing the architecture use
Gaud. made the necessary revoluci.n paraboloid
talk of the arches and caten.ricos parab.licos,
that were the basis of composition and structural
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Column Olivo p.rtico the crypt of the Colonia G.ell
Many of his works and where we find
aplicaci.n meaning for these forms. Of
Indeed, it is natural discharge arcs and
therefore, the perfect form and relaci.n
use consigui.ndose in this case the balance
funci.n ideal between structural and expresi.n
formal. Gaud. Search. utilizaci.n with these
arcs, drawn by the very nature
"Express" the supporting structure of the buildings,
link while composing and
geometr.a formally particular to other
the work task and m.rito dificil.sima indisputable
because no such arms have been used
architecture or earlier, when already conoc.an
mec.nicas properties or despu.s, as they have
continued to be neglected by architects
and builders.
The examples that nature shows
of these arcs are endless and we find,
as natural arches that are often
rock or ice, formed under the provisions
the inner caves of the earth or in the same
elements of plants and animals that are
subjected to this stress structural
determined by the law of gravity. These
tambi.n curves show cont.nuamente
certain natural expressions linked to the movement
to trav.s of this law as., one is par.bola
described by the water jet emerging from a
a source or any inert object released
space in any direcci.n with a component
In the work of Gaud., If we refer to
ms cases significant enough to refer
to support arches of the roof of the
Casa Mil., The corridors of the College Teresian
the stables of the estate or bows G.ell
parab.licos of the Casa Batllo., places where
utilizaci.n of these arcs becomes. nica
structural premise as their construcci.n
by septate system obviate
support any other item or structure.
In these cases, therefore, from start to
coronaci.n of the work, structurally speak-
Approaching Gaud.
Formaci.n of dunes in the Sahara Church in Colonia G.ell construcci.n
do, there is a unity, continuity and homogeneity
based on the properties of these curves.
This concept embodies the superaci.n of
and previous processes. l carry important
caracter.sticas Gaud's work. and relaci.n
with nature. The necessary existence of starts
broken in this type of structures,
are obligations to combine these profiles
caten.ricos parab.licos and with bows and b.vedas
uprights leads. in Gaud. to build
inclined columns seg.n the pressure l.neas
as in the Casa Mil., Parc G.ell or
crypt of the church of the colony G.ell.
This fact is sometimes interpreted as
result of the whims of a madman or other
complicated explanations, just ci.e
some structural feature schemes
Establishing the same kind. In
HONORED cases, natural structures
up in this way, both animated
as est.ticas, hence, are inclined from
the legs of a ara.a up the trunks or branches
of many. trees.
It is precisely the Gaudí of utilizaci.n
these profiles parab.licos which leads to
include the study of revoluci.n paraboloid,
which, although not part of the ruled surfaces,
s. is fully included in that
podr.amos geometr.a call natural.
Ace thus generated forms revoluci.n
by these curves were flat in the space used
by Gaud. as in nature.
The case m.s general and well known is the paraboloid
of revoluci.n, surface generated by
a par.bola that rotates around its axis and
extending to the three-dimensional space
par.bola structural properties.
From this figure it is noted that geom.trica
mec.nicas properties, m. away track
and gear are the same as those used for
parab.lico arc, but developed three-dimensional
seg.n space its circular guideline.
Examples similar to paraboloids
revoluci.n provided to us by nature as
of fountains, stalactites, bird nests,
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Floods in the Alpujarra (Granada)
ant, monta.as,. trees, rocks and plants,
geom.tricamente we can match the
work of Antoni Gaud. the towers of the Temple
Holy Family, c.pulas of the church
G.ell Cologne, missions or hotel T.nger
New York we know from the pictures
Juan Matamala Flotats.
Ruled surfaces
Seg.n have been exposed earlier in attention
. N to cases m.s significant. Stas ser.an
the following:
1) The paraboloid hiperb.lico
This is interesting in the area m.s
aspect that concerns us and Gaud. equated with the
Has always maintained that is tri.ngulo
ms pol.gono easy to close one. rea determined
using only straight lines and, adem.s,
of. m.nima l is the structure shape.
Similarly, making a extrapolaci.n the
three-dimensional space, we know that the figure
m.nima to close a given volume, using
s.lo planes, Ser tetrahedron, consisting
four flats. However, following
Gaud own indications., we can make a
reducci.ny exercise can say that space
tambi.n be defined by two planes and a planoide,
ie a paraboloid hiperb.lico. It
est interest of such reasoning. to observe
c.mo we managed to reduce the elements n.m64ero
without a.adir ning.n new concept or alter
the nature of the same because, both
plane as the paraboloid hiperb.lico, est.n
l.neas composed exclusively straight.
For ace. say, the paraboloid hiperb.lico
SER.A more general case of plane, and. ste, the case
particularly where the two lines are guidelines
Your sencill.sima generaci.n and caracter.sticas
formal structural and derived from the
utilizaci.n of this surface allows interesting
. Chasms applications in different elements
building as walls or pillars b.vedas.
Of this area often used by
tambi.n find numerous nature
examples in the work of Antoni Gaud. under different
aplicaci.n points.
The first of which hiperb.lico paraboloid
is aware user. Gaud. in 1884 in
G.ell Finca Les Corts de Sarri .. It was
a brick m.nsula a small-bore
. Or viewpoint on the so-called Camp de les
Figueres and was known to his disappearance
. N as "Roundabout."
On the roof of the servants' quarters
on the third floor of the Palace formed G.ell
paraboloids hiperb.licos to win the outstanding
of desag.e roof top. This
case, the simple m.s aplicaci.n, is
seg.n guidelines identify the lines defined
coronaci.n by the walls of support and
give to the joists, which in this case were met .-
beverages, the funci.n of generators of the paraboloid
In the model for the Temple of the Sagrada
Family she offered. Gaud., C.mo observe the
Approaching Gaud.
Iglesia de la Colonia G.ell
structure of the temple is formed based on columns
inclined spiral with abundant ramifications
at the top holding a b.vedas
hiperb.lico paraboloid. Gaud. wanted to give this
b.vedas way to the Holy Family "because
ac.sticas and conditions are very lum.nicas
good ... properties because they are geom .-
istics appropriate to their utilitarian purposes, ornamental
and constructive ... I tested in the
G.ell Colony, and as I saw them as perfect, the
I used in the Sagrada Familia, the seg.n
words of the architect.
Originally built these b.vedas deb.an
in stone, but still keeping
Thus, the material can be changed, maybe. by
hormig.n armed as est. by the
Today, as we have no precise data
about the intentions of Gaud. for start
But the spectacular case of its use m.s
. No lies precisely in the crypt of the
G.ell Cologne, where the paraboloid hiperb.lico
was used both in the exterior walls as
p.rtico in b.vedas of access, as
mean. for Gaud., as stated above, the
large trial in pr.ctica pondr.a then to
larger scale, in the Temple of the Sagrada
In the first case, to the walls just
hold rules, which can be wood or
met.licas, we mark the guidelines for
that the line that determines the successive rows
of f.brica subject guideline to guideline, go
defining the resulting surface.
As shown, the difference
separates this m. away from traditionally followed
to erect a wall is just the inclinaci.n
rules, which does not pose particular obstacles
your ejecuci.n.
It is interesting to note that Gaud. used.
adem.s in these walls, material of cer.mico
waste, ie bricks in its default
hab.an elaboraci.n already been warped with
which adem.s to promote the process of execution
. N, are remarkably consistent consegu.a geom .-
trical to the system used.
The encounter between these walls define a
curves, par.bolas, so counteracting
id.nea the possible stress of the structure or
strictly follow l.neas pressures,
as can. tensor avoided or buttresses
schemes that inevitably conduc.an
It is, however, in the crypt p.rtico
where this system achieves. climax
with the first b.vedas construcci.n septate
paraboloid shown hiperb.lico
in the history of architecture.
The simple, yet innovative, exercise
of c.lculo conducted by Gaud. to determine
deb.a addresses take the structure
of the future church and that was tested. in
polyfunicular model she offered. for this project
summarizes the fundamental principles
utilizaci.n led him to these forms.
While determining the form of a
p.rtico found that match your l.nea
pressures may be suspended a string
reproduce the system of charges to be later
invested, which is a two-dimensional exercise,
the simple uni.n obtained the funicular l.neas
generate. hiperb.licos paraboloids, surfaces
Double-curved and flat sections
parab.licas that the stiffness and strength tendr.n
appropriate for the particular case, thereby
be achieved. the effectiveness with the utilization m.xima
. M.nimo n the material.
These forms are therefore of great m.s
from the structural point of view as they continue
strictly functional schemes
determines the decrease of space charges
because of the law of gravity. Tambi.n, for all
Thus, they are forms used continuously for
But its structural properties are not
the. unique way to reach the paraboloid
hiperb.lico. They quiz. spatial qualities
which makes a surface tambi.n
id.nea for use in the field of
construcci.n. Just consider how this
surface is uniform and continuous soluci.n
any two lines meet, usually
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
be a very premise on edificaci com.n
. N.
The materializaci.n pr.ctica of these b.vedas
is carried out in the following way:
coronaci.n l.nea linking the two columns and
model has been extra.da funicular ends
to work up a line that determines the first
hiperb.lico paraboloid guideline.
An.logamente is done with the second. Subsequently,
pulling a string to another guideline
just as the walls Discussed
above, is built walled b.veda
in its normal form, with two thick, simple and
doubled, which follow the layout of the
generating and taking the Rasilla between s. by
testa, received with lime mortar.
P.rtico In the crypt of the Colonia
G.ell to established guidelines and
intrad.s decorative reasons of b.vedas,
proceeded. placing a formwork strips
wood, and on. ste triangular pieces were arranged
com.n brick, as. as some
cer.mica figures made of glazed. Above
this bed of decorative bricks were made
the two thicknesses walled received b.veda
with lime mortar and the spandrels were filled with
One particularity is to see
closure of the plant this is p.rtico
that all spans between supporting columns have
an almost triangular. This is related
directly with the fact that tambi.n deb .-
an plots have thus emerging from
jard.n city ought to have. be the Parc G.ell.
Gaud. observ. c.mo in nature,
hiperb.lico paraboloid shapes, such as
same landscape, in tri.ngulos convert.an being
projected on a horizontal plane, being
c.nico development of these surfaces in space
responsible for the traslaci.n from tri.ngulo
the paraboloid hiperb.lico.
It is worth noting jointly
the floor plan of the crypt p.rtico G.ell,
corresponding to the Parc parcelaci.n
G.ell and property of the House of Rosell
Fill in the municipal t.rminos Gelida and
Subirachs, drawn by Gaud. in 1883, to glimpse
the architect's ideas on these
principles. intimately linked to their ideas about
In summary, it should be noted that with the
hiperb.lico paraboloid we face
a figure which, as we anticipate. Gaud., Symbolizes
perfectly the concept of space and
adem.s re.ne that stability properties
exceptional. That is why this surface
desaf.a the creative process in architecture and
encouraged to seek their rightful place aplicaci.n
in the building systems.
On the other hand, as. surfaces as dem.s
ruled that from now on we will see
aplicaci.n have car.cter of timely, solving
concrete elements, as in
work of Gaud., the paraboloid is hiperb.lico
capable of generating new compositional systems
important and widespread throughout the aplicaci.n
arquitect.nico process.
2) The ruled hyperboloid or foil
This figure is defined as the surface
warped regulated resulting from a generating
to be any support in three straight to
the time that the three guidelines ser.n hyperboloid
rules, which must be crossed in
However, it m.s imagine f.cil
as any line that revolves around
another to be. the axis of the hyperboloid, but as.
we are excluding el.pticos hyperboloids.
Gaud. associated. this figure to light and use it.
b.sicamente to address specific elements
as towers, columns, or c.pulas b.vedas.
This is an area that, although
infinite in space, usually has some l.mites
m.s hiperb.lico clear that the paraboloid.
This is due mainly to this area
has some straight sections closed circles
or ellipses, which differ substantially
of par.bolas, open to
obten.amos in the previous case. In this sense
Approaching Gaud.
m.s associate and is close to the paraboloid
hiperb.lico revoluci.n that, since sections
straight lines of these surfaces get
two perpendicular planes, one of which
contains the axis of the figure is a circle
and c.nica, be that. par.bola in a
the case of the paraboloid and revoluci.n
hip.rbola the case of the hyperboloid
Examples of the hyperboloid which gives us
nature ranging from human bones
even the branches and trunks. trees, seg.n
we have outlined above. Let us now
arquitect.nicos examples in the work of
Antoni Gaud ..
This figure Gaud. associated. to light should
used, for example, to the large window of
central nave of the Sagrada Familia,
although in this case is not closed. constancy
constructive m. away deb.a followed for
putting in work as it is an unfinished part
In the headlights and the c.pula porter.a
of the ring of flags of the Farm
G.ell, find tambi.n hyperboloids
regulated. The case is significant m.s. Ste. Last of them,
adem.s where the whole is crowned
with a domed cap tambi.n hiperboloidal,
but this time revoluci.n. In all these
warn cases such as this surface is
responsible for the passage of light into the interior
the building. We find adem.s, the hyperboloids
severed his throat, ie
limited superiorly by the circular secci.n
di.metro lower.
The ejecuci.n of these forms is carried. out
with b.veda enclosed, and this was followed. the
same process and the annotated prop.sito
hiperb.licos paraboloids. Rethinking
surface is required by the guidelines that here.
sections can be circular, then,
by the string subject to. stas, go determining
generating successive. The figure is made
then two Rasilla thick, simple and
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Livistona Australis trunk Tower Parc service pavell.n G.ell
folded, head parts by taking one another,
usually with lime mortar.
Another case of hyperboloid is found in
pabell.n Tower of services is in
Parc G.ell input. In this case, the proportions
of the figure are very different from
above. The hyperboloid is much m.s slender
ie defining the secci.n hip.rbola straight
vertical is very open, so that it resembles
cases arising from the nature in the branches
the plant kingdom or animal bones.
It was made in b.veda walled tambi.n
with several thick and is coated Rasilla
cut into pieces white cer.micas
and blue on a coating of mortar
sharpens the presence of two h.lices to be
crossing, all of which is of a whole
very striking checkerboard that relates
directly with the clouds and sky
will serve as the backdrop.
The process is id.ntico to ejecuci.n
described above.
An inner reinforcement, consisting of a
b.veda new sheet enclosed, which involves
an iron framework embedded between. sta and
construcci.n original was made in 1952 by
the builder and surveyor under Luis Montero
Adolfo Florensa direcci.n architect. This
reinforcement is due. to cracks caused by
e.licos efforts to which the subject is
tower and has led to explanations equ.vocas
utilizaci.n of the alleged armed hormig.n
by Gaud ..
Many others are the examples of figures
close to or inspired by the hyperboloid, although
geom.trico drawn with rigor within the
Gaudi's work. Such can be the pillars
p.treos main floor in the facade of the
Casa Batllo., Whose form recalls indeed
to a bone.
As for the advantages derived from
the utilizaci.n of this surface against the cil.ndricas
or prism.ticas often take his place
in the field of construcci.n, the common est.n
dem.s all ruled surfaces is
say, easy to be formed ejecuci.n
with l.neas straight, more rigid surface
should its double curvature in space
structural strength as they possess their
an.logas in nature, and this, in this
case, combined with ease of handling character
. Stica the ruled hyperboloid, which can be
considered either as a surface
This new degree of control not geom.trico
hiperb.lico possesses the paraboloid, and therefore
but his examples abound in nature,
dif.cil m.s is working with this surface.
Tambi.n. This is the cause that has been used
m.s the hyperboloid, especially ingenier.a
and civil works, where it has been used frequently
to form large industrial chimneys
dep.sitos storage.
As conclusi.n therefore be summarized that
ruled hyperboloid is a surface f.cil
management and serves on the construcci.n, as in
nature, to solve geom.tricamente elements
m.s point that comprehensive conceptions
car.cter overall space being
especially. useful for elements elaboraci.n
resistant one component ready seg.n
dominant vertical.
3) The conoid
The conoid is not a concrete surface,
but admits a large variety of cases since,
being one of its guidelines flies and other improper
the third one can be any curve
or, which is the same, any surface. Not
However, the case most abundant, known and used
guidelines is to own, straight and half circle.
These surfaces have an intermediate car.cter
between the two we have discussed previously.
On the one hand, linked to a casu.stica est.n
very specific that is defined by its third
guideline curve, and this makes it similar to the hyperboloid,
as capable of being used in
very particular cases.
But at the same time, usually a
Open surfaces, rather indefinite in its
Approaching Gaud.
l.mites since, as ruled surfaces
are endless, as. and in their ability
geom.trico control, and abound in much.simo
nature, probably because its general car.cter,
m.s caracter.sticas that make them close to
hiperb.lico paraboloid.
A simple example of their abundance in the
nature can arise from simple Observation
. N of the plant kingdom and its continued presence
both the leaves of plants as in
p.talos or other parts of the flowers. In the first
of these cases, the fibrous nature of matter
defines the generatrix of the surface te.ricas
apoyar.n is a structural bifurcaci.n
leaf (first guideline flies) and other
any curve (third guideline), which is the
com.n case of a leaf of geranium, for example.
The case m.s utilizaci.n of significant
conical in construcci.n, following the work
Antoni Gaud., we find on the cover of
Parochial Schools of the Sagrada Familia.
. Ste was a building with car.cter peque.o
provisional, ten by twenty meters in plan
Built in 1909 within the same site for
for the Temple of the Sagrada Familia, in the
pr.xima area where the facade located deb.a
Gloria. It is a building interesant.simo
in the aspect that concerns us, for everything. l was
dise.ado geom.tricas following the laws that
Gaud. Sort observed in nature.
The whole building is formed with b.veda enclosed,
both the outer walls, which are not vertical
but continue with the inclinaci.n
direcci.n of the efforts that are defined
the deck, such as. sta, which was built
conical base plane director. In some of
the outbuildings peque.as Schools,
such as latrines, was used tambi.n paraboloid
b.veda hiperb.lico of septate to form
Externally, the walls of the school
brick partition walls were placed matajuntas and
placed vertically. The pediments that
formed above the windows were
made with staggered superposici.n Rasilla
view, placed bofet.n.
The roof of the building was one of sucesi.n
director flatly conical s. linked together.
The great room is described in three classrooms divid.a
which the corresponding degrees impart.an
of ense.anza. A large beam of met.lica
divid.a twenty meters in the building plan
two equal parts and was based on three pillars
acting as pillars. From this j.cena and
coronations until undulating facades,
were supported by wooden beams were
the generators of the conical mentioned.
On these beams was performed. warped surface
Rasilla with three thick, simple,
bent and bias.
Schools were burned down in July
1936 and later rebuilt by Domingo
Sugra.es in 1938. In 1939 they were again
burned and then rebuilt by Francis
P. Quintana.
The naturalists of these concepts introducci.n
involves the edificaci.n tambi.n each
element is performed on the material more suitable
your funci.n and its disposici.n, shape and
dimensions are strictly necessary for
m.nimo econ.mico obtain cost and effort
in ejecuci.n.
The sustituci.n of elements t.picos
vertical and horizontal for others to follow
the pressure l.neas when it comes to elements
simply compressed work
achieves structural sensations supresi.n
Boxing depressive and offering
walls and flat roofs, and get a
materials and space savings, as. as a
result set and sensations pl.sticas
and expressive than flat surfaces do not offer.
Parochial Schools of the Sacred
Family ten.an, adem.s, a very particular meaning,
as it was a very dedicated building
ni.os especially for those design-
. Aron several elements such as banks
and seats of their classes.
The architecture of Gaud. has much to
do with the ni.os and child worldwide
general. Indeed, Gaud. is an administrative character
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
pared by professionals in the architecture and
construcci.n, but his work has also fascinated
. N always to ni.os, who have felt
atra.dos naturally to her. It is not
extra.o that ace. occurs because of an apparently detr.s
imaginary and fabulous world com.n
in their forms, hides a very peculiar way,
yet appropriate to approach
nature, marked by the naivety, lack
prejudices that might get the imagination l.mites
. No, spontaneity in approaches,
the car.cter intuitive sense and pr.ctico
visi.n that Gaud. called "ang.lica" with
I wished to make a fresh perspective
of things seen in the area without going through the
From this. Optic of things, be considered
in Gaud. as a mischievous ni.o which is not
it could curb its ideals while pure m.s
what nonsense.
Another case of the master plan conoid
found on the cover of the workshop fotogr.fico
that Gaud. Construct. defined between the chafl.n
Provence and Sardenya streets of Barcelona. In
this building the fotograf.as hac.a Juan Matamala
servir.an then for models elaboraci.n
escult.ricos. Disappeared. in fire
July 1936.
Geom.tricas solutions produced, the
resoluci.n the same constructive and benefits
important m.s resulting of its use
. N are the already pr.cticamente id.nticas
referred to Parochial Schools
the Sagrada Familia.
Summarizing all this for this area
regulated warped, it must remember its
Double car.cter that the sit.a between the two cases
studied previously. All this without losing
sight of its wide range of examples, many
of them unknown and unnamed a.n therefore
As already mentioned, although it com.nmente
conoid to identify the resulting surface
semi-circle of its third guideline,
possible cases are as many as curves
that we can draw in space, that is, infinite.
4) The helical
Neither the helicoid is a concrete surface
but admits many cases. Son
Several examples of helical known, highlighting
including developable helicoid,
which is a warped surface but s.
regulated, and the director plane helix, which also
. S rule is a warped surface.
The first of these is determined by the
movement of the hypotenuse of a rect tri.ngulo
. Angle that is rolled around a
a cylinder which is part of the legs,
describing a surface that resembles the
layer defined by bullfighter when you fly
around. ste.
The second case is what determines a
line that supports a h.lice simult.neamente
and on the axis of the cylinder is. sta belongs.
Conceptually, this figure is another case
of conical shape because it has a straight guideline
(The axis of the helix), an improper at infinity
which makes the master plan and any curve,
in this case a h.lice.
These figures were associated. Gaud. movement,
and that similarity is understood f.cil fij.ndonos
in the examples that offers nature.
Indeed, in nature, helical
are usually attached to fen.menos
related in some way with movement,
whether certain growth trav.s
species, the turbulence can be
water, air, smoke or sand, or reactions qu.micas
as fire or otherwise.
The growth of eucalyptus or olive
helical paths defined in the bark, the
As the stems of climbing around
trunks and branches. The same applies to the
snails and shells in the animal world, which
forms evoke tambi.n to other surfaces
regulated. Similarly, the ascensi.n of
smoke, swirls of water in the sea or the disposition
. N of the planets and stars in galaxies
describe helical movements.
Helical forms have been tambi.n
closely linked to issues are ornamental
repeatedly throughout the history of art.
Approaching Gaud.
It is clear, then, these figures asociaci.n
fen.menos related to movement.
Ace got it. Gaud. to perform their helical
for construction elements of a
way or another, relate to tambi.n
The case is m.s abundant in
stairs, an element that represents the movement
growth within the architectonic work
. Nica. Spiral Stairs in the work of
Gaud. are found in the bell towers
Temple of the Holy Family,
Casa Mil. or Casa Batllo., adem.s of
other examples.
These ruled surfaces of constru.a
Gaud. generally as we have already
seen for other surfaces, with b.veda enclosed,
ie, two or three thicknesses of Rasilla taken by
testa which follow the redesign marked by
a string that serves as the generatrix of
This area has a high stiffness that
is given by its shape as can f.cilmente
intuit to note that a cuadr.cula te.rica
h.lices and generating orthogonal lines, drawn
on it, you have to lose orthogonality
of all. angles to experience any
deformaci.n type.
This rigidity of form works effectively
stability of the ladder, but when taken into
account in the c.lculo complicating the problem of such
usually omitted so that their effective collaboration
. Ny spiral staircase considered as consisting
by a linear element, the helical axis in
l.nea which condenses the transverse secci.n
all caracter.sticas geom.tricas and mec.nicas.
Tambi.n were helical surfaces
implemented by Gaud. in several examples of coronations
fireplaces. Those found in
the roofs of the houses Mil. or Batlle. defined
helical forms and est.n clear tambi.n
septate b.veda made.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Neptunea antiqua House Fireplace carinata Mil.
In this case the conditions favoring such a surface
evacuaci.n est.tica of smoke, and
that. hese, as well as natural ascensi.n
observ. Gaud., Describe a helical path.
Another element that describes a growth
helical columns are designed indoor
by Gaud. b.vedas to support the
Temple of the Sagrada Familia which
located on the ground floor of the Casa Batllo ..
Ruled surfaces, as. their examples
in the work of Antoni Gaud., are abundant m.s
that here. treated. In the same temple
Holy Family we have seen windows
el.ptico hyperboloid-shaped, but tambi.n
there are other more complex in its generation
. N and some that even combine several
of these forms at once.
Those here. we have tried to represent a
brief summary of the more simple cases, did.cticos
and significant, in which the same Gaud.
thought. see the beginning of a wide range of
abrir.a spectacular possibilities prospects
within the world of construcci.n.
Gaud. found. these forms regulated m.s
close to natural and stable long m.s
than those derived from the architecture. l called
"Cil.ndrica." This property adds to the advantages
mec.nicas pl.sticas and arising from
use of these ruled surfaces and ser.n
detailed when speaking of natural forms
incorporated into the architecture.
Gaud. Dec. beauty is the glow
truth and, from this, the constru.a
syllogism: these forms of geometr.a
m.s rule is perfect from the point of
functionally and are used by adem.s
nature, which then ser.n m.s
The final of these surfaces caracter.stica
is, then, naturally, understood. sta as
simplicity with the sublime, as utility
coupled with the beauty, as above
However, the natural source of the same forms.
Approaching Gaud.
çııÖÖçşNatural forms incorporated in the
"Originality consists in returning to the source."
Antoni Gaud. Cornet
Advantages of aplicaci.n
Listed and analyzed new forms
that extra.das's broad natural
We proposed the architecture of Gaud., we
atenci.n now focus on the advantages
arising from his aplicaci.n in the art of building
Because, as. as regular forms,
from the abstracci.n te.rica that
generates the subjectivity of human raz.n have
repeatedly failed to confront the
pr.ctica, these new forms, incorporated into the
architecture, entablar.n a lot m.s di.logo
fluid in man and the natural environment
they are located and which ultimately came from.
The advantages of this proposed natural geometr.a
by Gaud. offers, to contraposici.n
models derived from the geometr.a eucl.dea are
Five basic:
M.xima experience pr.ctica
The operating garant.a these forms
on experience involving trials
made by nature from the origin of
Appropriateness of behavior mec.nico
Another general quality of these natural forms
is that they have greater strength, stiffness and stability
that the flat surfaces com.nmente
used in the composici.n arquitect.nica. This
is due to its own geometr.a, which makes
m.s resistant to any kind of effort and
any direcci.n, thanks to its double curvature
in space.
If we perform this simple exercise
peque.a deposit a matchbox on a
paper supported at its ends will note
that an appreciable deformaci.n
sheet. However, if prior to rest
the box of matches, curved sheet of paper
upward, which may occur deformaci.n
to support it again is priceless. Between
both trials. nicamente the disposici.n var.
geom.trica adopted by the support element,
In the second case includes a curvature.
This simple change, which generates so different
structural reacci.n is due to the form factor
which, incidentally, tend to obviate the HONORED
c.lculos systems of building structures.
A trav.s of time, architects and
builders, moved by the af.n to overcome
scope of their roofs and the consecuci re.idos
. N mastod.nticas structures, used
this simple and often invaluable exercise in
ejecuci.n of b.vedas with one. nica curvature.
The structures proposed by Gaud., And
. Tv instance by the nature of adem.s
incorporate a second curvature opposite to
above, look for identificaci.n geom.trica of
resisting elements to the layout generation
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
two by falling loads in the space, which
leads to the efficiency s.ntesis mec.nica,
where m.ximos adem.s of the results achieved
in econom.a of materials. hese offer
the expressiveness m.xima precisely to work
much m.s pr.ximos their l.mites el.sticos,
that is simply what happens to the stems
of a plant or animal bones.
We have seen that these natural forms were endless
and continuous in space. Continuity
gives them an advantage over the Eucla forms .-
ideas to be analyzed in two ways
different, one formal and one structural.
Formal continuity means that these forms
embody the transici.n without bankruptcy between different
geom.trico-space requirements, or
said colloquially, which have no or v.rtices
And this is an advantage because, as
Bramante Dec. referring to the pitfalls
found during the compositional
composici.n the cloister of Santa Mar.
Peace in Rome, the architecture is a problem
corners. Indeed, the continuous solutions
have always been sought after by architects,
knowing that the joints and
encounters between different elements and systems
are those that generate more headaches
in the development of their work.
Thus, for example, the spatial uni.n
of two lines will have any. as soluci.n
continuing the hyperbolic paraboloid geom.tricamente
. Lico. Y. This is a very com.n premise in
construcci.n buildings, where to find a
continuous area of paraboloid hiperb.lico
suffice., for example, from an outline
trapezoidal both plan and elevation.
On the other hand shows the structural aspect
this continuity.
This means that the structural continuity
mec.nico work of these figures is geom.tricas
homog.neo m.s aqu.l much that we could find
in the regular forms, suprimi.ndose by
example, between elements of supporting distinci.n
and elements supported.
Obs.rvese the difference that can exist,
reducci.n making a two-dimensional plane
In an extreme case, including diagrams
efforts of a lintel p.rtico orthogonal
caten.rico arc. The heterogeneity of solicitations
sections affecting resistant
the former are extremely opposed, while
in the latter efforts are obtained
secci.n id.nticos for each, thanks to the continuity
geom.trica resistant element.
Easy ejecuci.n
Another property of these surfaces caracter.stica
is referred to simply generating
seg.n a line that moves in space
apoy.ndose in specific guidelines, as
which gives them ease of installation and makes it
suitable to be used in the construcci.n of
buildings, as sufficient. as a string. nico
redefinition element to generate surfaces
continuous double-curved in space, avoid
. NDOS the need sticks or complicated
Gaud. Sort commented on some ocasi.n
they themselves were amazed alba.iles
to observe the end result of these
if any raised surfaces despu.s
only with rules and string, which is
as always hab.an built the walls and
the b.vedas.
Formal Plasticity
Adem.s all this, these figures provide a
plasticity of form and some variations of expression
that create new feelings against
Boxing produced by repeated
orthogonal schemes places where
live and live. All this comes together,
adem.s, the new perceptions lum.nicas, ac.sticas,
But this language pl.stico s.lo not produce
new sensations, but the range adem.s
Approaching Gaud.
of possibilities is endless, because
these figures and the combinations
can get between them are endless.
But quiz. m.s important quality
new formal language is its relaci.n with
man, a man who, released from an environment
it is alien and hostile, now set
ours. The business daily, found half
m.s much in line with formal nature
he rode. since the beginning of its existence.
The key discovery
But if all this is ace. and these natural forms
Sort jam.s man used to construct
are m.s pr.cticas, efficient and perfect, Apor
qu. nobody noticed it before Gaud.?
and resides Àd.nde m.rito its discovery?
The explicaci.n to these questions lies in
three basic facts:
Difficulties in identificaci.n
These forms are regulated, despite being
its abundant examples in nature, very
hidden from our eyes, that is, we see
but not recognize them as such, and this
due to two reasons:
- Its generators are usually not present
sight, and as. we see a continuous surface
double curvature in the space in which we
unable to recognize the straight l.neas
Even in a paraboloid hiperb.lico by
example, to distinguish. nicamente family
of generators, it is impossible to simple
posici.n try to recognize the view of one of the
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
African termite Sagrada Familia
lines belonging to the other family of generators.
Be much higher. the difficulty of identification
. N geom.trica when not notice any
of such guidelines or generators, which are
geom.tricos elements we can tease
the identity of such figures.
- Being a boundless, the
descriptive geometr.a has consistently represented the
limited by generating and guidelines
which does not occur in nature, where
their l.mites are often irregular, if not
merge with other surfaces.
The limitations and difficulties in the identification
. N geom.trica of these figures the super.
Gaud. with his brilliant and acute intuici.n
visi.n space, educated from both peque.o
observaci.n in nature as in the
calderer.a workshop of his father.
Difficulties for control
Despite its simple generaci.n, these figures
dif.ciles are imagining and managing the
space even for architects.
If you find difficulties in monitoring
geom.trico in our projects working with
orthogonal systems we apply the
m. away di.drico learned the system of
plans, sections and elevations, many m.s ser.n
which arise when working with these surfaces
cont.nuamente changing in space.
But. Tambi.n his is a problem of Education
. N that Gaud. super. when working with models
at both of its buildings as fragments
or details that propon.a study. Of
Thus, Gaud. cast their buildings in the
same medium in which then would build,
ie the space of three dimensions.
Approaching Gaud.
Eucalyptus tree with a single model of the Cologne G.ell.
Lack of symbolism
These figures are not of the burden est.n Sym
. Lica since ancient times affecting the
s.lidos regular, which can make them seem
devoid of meaning.
The square, tri.ngulo the c.rculo or
area, to name a few, have been
linked in each civilizaci.n about symbolism
very specific and defined. If this is combined
the fact that these new figures have
a convoluted name, because he
trav.s them to complicated equations
matem.ticas, rejection can be l.gico
who have suffered at the hands of architecture
The architecture of Gaud., With grounds,
not intended to impose certain forms
to build them from now, but
aqu.llas accommodate the proposed l.gica each
case, with natural laws,
either that of gravity, the mec.nica, etc.,
that instead of raising successive obstacles, is
become allies of the constructor.
The Gaud arquitect.nica s.ntesis ..
A cry of freedom that the future desaf.a
Analyzing the component Despu.s geom.trica
proposed by the architecture of Gaud., it must
give a simple and concise explicaci.n us
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
Stalactites in the caves of Drach (Porto Cristo) Temple of the Sagrada Familia seg.n J. Rubi. i Bellver (1906)
possible to understand the reasons. last of this
to do so.
This explicaci.n should be outside the
est.tica criteria and the principles derived
history of architecture, while
should be applied to a future visi.n supported
at the present time.
Gaud. repeated. on numerous occasions that
originality consists in returning to the source, and this
she found home. in nature as a teacher
of all sciences and arts.
Our Western culture has lived since
ancient times, but in a much m.s
evident from the Renaissance, a per.odo
based and based solely on the raz.n.
This means that man and his reasoning
have been the focus and point of reference for
the development of our civilizaci.ny to them
have been conducted and devoted all efforts.
But the current situaci.n in deep crisis
at all. Mbit, required to take new referrals,
this time beyond our own pride
and understanding that have led us to a
ilusi.n lacking at present for the future.
The reference is proposing the work of
Antoni Gaud. is therefore the inspiraci.n in nature.
This inspiraci.n in nature does not arise
as a rom.ntico sue.o absent from reality
daily, it is to work
through deep observaci.n models
tested nature for millions
of a.os for, making the m.ximo their experience,
wise be able to read lessons
welfare, or reducci.n econom.a costs,
repeated expressions so today.
To do so, however, we must let go
several centuries of culture, it should be. slow
and dif.cil, but should be done as it is est.
doing with the new voices that speak of ecology
. A in contraposici.na an unbridled tecnolog.a
da.os causing irreparable damage to nature.
Here. have been expressed about constructive ways
no new conflicts relating to
natural laws which inevitably estar.n
Tambi.n has been how are you forms are
radically opposed to those who have come
Approaching Gaud.
Santa M.nica Coast (California)
using so far and have failed
satisfy our deepest longings m.s.
Modern architecture developed during
this century has made a commendable effort
aimed at dispossessing all our buildings
unnecessary to show a sincere way the
m.s structure. ntima of them. Step
include the following. in adapting these structures
natural laws where they operate and
in a purified in equ.voco produced what
previous styles.
Now you try., Therefore, further investigation
of these issues and our aplicaci.n
daily tasks let alone so m.s
te.rica abstract beauty, functionality or
econom.a as opposing concepts, but
as different manifestations of one. nica
really made for everyone. universal scope
that comes a unique and appealing cry of freedom
that desaf.a the future: that of Antoni Gaud. i
Cornet, amazing artist and creator of forms
m.s all. consideraci.n all cr.tica.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
G.ticas structures to Gaud.
Gustavo Garc.a Barge.
The architecture of Antoni Gaud. has much
to do with the g.tico and, in particular with the
concepci.n mec.nica structural constructions
Those thought first cathedral builders
to any concept est.tico effectiveness
mec.nica in their buildings and in this way,
fought a great battle against the laws of
stability dictated by nature, testing
of which are the monuments magn.ficos to
trav.s of history have survived.
That is why the structural adequacy
its construction is coming., albeit
intuitive, experimental, solutions
mec.nicas using for millions of
a.os natural models such as plants,
animals or geol.gicas formations, which
m.s are as perfect as possible in each case
But this approach to solutions .- id
lines arising from the nature has not yet come. its culmination
. N in that. Little by lack of some
cient.ficos knowledge on the laws of
mec.nica as formal expressions
lowering of loads for the space, now
know from the est.tica gr.fica, or geom
. Psychiatric conditions, such as the possibility of incorporating into
construcci.n new formal concepts
now controlled by descriptive geometr.a
and that deviate from the models te.ricos
eucl.dea geometr.a derivatives, which has
been the foundation of all styles arquitect.nicos
from the third century C. until today.
Antoni Gaud., This young man come from Reus,
Oel learned to read the great book of naturalezaÓ,
As. l called it, some wonders,
once translated into the language arquitect.nico,
brought those buildings proposed
m.s culminaci.n medieval to absolute.
The materializaci.n pr.ctica of these principles
carried out since the beginning of our century
construcci.n Expiatorio the Temple of
Sagrada Familia.
Gaud. and architecture g.tica
In the Europe of the late nineteenth century corr.an a
air of romance that they identified two
fundamental current:
On the one hand, Orientalism, who longed for
lejan.a and wonderful and exotic cultures
ignored. But while the architects HONORED
limited their imitaci.n of Orientalism to
mud.jares forms and Nazarene, Gaud. for r. in
the Far East, where he incorporated. to
the brilliant architecture artisans work
unworked iron or stone, dragons, the fascinating
roofs of their buildings and, especially,
ornamental abundance and strong sense
pol.cromo architecture.
The second stream was named rom.ntica
neogoticismo, which sought to bring out
medieval mysticism again. But while
the contempor.neos Gaud. took this neogoticismo
as a rom.ntico sue.o represented
in the form of medieval ruins swallowed
vegetaci.n and ba.adas by the soft light
the moon, the architect of Reus establishment. a
pr.cticos set of principles that led to
Gaud. and neogoticismo
m.s that afternoon has been called the superaci.n
the g.tico.
However, outside these affinities
hist.ricas, the architecture of Gaud. shares a
series of fundamental caracter.sticas the philosophy
. To that followed in their procedures
those builders of cathedrals, as follows:
The conceptions outside actuaci.n
Seg.n this, how to build does not fit
a predetermined fee or is influenced by
ideol.gicas currents, before which always prevail
. functional suitability.
The basis for the development is sought in the
experience. By not rely on abstractions
te.ricas precedent, the product of the experiences
acquired stands as the fundamental tool
work. Therefore, we know that the. Little
ca.an medieval cathedrals and those that
we can see today, partly due its stability
to which disappeared for us.
Tambi.n known by the cr.nicas of that
. M.s little that monuments were fant.sticos
performed under the baton of arquitectosconstructores
very old age, when
fruits of this empiricism were the greatest degree
The architecture has a strong sense
And as., Of this we have no plans per.odo g.tico
or treatises on architecture, but cathedrals.
The solutions correspond to a
car.cter espont.neo intuitive. Ace it, ignorance
some principles cient.ficos
was not obst.culo to, little by little, to be gaining
field to the difficulties posed by
mec.nica laws. Aires, many of the solutions
taken by those builders,
even if they were based on principles cient.ficos
then unknown, approached
. Emp.rica hese so, the result of intuici.n
Transcendent meaning of architecture
These constructs seek, above all,
sublimaci.n of esp.ritu, and this is undeniable
before the impressive contemplaci.n
results achieved. What is est. raising
is nothing other than the house of God,
Supreme Creator of all things, and
get this company to use. uni.n of the
all wills and all empe.o
For. Last of them, these manifestations architectonic
. Niques, although generated in a way emp.rico
and meaning-based pr.ctico, spontaneity and
intuici.n, s.lidos arguments based est.n
All these coincidences and similarities between
g.tico that art and architecture of Gaud. them
took them both to move toward the principles
mec.nica natural, where it always
what Gaud. repet.a often their
friends: Ola beauty is the splendor of truth
Ó. A truth that is founded on the principle
achieve natural effectiveness m.xima
m.nimo with the use of effort or, in this
case, the resistance to m.nimo m.xima material
placing. Only Member precise elements
and none m.s to ace. get some
arquitect.nicas structures that precisely
to work to their potential mec l.mite .-
niques, have the expressiveness m.xima pl.stica.
The news g.ticas
The architecture of the cathedrals built. about
new concepts to their buildings if
may well have an origin in the distant m.s
time, it was then found their
m.ximo splendor. Son. Hese:
The pointed arch utilizaci.n
Although, like the arches HONORED, is
atr.s long origin in Pr.ximo
East finds its full development per.odo
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
The pointed arch is an intermediate step between
semicircular and parab.lico.
Geom.tricamente is formed from the first
seg.n two arcs of circumference equal
and sim.tricos about a vertical central axis of
radius greater than the semiluz and whose centers est.n
l.nea located on the boot.
But their behavior approaches mec.nico
m.s much to parab.lico, in the case of
murados arches, because its layout is m.s
l.nea pr.ximo the pressure that causes
natural decline of charges in these cases.
This ogee elecci.n is intuitive
bas. simply in pr.ctica comprobaci.n
that produces less thrust than a semicircular
but without knowing for sure why
. This fen.meno or SER.A the expresi.n cu.l
m.s formal perfect in this regard.
The utilizaci.n of pillars and walls casts
to achieve in light incorporaci.n
This new disposici.n has a very relaci.n
directly to the transcendent meaning of architecture
already mentioned and provoke. utilizaci.n of the
new aids to counter
thrust produced by the b.vedas.
The disposici.n of flying buttresses and buttresses
act.an that effect nullifying the efforts
b.vedas arches and horizontal.
These elements were growing in complexity
constructions as in the hac.an
height, thanks to that achieved
m.s increasingly striking.
The utilizaci.n of nerves and key b.veda
as elements of articulaci.n.
These parts of buildings were badly g.ticos
understood until early this century, and
that conceb.an as structural joints,
when your study has shown that it is
joint working. nicamente level
constructive and formal.
This means that the veins that have
these buildings are not, as believed., elements
sustaining the b.vedas but act.an to
interim mode during the process centering
constructive moment at which the
homogeneity of the group also makes
resistant to each other constructive elements.
These findings are due in part to
observaci.n of the effects produced by
bombing of the Great War on some
monuments, which constat.ndose emp.ricamente
b.vedas hit by the projectiles are not
ruined just about losing the case
support their veins. Recent M.s are
photoelasticity studies, whose conclusions
direcci.n tambi.n at this point.
But articulaci.n adem.s of constructive
these are formal joint tambi.n
between different paths-and therefore
cove-b.vedas bows and acting as
ÒtapajuntasÓ parts delivery or in meetings
between cuts in different directions.
These four new construction of
g.tico art, Gaud. replied. with as many assumptions
which are the superaci.n of that
medieval architecture.
The superaci.n of g.tico
The proposal for the new architecture Gaudí
is embodied in the following principles:
The arc utilizaci.n parab.licos
and caten.ricos
It is precisely this goal, or caten.rico parab.lico,
formal expresi.n l.nea of pressures
defines the natural decrease in space charge
and soluci.n of continuity with the Gothic,
proposing a model for the new
The parab.lico serve. for arches murados
and caten.rico for free, or what is the
same in each case form. seg.n the fun.cula
resulting charge status to which it is
subject, which does not impose a expresi.n
given formal.
Gaud. and neogoticismo
However, the arc parab.lico or catena .-
rich have, from time atr.s, with two apparent
pitfalls in the eyes of architects and
builders, which have deprived them of being present
in their buildings and were already
As commented by Rondelet treatise. The
First is the absence of formal conjunci.n with
arquitect.nicos other elements, and the second
lack of verticality in its base or tangency
between the support and startups.
The first problem is solved under
formal proposal of a new stretch-
all the work and based on the geometry utilizaci.n
. To rules that Gaud. discovered. in nature.
The second point leads directly to
The inclined pillars utilizaci.n
This new premise is a direct result of
absorci.n systems utilizaci.n efforts
geom.trica identificaci.n seeking elements
sustaining the pressure l.neas
causing the lowering of loads.
The sustaining element of the structure
transports the action from the elements
cover to the cimentaci.n has been identified
always, in the construcci.n arquitect.nica,
l.nea with the vertical, either in the form of walls or
This asimilaci.n may be because
vertical l.nea is simple m.s expresi.n
acci.n gravity. However, in HONORED
cases not true ace. naturally, and
composici.n that the forces that originate
construcci.n either a result is not
l.nea final one vertical.
Just as occurs in nature,
where they rarely find geol.gicas structures,
plants and animals supported by brackets
strictly vertical. This desviaci.n respect
from the vertical supports natural elements
is due to the geom.trica disposici.n
same element, which requires offset
claims arising out of your way or actions
din.micas that act.an on. l it. An example
the first case the trunk of a SER.A. tree
with thicker branches and foliage in some
orientaci.n or paws of an animal with great
weight in the head, and second, the trunk of a
. Acci.n tree exposed to a continuous
prevailing winds or the support moment.neo
leg of an animal in motion.
The proposal to work with Gaudí
inclined columns, we have been contemplating the
soluci.n of continuity between the different elements
structural work, giving as. response
the old lack of contact cuesti.n
between support and arc and eliminating even b.veda
the l.mites between them, as they now do not distinguish
., Formal or mec.nicamente, between elements
support and supported. This continuity
passes through the eliminaci.n natural artifices
correctors used previously and which caused
geom.tricas discontinuous solutions.
The buttresses and flying buttresses supresi.n
The habit of working with vertical pillars
always forced to have aids,
as the buttresses and flying buttresses in
g.tico case, to correct the deficiencies
arising from this disposici.n, ie the impossibility
to stop the thrust produced by
bows and b.vedas.
Gaud. Dec. buttresses that were
Òmuletas of g.ticoÓ, emphasizing ace. with iron.a
artifice that car.cter Sort them assigned.
In the new proposal these elements disposici.n
completely disappear, since the problem
that has been attacked cleanly resolv.an
since its origin and naturally.
Supresi.n of nerves and key b.veda
Now take this new disposici.n exposed
up here. content for a structural system
in a plane and make your space extrapolaci.n
Parab.licos arches, which in desplazar.n
seg.n other par.bolas other directions, c.rculos
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
or straight, dar.n rise to the hyperbolic paraboloid .-
licos, or b.vedas revoluci.n paraboloids of
ca .. n followed parab.lico profile, respectively.
Tambi.n paraboloid can be reached
hiperb.lico, and being. com.n m.s case, by
uni.n space of two whose fun.culas p.rticos
lines are not parallel because they have different
loading conditions.
Thus, formal continuity
Sort achieved across the bow, their support
and their supports, is transported to the disposici.n
space of some areas no longer need
. N elements of delivery, transici.n or reinforcement,
such as nerves or b.veda keys.
Adem.s this, this continuity geom.trica
arquitect.nica the new proposal will come.
pl.sticas acompa.ada new expressions,
ac.sticas and lum.nicas.
The key to understanding this proposal
of the g.tico superaci.n is precisely
the consecuci.n simply a structural system
compressed based on fen.menos
natural, ensures total continuity
the whole of the work.
Podr.a said that the premise of work
compressed structures is simply
a limitaci.n, but as we have
construct under the action covered by the law
of gravity and that means putting building
one element over another, which no todav.a
have changed. sta be. l.gica way of
lift buildings.
Dec. Bramante, referring to
compositional pitfalls encountered during
composici.n the cloister of Santa Mar.
Peace in Rome, that architecture is a problem
corners. Indeed, the continuous solutions
have always been sought after by architects,
knowing that the joints and
encounters between different elements and systems
are those that generate more headaches
in the development of their work.
The natural fen.menos, example. Last of
Gaudi's proposal, s. have that continuity.
When you throw a stone into the air
it is impossible to prevent. sta describe, in
their movement, a trajectory. unique and continuous.
This is the simplicity and at the same time sabidur.a
that this proposal seeks to relationship arquitect.nica
. N to an art, the construcci.n g.tica that
is chosen as seed to be taken to the
arquitect.nica culminaci.n because, lacking
prejudices Search. in a way pr.ctica
the sublimaci.n of esp.ritu.
Gaud. and neogoticismo
G.tico, neog.tico and Gaud.
Juan Bassegoda Nonell
In the seventeenth century is growing. the masoner.a to imitaci.n
builders of the medieval guilds, and
eighteenth century the Templars reinvented and revived
g.tico in the art form neog.tico.
False ruins in large gardens g.ticas
Palace of Arkadia in Poland,
Sch.nbrunn in Austria or Stowe in England
were evidence of this feeling melanc.lico
of car.cter rom.ntico rigorously contemporary
. Neo of the great works cl.sico own style
of nascent nationalism in Prussia
United States, France and Italy.
Neog.tica architecture, especially in
nineteenth century, was a new style something
Ten. g.tico to do with, but not much.
The neo-catholic in Great Breta.a and
g.ticos monuments conclusi.n aut.nticos
neog.ticos systems gave many examples
this way of understanding a medieval style.
The terminaci.n of the Cologne Cathedral
between 1840 and 1880, 1 the facade of the cathedral
Florence, the architect Emilio de Fabris,
(1808-1883) in 1878, the competition for the imafronte
Mil.n's Cathedral, and the facade
most of the Cathedral of Barcelona (1887-1890) 2 up
a good bunch of examples. Pugin and
Scott in United Breta.a and Abadie and Viollet-le-Duc
in France were, adem.s architects, essayists
and disseminators of a style based on the
study of the monuments g.ticos then
construct new buildings in a style
that being imitated, never succeeded. look
actually the original.
The te.ricos the studied neog.tico
forms, ie the g.tico morfolog.a, and
moved into their projects, but, gradually,
a.adieron him and composici.n simetr.a elements
m.s rather rare in architecture
On the other hand, the rationalist teor.a
Viollet-le-Duc bas. their faith in structures
g.ticas composed of independent elements
which together determinar.a a perfect system
The loads from the covers
transmitir.an to b.vedas t.mpanos of the
which, trav.s of nerves, to llevar.an
buttresses and these foundations. It was the idea,
Conversely, a structure previously met.lica
calculated, in which the resistance elements
are beams and pillars j.cenas. Then
enclosing walls and floors are simple
fillers. Viollet Seg.n the t.mpanos,
walls and other components without
structural misi.n podr.an be erased without
danger to the stability of the building.
The major came in ocasi.n desenga.os
of the Great War, when the shelling
French German g.ticas on churches
that shattered nerves, no flying buttresses and pillars
caused the total destruction of the edificios.3 Another
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
1. Peters, H. Der Dom zu K.ln. Verlag L. Schwann
D.sseldorf, 1948.
2. Bassegoda, J. Els i les hores treballs's Cathedral
Barcelona. Reial Acad? My Catalana de Belles Arts de Sant
Jordi, Barcelona, 1995.
unfortunate experience in this regard was the war
of Espa.a between 1936 and 1939. A projectile
artiller.a performative. the Santa Mar. b.veda
Balaguer, Destroy. a nerve and the structure is not
cedi .. In July sacr.legos fire
1936 saw the b.veda c.mo ribbed ogival
fourfold over the church choir
Santa Anna lost in Barcelona., Because of
fire, the four nerves without the accused b.veda
the slightest movement. In the chapel
Blood of the parish of Santa Maria del Pi, the
fire burns. totally baroque altarpiece and made
t.mpanos down the nerves and the b.veda g.tica,
but built on the floor remained in their
hormig.n place thanks to the lime mortar and pieces
of which filled the embocaduras.4 alcaller.a
Tambi.n te.ricos aspects of teor.a
Viollet rationalist were discussed, especially
in the doctoral thesis of Pol Abraham
1934.5 Several aspects of pseudo-rationalism
were discussed in the Report of Buenaventura
Must Bassegoda. for the Academy of
Barcelona Science 1944.6
M.s recently (1986), studies
Lloveras Montserrat Joaqu.n Architect Doctor
on the proportions and measures used by
g.ticos architects, and especially the use
that made the squad for determining the
tama.o of blocks and segments, have provided
much light on the cuts g.ticos apparently
irregular but always trained
piece whose sides are m.ltiplos of the squadron,
either of its long arm, the short or
thickness of both. The neog.ticos used as
is.domos general gear, which jam.s room .-
n fact the medieval builders, so that
neog.tico contemplaci.n a wall never offers
perceptible appearance of a wall g.tica
aut.ntica. The research of Dr. Lloveras
have led him to locate different. Bacos
incised stone sill of the cloister
Barcelona Cathedral that were used by
medieval teachers to identify
measures of blocks and segments.
The Levantine g.tico
It is well known that the forms home g.ticas
n.rdico penetrated very different way
Le.n and Castile, and Catalu.a and Valencia. The permanent
Roman influence and climatic conditions
. Catal.ny g.tico cies made the Valencian a
g.tico horizontal, as opposed to the vertical
n.rdica. But not only was the horizontal
property. nica of sure.o g.tico but tambi.n the
simplicity and cleanliness of their structures.
The plant in Santa Mar. Del Mar,
Barcelona, like a draft Mies van der
Rohe, the purity and simplicity of its design. The
quadripartite b.vedas central nave fall
in a square of 11.50 meters on each side, almost
bas.lica like a Roman.
Things like the abbot's room Mengucho
in the monastery of Poblet, the Church of the Poor Clares
Pedralbes, the presbytery of the Cathedral
Tortosa, the nave of the Cathedral of Girona or three
Castell parish. d'Emp. Ries, are pieces
This unique special g.tico prefers
buttresses to the flying buttresses and roofs
Rasilla to wood and tile roofs.
The neog.tico catal.n
From Jos. Casademunt lift. plans
g.tica church of the convent of Santa Caterina7 and
Construct. Sagrat the neog.tica of Cor de Sarri. in
1860 Jos through. Oriol Mestres Esplugas,
he directed. the works of the seo imafronte
Gaud. and neogoticismo
3. Gilman, R. "The teor.as g.tica architecture."
Architecture and Construcci.n. Yearbook Construcci.n
for 1922. Barcelona, 1922.
4. Bassegoda, J. The popular cer.mica architecture
g.tica. Ediciones de Nuevo Arte Thor, Barcelona, 1983.
5. Abraham, P. Viollet-le-Duc et le m.di.val rationalism.
Vincent, Fr.al & Cie, Paris, 1934.
6. Must Bassegoda., B. Some tests t.cnica
edificatoria. UPC, Barcelona, 1974.
7. J. Casademunt. Santa Catalina. Imp F. Gir., Barcelona,
Barcelona between 1887 and 1890, Juan Martorell
Montells, author of the best neog.tico catal.n with
the churches of the Adoration and salts in
Barcelona, the parish and Castellar Portbou
the Vall? M.ximo s and the College of Sant Ignasi
Sarri., Francisco P. del Villar y Lozano, with
Initial proposals for the Holy Family and
College Church of Sant Miquel, Camilo
Gensana Olivares, in the parish project
Santa Anna de Barcelona; Jos. Puig i
Cadafalch, in the chapel of Sant Sant.simo
Juli. Argentona and the project for the Virgin of
Luj.n in the province of Buenos Aires, until
Manuel Vega March, author of the project
Parish of San Juan de Arucas in Gran Canaria
(1909), all were outstanding representatives of
neogoticismo never inspired. on copies
catal.n g.tico aut.nticos the fourteenth-century
XV, but rather in m.s Viollet figurations.
The neog.tico Gaud.
Gaud. was a devout admirer of Juan Martorell
Montells, collaborators. with this master
architect works and works of the Salesians
(1885), the church of the Jesuits in Casp Street
(1883), the draft of the Benedictine convent
Celestino Villaricos (Almer.a, 1882)
in the works of Comillas (Santander, 1885), in
the initial work of the Holy Family when
by indicaci.n Martorell, it happened. to
Francis P. del Villar in 1884, and in the long
discusi.n Martorell on the draft, drawn
by Gaud., for the facade of the cathedral
Barcelona in 1882.8
The result of this was the incorporaci.n relaci.n
violletianos elements in the draft
Gaud. while in contact with
Martorell. There is no known specific form of
Project Villaricos church, which
Dec. R.fols9 that Gaud. called. Cathedral
Villaricos, but it is known that he was fully neogen
. Tico, responding to all the principles
governing composici.n of salts, with the altar
in the middle of the cruise.
The decoraci.n of the chapels of the colleges
of Jes.s-Maria in Sant Andreu del Palomar and
Tarragona (1880) and the Salt of the Cent
City Hall (1888) are good
neogoticismo examples of the way
Martorell. The same goes with the Chapel
San Jos. in the crypt of the Sagrada Familia.
However, clear evidence of this m.s
style is on the floor of the Temple Expiatorio
Holy Family, signed by Gaud. in
March 1885 and was not located in the
Sant file Mart. Proven? als to
1990.10 This is a church with b.vedas g.ticas
quadripartite and bell towers in front of
the doors of the main façade and the transept,
as happens in the salts.
This interesting project deserves comment,
A. Ó since a despu.s to assume
direcci.n of the works of the Holy Family
Gaud. En route a totally different
that of Francis P. del Villar, much in the
l.nea forms of Martorell.
Even much later m.s advised. restorations
following the esp.ritu neog.tico on
Alejandro Soler draft and March for
Cathedral of Santa Maria de la Aurora de Manresa
(1915), or the ideas for the neighborhood g.tico of
Barcelona, on the occasion of unrealized monument
James I (1908) or suggested covers
for the Cathedral of Mallorca (1910).
The superaci.n of g.tico
Gaud. consider. as always g.tico m.s
structural styles and despised the
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.
8. James Aymar. L'architect Joan Martorell. Tesi doctoral
in?? dita. Universitat de Barcelona, (1994).
9. J. F. R.fols. Gaud .. Canosa, Barcelona, 1929.
10. Bassegoda, J. "The first project of Gaud. Per a
Holy Fam.lia. Temple. Barcelona, novembre, desembre
Renaissance architects, who branded
decorators, but its perfectly conoc.a
defects, as. ortop.dicas and solutions
with which the medieval builders tried
remedy them.
If the arch has a tendency to open
the key is not obliged to fill m.s
heavy material in the spandrels thirds
to reverse the trend, or placing mass
b.veda key components that provide a
efforts to offset vertical inclined
of the arches uni.n c.rculo warhead.
The butt ends of the arches, transverse or perpia
. I, component bowed, trying g.ticos
picking them up with the flying buttresses, arch botarete,
abutment pier, pin.culos and buttress. To the
least that cre.an them, but even as. outside
for Gaud. was not without a lot
place the elements outdoors, exposed to
With its clear reasoning l.gicos,
Gaud. propon.a replace warheads by catenary and
by pillars sloping buttresses.
The g.ticos emp.ricamente worked without
predimensioning power structures through
the c.lculo, and quite done with the use of
crucer.a b.vedas of veined and complex
in.tiles often buttresses te.ricamente. tiles,
but ineffective in pr.ctica.
Since the discovery of the ecuaci.n
the catenary in the late seventeenth century and its properties
mec.nicas, the architects had the occa
. N to rectify the mistakes of the medieval and
try to overcome the g.tico.11 However, there was
ace., the copying that followed neog.ticos
vantage style, dragging all his faults
In a structural system explicaci.n
Gaud. by one of his assistants
those attending the National Congress
Architects of Barcelona in 1916, stated
that Gaud. plant. the problem arquitect.nico
with the concept of organizaci.n introducci.n
natural, which means that each element
m.s built with material appropriate to their function
. N and that its forms, rules and dimensions
are strictly required to achieve,
m.nimo with the effort and cost, the balance
and compliance with the requirements of
l.gica constructive. For this raz.n the buttress,
the flyer and pin.culos, considered
as essential elements of any system
and hence the simplistic notion of the elements
sustaining, provided rectil.neos and vertical
is replaced by other elements and complex
following presi.n curves when
This compression, as in the case of stones
and bricks. Ace disappears sensaci.n
Boxing depressive walls and
flat roofs offer and come to get not
s.lo great savings of materials and space, but
tambi.n a number of amenities adaptaci.n
est.ticos effects and not the flat surface
can dar.12
Therefore, what is proposed Gaud. was from
g.tico and correct the errors by
racionalizaci.n of the structure, to gather forces
using resistance elements orthogonal to the
direcci.n of them and using the geometr.a
rule rather than the Euclidean surfaces.
C.lculo The case of the structure for
G.ell colonial church in Santa Coloma de
Cervell. is a famous example of natural c.lculo
and espont.neo of the structure. Gaud., With s.lo
the help of Isaac Newton's law of gravity,
resolved, with absolute precisi.n, c.mo
should be the forms of the building without c.lculo
matem.tico whatsoever.
When Robert Mark13 analyzed. behavior
medieval structures by photo-
Gaud. and neogoticismo
11. Bassegoda, J. "Fest.n Arch." Proceedings of the Royal
Academy of Sciences and Arts. Third. Little, N.M. 847;
vol. XLVI, N.M. 20. Barcelona, 1986.
12. Bassegoda, J. "Schools of the Sacred Provisional
Family. "Bolet.n of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts
San Fernando, N.M. 79. Madrid, second half of 1994.
13. Mark, R. Experiments on Gothic Structure. The MIT
Press. Cambridge, Massassuchets, 1982.
elasticity, churches submitting profiles g.ticas
pl.stico facts at different pressures,
found. l.neas of presi.n c.mo the run to
along the catenary and not warheads.
In the structures of the Holy Family and
Provisional Schools Temple, in the
projects for the Colony Hotel G.ell or
Atraction New York, is very g.tico
distance, is s.lo starting point for a way
m.s to do much natural.
Major achievements and projects
Gaud. of. lately. little are in any case, much
m.s g.ticos that neog.ticos. Corrected. insufficient
g.tico l.gica by the structures of the
law of gravity demanded and he forgot. of
neogoticismo forms of purely formal.
When Alfonso XIII on a visit to the Holy
Family asked him. in Gaud. cu.l was the style of
Temple, the architect contest. "G.tico,
Majesty, "and then to one of his volvi.ndose
assistants, said: "He who wants to learn that
go to Salamanca ", meaning thereby not
Ten. wanted explanations. However, Gaud.
told the truth, evolved and passed g.tico
style is the best Gaud., not the neog.tico
nineteenth century.
The c.tedra of Antoni Gaud.


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