Friday, January 07, 2011


Tuesday, January 04, 2011

IJnsere Implementation showed, that tin Rn
Eurasia already early an important role
played, namely from the late 3. or beginning one
2. Jt.v. Chr., as the bearers of her
Okunev culture and the Sejma Turbino circle
for the first time tin bronze produced. Probably
already a little earlier, in the second half
of 3. Jt.v. Chr., the tin bronze won in
Mesopotamia and in Anatolia in meaning,
although it now and then still older ones
Documents might have given. In Südturkmenistan
if tin bronze steps for the first time in
Namazga to fV connections on, what to her
the first half and the middle of the 3rd mill. B.C.
and with it in Südsibirien still to the Aneolithikum
(Afanas'evo culture) corresponds; to
of that time there remains in the foothills Kopet-
Mountains, however, still completely isolates. Really
knowingly tin bronze becomes there only from period
NamazgaVTr, in possibly with Akkad-
Time in Mesopotamia to rymchronisieren
is. The springs of this earliest tin
of the second half of the 3rd mill. B.C. are currently
not yet found. Where from
the Okunev culture and the Sejma Turbino
Circle covered her tin, must also stay open.
Probably is from the exploitation local
To go out occurence, although
she cannot be proved yet. Only
for the next middle Bronze Age
of the first half of the 2nd mill. B.C. we know,
that the bearers of the Andronovo-Fedorovkaund
TazabagJab culture not only in numerous ones
To places on a large scale copper ore
promoted, but also won tin.
For the districts in the upper Irty5 in
in any case, today's Ostkazachstan this is
very probably, and for the beds
in the Zeravian valley succeeded us for the first time
for this time the direct proof mittelbronzezeitlichen
Of tin ore mining.
Which space with the tin from Karnab,
Lapas, Öangali and MuSiston was supplied,
is still unsolved currently. In any case
come up to now from Sapalli and DZarkutan
to beprobten tin bronze not from
the Lageistätten of the Zeravlan-Tales72, although
in the mining or metallurgist settlement
from Karnab-Siökonöi some import findings
(Ceramic shard, stone vessel fragment)
from the baktrischen space are given, what
on far-reaching distant relations close
leaves. Whether Medium Asian tin even Mesopotamia
and Anatolia reaches or
could have supplied, seems currently
hardly foreseeable and wrirde other analytic ones
Investigations assume. There
direct contacts between Andronovo-
To exclude culture and front East
are, the way to Medium Asian ones would be able
Of tin to the west - he really had to go
have gone there - anyway
only, intertrader" has occurred,
what is conceivable though, to itself currently, however
closer does allow to book.
7N Tu slag places and pits were discovered with geologic prospectus ions and within the scope of the project
, preislamic tin production in Central Asia" imJahre in 1999 from us visited and committed; besides
to achieved results should be presented in a separate report.
71 Chernykh 1s92,179.
72 friendly tips E. Pernicka; see moreover E. Pernicka undJ. Lutz in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia
II (in preparation).
From Hermann Parzinger, Ernst Pernicka and Gerd Weisserber
The search for the Medium Asian tin
and his meaning for the Bronze Age
of the close and the Middle East this was
Aim of the common research strains
within the scope of that of Volkswagen
Endowment of promoted project,] orislamische
Tin production in Central Asia",
this was carried out from 1997 to 1999.
Besides, the lagerstättenkundliche potential had to go
of the known districts on the one hand urn
Karnab, Lapas and Öangali in Uzbekistan
and, on the other hand, from Muiiston and Takfon
in TadZikistan in view of the early one
Exploitation of the tin occurence examines
In Karnab, Lapas and Öangali
(Uzbekistan) as well as in MuSiston (TadLikistan)
if excavations became in well-chosen
To shafts carried out. Ceramic findings
and lac data pointed, that the dismantling
Of tin ore in all these districts at the moment
the Andronovo-Tazabag J from culture occurred,
i.e. in the first half of 2. Jt.v. Chr.,
what to the middle Bronze Age in Siberia as well as
the late Bronze Age in Südturkmenistan
and Baktrien corresponds. It concerns
on this occasion, around oldest up to now confessed
and dependably to passé tin mines
Eurasiensl. In Karnab only one pit was able
up to the sole in 17.50 m Teufe exposed
become, with the other there stood the ground-water level
with 9.50 m under the surface
in. With the waste dump material were thousands
from stone hammers with countless ones
of her chipped off remains as well as
several dateable Andronovo - 'Iazabag' jab-
Shards in the Verfüllung of the old ones
Shafts get.
The investigation of the pits allowed
important observations to the production technology.
With Quzrz as a lode rock
and granite as a surrounding Nebengestein
if the prehistoric miners saw themselves
in Karnab as well as in Cangali already
in the surface with very hard rocks
confronts if they reach to the ore
wanted. In karstigen Lapas, where in one
Cave from the lime ore was diminished,
if the technology was apparently similar, if
one from numerous discovered there
To groove hammers goes out. Around in Karnab in
To win vein Teufe, one turned
the method of the fire putting in. Just
Granite is able on account of his crystalline ones
Structure well with heat worked on, i.e. crumbly
are made.
Probably one had the won one
Ore in the pit by means of blow balls
chops up and händisch or by means of washing
concentrates. Though became in the miner's settlement
from Karnab-Siökonöi metal
processed, however, slags, on the reduction
from tin ores could decrease,
if we did not discover. At least with
of the today's growth situation would be a smelting
only by wooden import been possible.
How the vegetation looked at the Bronze Age,
it is widely unknown. Fact is
but, that today the scenery stamping ones
and above all most archaeological ones
Reports covering loess only
after the Bronze Age was applied.
Therefore, smelting remains may overcast
The question after the meaning of the mining
from Karnab is able not overestimated
become. A Klopfstein from the nearby ones
simultaneous settlement from Karnab-
Siökonöi contained 0.78Vo tin; such the poor
Ore was not apparently processed.
1 A detailed publication within the scope of the project carried out montanarchäologischen,
lagerstättenkundlichen and archäometallurgischen works in the second tape of the final publication is in preparation:
The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II.
298 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
However, openly remains, how the prehistoric ones
Miners this could judge.
That it also substantially richer arch parts
has given, already in more prehistoric
Time were diminished completely, one points
Reading finding in close vicinity from pit
6/7with Karnab which contained nearly 22% of tin.
If one calculates the arch salary of the pit 6/1
high, under acceptance of the still measurable ones there
To tin salary of approx. 2Vo and one
Way strength of 10 cm, so this pit building has
from 30-m length and 15-m depth
about 1 tonne of tin delivered. How her unusual one
Narrowness in comparison to him
however, to other mines points, it belongs
to the poorer and smaller pits. Where
Way widths of more than 7-2 Rn seem,
have to go from a multiple of the metal salary
are gone out. In view of
of the countless mines in Karnab lets itself
estimate, that the district during them
Duration of his exploitation probably more than 500
Tonnes of tin had delivered. The tin amount,
in the whole region produces
became, exceeded with it absolutely the local one
Need by far, so that one to national ones
Trade may accept for which
also some imports from the settlement from
Karnab-Siökonöi speak.
After statement of the findings, predominantly
in the Andronovo Tazabagjab culture
belong, the dismantling of the tin ore happened
in the big style already in the first half
of the 2nd mill. B.C. radiocirque voucher data from
Charcoal and cinder extend the production duration
till the early 1st mill. B.C. Medieval ones
Data and ceramics book
the later attempt of a renewed use.
In the mines exposed by us
is not able to do this activity, nevertheless, considerably
have been, because no tracks
to ascertain from metal tools
were. Merely sound shards point, that
one the pits in that late time once more
committed, however, maybe they became even
as residential caves genuzt.
From both regions in TadZikistan
did not show only MuSiston old mining,
but Takfon. Moreover, were the tin salary
of the ores from Takfon relatively slightly, so that
to themselves the researches upon MuSiston concentrated.
There let themselves by a modern one
Tunnels also inside of the mountain
Tracks of old mining put out. All together
if 11 pits were examined, and
the excavations identified them as prehistoric.
One had them from the slope in
the mountain driven, them, however, straight away
given up to win ore, if at the side
was; widenings originated from it.
special situation, that the pits in
Mountain-internal today by a modern one
Tunnels are accessible, her investigation permitted.
Also in Mu5iston one worked with groove hammers,
although they - compared to
Karnab - in substantially lower number seem.
For fire putting to typical ones
to plump push structures nowhere became
observes. Occasional tracks
of metal tools indicate at those
Use there. In any case, pushes see
and some almost right-angled splitting
clearly after metal tools from. In
MuSiston became because of the fragile Nebengesteins
for safety reasons wooden stamp
sedately. The wood necessary in addition delivered
also even today till 3,000-m height
seeming awake-lovely, as big ones
Trees stands in a queue.
Shard findings let themselves, as in
to the uzbekischen districts Karnab and Lapas,
once more of the Andronovo Tazabagjab culture
assign. Radiocirque voucher data proved
even a partial even higher age than
in case of from Karnab, namely mainly
the turn of 3. zwm2. and the first half
of 2. Jt.v. Chr. This high date underlines
a possible early meaning
this bed. The special in her is,
that they Stannit (tin gravel, Cu2FeSnSa) in
Primary ore as a main mineral leads, a mineral,
this copper as well as tin as
Main parts contains. The ores from
of the oxidation zone are mostly either
in tin or in copper fortified, it
if all mixing proportions also, however, come
before. Glaze attempts proved, that
from these ores according to choice
Copper as well as tin and even bronze directly
could be won. The latter
becomes additional by - indeed, to undated
- Slag finding nearby
Of mine books, in the metal droplet
with up to 8% of tin were observed. With it
if at least a possible way is to
Summary 299
Discovery of the alloy of copper and
Tin indicated.
Also for MuSiston let itself miner's
Dismantling of tin ore since the early one
2. Jt.v. Chr. prove, however, a calculation
of the production amount develops
by far more difficultly than in Karnab, because by
the Inhomogenität of the oxidised ores and
the very irregular geometry of the bed
with theirs numerous small and
to the smallest little ways an average salary
can be determined not sensibly. In the contrast
to Karnab is fundamental in Muiiston
the use of the geochemical fingerprint
possibly, because from this ore
generated metal under his typical one
To trace elements also lead includes.
Indeed, a comparison of the trace element patterns proved
in combination with him
To of lead isotope relations in the ore with simultaneous ones
To artefacts from different ones
To sites of the discovery in the Zeravian valley (Da5ti Kozi)
and in Süduzbekistan (Sapalli Tepe,
DZarkutan) for the time being only negative results,
i.e. the raw material examined none up to now
Objects comes from Muöiston.
Extensive area celebrations in
bring near like other sphere of the districts
from Karnab, Lapas and Öangali as well as Muiiston
today led to the examination, that this
super day noticeable population picture at the earliest
the antiquity (4. Jh.v. Chr.-4 cent. A.D.)
belonged, quite predominantly, nevertheless, even
is only early-medieval and younger. This
is valid also for several Kurgane from the surroundings
from Karnab, from us dug out
became. In the centre of the today's place
Karnab, in immediate neighborhood
of the old shafts, rose mighty
Settlement hill. Though places Tellbildung
in those parts of Central Asia, the north and
eastward from Turkmenistan lie, only in
To course of l. Jt.v. Chr. one, namely mainly
in his second half. Still
if we checked the Besiedlungungsabfolge this
Of place with two stratigraphischen cuts,
they confirmed this picture: The lowest ones
Straten produced pit houses from
spätachaimenidisch-frühhellenistis of cher time
(KarnabI and II: 5.-2./1. Cent. B.C.), on which
Depositions of the whole KuSan time
(Karnab III V: l.-4 cent. A.D.) and
Of early Middle Ages (Karnab \tI), among other things with one
very well-preserved mucky connection with
two rows of loopholes, as well as younger ones
Rests (Karnab VII-\IIII) more Islamic
Time followed. Whether during the population time
this Tells still tin in the close
To mines it was diminished, has to go unclearly
remain, however, the meaning would be allowed
Of place at that time, primarily, with that
Crossroad of important distant ways in one of her
Main routes him, Seidenstrasse" for this
Cerium avian valley zusamm e N hän to.
The bronze-temporal mountain working-class estate
from Karnab-Siökonöi belongs against it to
to few prehistoric archaeological sites
in this region generally. Theirs as it were
accidental discovery in the profile of a geologist's cut
explains to Soviet time, why
prehistoric population leftovers, in the end
cursorily are hardly noticeable:
This establishment of the Andronovo TazabagJab
Culture from the first half
2. Jt.v. Chr. lay less than 1.20 m of mighty ones
and afterwards blown up loess deposition,
by she seals as it were
was. We met quite different relations
instead of this in the area around Muiiston
in: In the extremely precipitous hillside situations this
Prehistoric ones would have to themselves high mountain scenery
Settlement places can hardly receive,
should they one day have existed there.
The establishment of Karnab-Siökonöi
has as one with the tin dismantling in diesern
District coherent mountain working-class estate
to be valid. She became entire
dug out and delivers with it for the first time one
Image of the structure such more specified
Places of that time. She lay possibly
I km to the north of the tin bed and with it
in immediate neighborhood of the old ones
Pits. The cultural layer produced
Andronovo - 'fazabag' jab ceramics, how they nearly
identically also from the shafts from
Karnab and Lapas as well as from the mining
from MuSiston comes. All these places are able
with it about her finding material qaachronisiert
and in the first half of the 2nd mill. B.C.
are expelled. This also confirms them
Radio carbon dating: Four lac data from
Karnab-Siökonöi lie between 18.
and beginning 14. Cent. B.C., what the older one
Dates from the pits corresponds
and the simultaneousness this
Frrn dstellen zusätz.7ich absi ch ert.
300 tins of the Bronzezert in Central Asia I
The settlement of Karnab-Siökonöi left
only scanty tracks of firm building of a house,
sucked because rests of five huts. Half pit houses.
Fireplaces are numerous,
the possibly places pretend, in those
tent constructions or jurtenartige light constructions
none stood, archaeologically
clearer to tangible tracks left. Small-scale
stratigraphische sequences with fireplaces,
Pits or within the huts
indicate at a multiple, maybe
seasonal visiting of the place there and
seem less ftir a continuous one
Settlement about a longer Zeiffaum
to speak away. It is noteworthy,
that the fireplaces of different Phaserr
always concentrate at certain places,
the tents brw. Therefore, Jurten would be allowed
over and over again at the one and same place
have stood. This points to it,
that certain facilities within
of the settlement had a firm place, in such a way
that a stable internal whole organisation
of the establishment is to be supposed.
In the huts several were in each case
Fireplaces at the same time in company. The fillings
from two stoves clearly noticeable ones proved
To tin salary, even if only in low ones
Amounts, so that a metallurgist's broad
Function is to be accepted. For other stove
of the same construction one is able to do a similar one
Purpose suppose. In the settlement
if tin ore smelted was able really
have become. Unequivocal documents, like efi, va
Pot build. Fragments of it or
nevertheless, even metallic tin, did not become
discovers. Anyway one had tin bronze
moltenly, how a small ingot
and book downpour drop. However, also in
Karnab-Siökonöi secure rich in tin one
Arch lumps with up to tin BVo leave open
a processing of this ore in the establishment
close. Also they support this
Findings of numerous meal stones as well as one
remarkable concentration of quartz fragments,
probably together with the tin ore
- the Kassiterit seems preponderant here
in quartz ways - in the settlement reached.
An other quartz accumulation and
several blow stones are found, e.g., in the area
from house 3, so that also here an intensive one
Arch comminution are accepted
is allowed. Besides, concentrate here
most reductions and groove hammers
from limestone, so that at this point them
Production and/or use from
Hammering is to be supposed; groove hammers
became not only in the mining, but
also to the arch comminution uses. Besides
played of distant meal stones an important one
The role which seem also numerously,
particularly with the huts 3 and 53.
There can be no doubt, that it
itself with these huts around with the exploitation
the tin bed and with the first processing steps
of the won ore
in connection standing workshops traded
must have, what on a specified one
Metallurgist's settlement of the Andron ovo Tazabagjab
Culture in lbrnab-Siökonöi close
leaves. For it speak the comminution sound
Meal device, the analytic identification
from tin in the stove and the tracks
metallurgischer activity under Verwenduns
from arsenic copper and tin bronze. The situation
in the Siökonöi-Saj, about 1 km away from the mining,
might hang together with the Wasservorsorgung,
they to the life as
also to the arch processing was required.
The establishment was relatively small,
it are sure in the surroundings of Karnab
to suppose other such places.
Of course the entitled question positions itself,
which space with the tin from Karnab,
Lapas, Cangali and Muliston supplies
became. For this became suitable analytic ones
investigations carried out,
they, however, still to no unequivocal result
led. It is in this connection
but on it pointed out, that in that
Mining bzr, V. Metallurgist's settlement from Karnab-
Siökonöi some import pieces (ceramic shard,
Stone vessel fragment) from baktrischen
Space are given, what in far-reaching
Distant relations closes.
Bones of horse and camel from Karnab-
Siökonöi show ferneq that the necessary ones
Means of transportation to the Uberwindung bigger
Distances absolutely were available.
In addition, penetrated during them
the first half of the Z.Jt. B.C. several times Andronovo-
TazabagJab groups from Zerav-
5an-valley from by the Karakum desert to
Südturkmenistan and about the passports
Of Hissar mountains to Baktrien left before and
there graves and smaller AnsiedlurrSummary
to. The mutual relations were
so variously and intensely. But they up to now
from Sapalli and DZarkutan, two of the most important ones
to town-like establishments
j of ener time in Nordbaktrien, beprobt to en tin bronze
come with the present one
State of the analytic investigations apparently
not from the beds
Of ZeravSan valley. Therefore, it must stay open,
to what extent the bearers Andronovo-
Tazabag'jab culture with from you to promoted ones
Tin not only her own need
covered, but the tin about that
out also continuing discussing. The dismantling
from Karnab, Lapas, Öangali and Muöiston
falls, in any case, exactly in a period,
in the bronze in the Near East apparently
already use metal was. However, not
only there a high one existed accordingly
Need in tin, but also in that
further to the north to situated Eurasian steppes
and forest steppe zone between Enisej
in the east and the Urals in the west, where the outbalancing one
Amount andronovozeitlichen
Metal objects also from tin bronze made
was. The use of tin bronze
it reached there even till the preliminary one
frühbronzezeitlichen Okunev-or.
Sejma Turbino horizon of the outgoing one
3. and the beginning 2nd mill. B.C. zurückz.
With from the Volkswagen endowment to promoted ones
Project has succeeded for the first time,
to prove bronze-temporal tin mining
and to describe. Besides, it was
a special piece of luck, that with Karnab
still the settlement of the miners discovers
and completely are dug out
was able. With it important statements are to
Structure and organisation of the work possibly.
On all examined places these were
the bearers of the Andronovo TazabagJab culture,
they the mining and the processing
of the ores pursued.
With it the question is after the origin
However, of tin zvvar not relaxed, she has first
Time get a concrete background,
lagerstättenkundlich as
also bergbauarchäologisch3, to itself in them
cultural-historical development of Central Asia
and his neighbouring rooms allows to embed.
The search for Central Asian tin and its significance
during the bronze Age in the
Near and Middle East what the goal of collaborative
efforts in research that what conducted
in 1997-1999 within the framework
of the project "Pre-Islamic Tin Exploitation
in the Central Asia", a project supported by
the Volkswagen foundation. Thereby attention
what directed towards the potential of
ore occurrences in the known deposits of
Karnab, Lapas and Changali in Uzbekistan,
on one hand, and mush B sharp tone and Takfon in
Tadzhikistan, on the other, with reference
to their early exploitation.
Excavations were coach reeds out in selected
shafts in Karnab, Lapas and Changali (IJzbekistan)
ace wave ace in mush B sharp tone (Tadzhikistan).
Ceramic finds and tnc dates
showed that tin-ore exploitation occurred
in all thesis areas during the time of the Andronovo-
Tazabag'jab culture, i. e., in the
ridge helped of the 2'd millennium BC, which
corresponds to the Middle bronze Age in
Siberia and the Late bronze Age in southern
Turkmenistan and Bactria. Accordingly,
represented here ares the earliest known and
reliably dated tin mines in Eurasia.a in Karnab
only one pit could Be excavated to its
2 Parzinger in 2002.
and see the more detailed representation in the second tape of the final publication: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia
an A detailed publication is in preparation, that wants present the results of research on mountain archaeology, mining
and archaeometallurgy in the second volume of the final publication under the The tin of the Bronze Age headlines"
in Central Asia II" (Tin in the bronze A.qe of Central Asia II).
sole At 17.50 m depth, whereas elsewhere
ground water what already encountered At
9.5 m below the surface. In the mining debris
used to forecastle fill the old shafts thousands
of of hammer tone and countless of fragment
of even more, ace wave ace many datable
sherds of the Andronovo-Tazabag'jab culture,
were encountered.
Investigation of the pits enabled important
observations on techniques in ore exploitation.
In Karnab ace wave ace in Changali
prehistoric miners were confronted with
outcrops of very hard quartz ace the host
rock and granite ace the surrounding rock,
visible At the surface, when they attempted
to obtain the ore. Finds of many grooved
of hammer tone in the two-pronged mattock area of Lapas,
where ore what won from limestone in a
cave, indicate that the methods of working
were similar. Fire-setting what employed in
Karnab ace a means of mining down into
the ore bearing veins. Especially to granite,
with its crystalline structure, can effectively
Be treated by heat, becoming very friable.
The ore thus extracted what probably reduced
in size near the pit with the aid of
spherical of hammer tone and what concentrated
by hand picking and washing.
Although metal what worked in the mining
settlement of Karnab-Sichkonchi, no slag
what found that would indicate the reduction
of tin ores. In view of the present
sparse vegetation, ore dressing would only
have been possible by importing wood.
However, the child of vegetation present
during the bronze Age is largely unknown.
The fact remains, that the loess blanket that
characterises the land cape today while
concealing fruit juice archaeological evidence,
what deposited only anus the bronze Age.
Hence, remains of ore-workings may Be
concealed from view.
The question ace to the significance of
mining in Karnab can Be underestimated.
A pounder found in the nearby
Bronze Ag settlement of Karnab-Sihkonchi
contained 0.78Vo tin, i.e., too low a
content to Be worthwhile working. Yet, how
prehistoric miners were able to determine
the quality remains unanswered. A surface
find containing alp-east 22Vo tin, collected
close to pit 6/1 in Karnab, is in indication
that there must have been substantially ri-
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
cher ore deposits, that were extracted completely
during prehistoric times. In calculating
the possible amount of ore originally
present in pit 6/1, assuming a tin content
of 2% quietly determinable there in a veinthickness
of l0 cm, this pit with a length of
30 m and depth of 15 m could have supplied
approximately one ton of tin. However,
in view of its unusually narrow size, ace
compared to others, this pit is one of the
smaller and poorer examples. By contrast,
pits with a width of 1-2 m could have contained
many times ace much metal-ore. Considering
the innumerable mines in Karnab,
it can Be estimated that during the time of
exploitation, this area yielded wave over 500
of tone of tin. The amount of tin produced in
the entire region surely exceeded the local
demands to the extent that trade with other
regions took place, which is actually attested
by a few imported goods found in the settlement
The archaeological finds, mostly assigned
to the Andronovo-Tazabag'jab culture, show
that the principal period of ore extraction
already occurred during the ridge helped of the
second millennium BC. Radio coach voucher dates
gained from charcoal and ash show that
the duration of production lasted into the
early part of the ridge millennium BC. Medieval
dates and ceramics evidence later attempts
At mining. Yet thesis activities cannot
have been of great import, for no traces of
metal tools were identified in the mines studied
during our excavations. Only pottery
sherds show that the pits were used again
At this of later time, perhaps simply ace temporary
Of the two aforementioned regions in
Tadzhikistan traces of ancient mining were
found only in mush B sharp tone, but in Takfon.
Moreover, the tin content in ores from
Takfon what relatively loq and therefore research
concentrated on mush B sharp tone. There
traces of ancient mining were discerned in
one of the modern bilious ream extending
deep into the mountain. A totally of students
pits what investigated and determined to Be
prehistoric. Initially advanced into the
mountain from the slope, the pits were
quickly given up whenever lateral veins
could Be followed by widening. The exceptional
situation, in which older workings
Summarv 303
deep inside the mountain were maggot accessible
through a moulder gallery, facilitated
their investigation.
Grooved of hammer tone were utilised
in mush B sharp tone, although they were far fewer
in number than in Karnab. Rounded flow
features typical of fire-setting were observed
any, vhere. Occasional traces certificate
the use of metal tools, ace Th the appearance
of the embankment and alp-east rectangular connections
between different bilious ream. Wooden
supports were erected in mush B sharp tone ace a
safeguard against the crumbling rock. The
timber needed what provided by of state ofjuniper,
that today quietly grow to tree-size on
mountains up to elevations of 3,000 m
above sea level.
Similar to the Uzbek mining areas of Karnab
and Lapas, pottery sherds found in mush B sharp tone
indicate the Andronovo-Tazabag'ab culture
again. Some radiocoach voucher dates ares even
older than those in Karnab, predominating
in the time chip from the do gymnastics of the third
to second millennium BC to the ridge helped of
the second millennium BC. This early date
underlines the possible early significance of
this deposit. It is especially notable that the
presence of stannite (tin sulphides, Cu2FeSnSa)
in the primary ore constitutes the Main
mineral, one which is composed of both copper
and tin. While ores from the oxidation
zor'e ares mostly enriched deposits of either
copper or tin, mixtures of of all degree of ares present
ace wave. In smelting experiment - depending
on the particular ore selected - copper,
tin and even bronze could Be obtained
directly. Evidence of the latter what supplied
by a piece of slag, albeit undated,
found near the mine, that contained droplets
of metal with up to 8Vo tin. Perhaps
this find illustrates one way in which the process
of alloying copper with tin what 'discovered'
in prehistoric times.
Thus in mush B sharp tone mining activities for
tin ore can Be traced bake to the early second
millennium BC. However, in estimation
of the amount of metal produced has
proven more difficult than in Karnab; the
heterogeneity of the oxidised ores and the
very irregular geometry of the mine with
its many small, even minute, veins hinder
the calculation of a reasonable ave rage
just. Unlike Karnab, the use of geochemical
finger printing is possible for mush B sharp tone
in principle, because the metal produced
from the ore contains - among
other characteristic of element - lead. However,
initially comparisons of trace element
patterns in Combi nation with lead isotopes
ratios of the ores with ancient artefacts
from various sites in the Zeravshan valley
(Dashti Kozi) and in southern Uzbekistan
(Sapalli Tepe, Dzharkutan) have brought
negative results: none of the objects examined
were maggot from ores originating from
Mush B sharp tone.
Extensive field surveys in the vicinity and
in more distant surroundings of the mining
regions At Karnab, Lapas and Changali ace
wave ace mush B sharp tone led to the realisation,
that the settlement structure visible on the
surface today dates bake to antiquity (4Th
century BC - 4Th century AD) At the earliest,
the majority of remains coming from
the early medieval period or even later.
This applies to many of the health resort goose in
the area of Karnab that we excavated. A
mighty settlement mound dominates the
centre of present-day Karnab, in the immediate
vicinity of the old mining shafts. It
is a known fact that tells began to form in
those part of Central Asia, to the north
and east of Turkmenistan, during the 1't
millennium BC and especially in its second
helped. Nevertheless, we verified the settlement
sequence by two stratigraphic
trenches in the Karnab tell. The lowest
layers revealed pit-houses from late Achaemenid-
and early Hellenistic times (Karnab I
and II, 5'h-2nd/7 "'century BC), followed by
layers of the whole Kushan period (Karnab
III V, 1st-4th century AD), the early medieval
period (Karnab M), among others with
a wave preserved mud fortification flow with
two rows of loopholes, ace wave ace later remains
from the Islamic period (Karnab
VII-\III). Whether tin what mined in the
nearby pits during the time of settlement At
the tell remains open. The site, however,
must have hero some significance, primarily
due to its location At the crossroads of important
long-distance routes through the
Zeravshan valley, one of the Main branches
of the Silk Road.
By contrast, the miners' settlement At Karnab-
Sichkonchi is one of the few prehistoric
304 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
sites in the region. Its somewhat accidental
discovery in the profiles of a geological
sounding trench from Soviet times explains
the difficulties in recognising prehistoric
settlement remains on the surface very
wave: inhabited by the Andronovo-TazabagJab
culture in the ridge helped of the 2 "d
millennium BC, the site what covered and At
the seed time sealed out of vision by a 1.20 m thick
layer of aeolian loess. The situation differs
markedly in the area of mush B sharp tone, where
prehistoric settlement sites - had they indeed
ever been present there - would
hardly have been preserved on the extremely
steep slopes of the mountainous land cape.
The site At Karnab-Sichkonchi can Be regarded
ace a miners' settlement that what connected
with tin-exploitation in this mining
region. Excavated to its full extent, the site
is the ridge of that age to illustrate the structures
in look places of specialised activities.
It is located about 1 km north of the tin-ore
deposits, and therewith in the direct proximity
of the old pits. The cultural layer disclosed
pottery of the Andronovo-TazabagJab
culture, that is nearly identical to
that from the shafts in Karnab and Lapas ace
wave ace from the mines in mush B sharp tone. Thus,
all of thesis sites can Be synchronised and assigned
to the ridge helped of the 2'd millennium
BC. This is confirmed by radiocoach voucher
dates: four raC dates from Karnab-
Sichkonchi lie between the l8th and the beginning
of the 14Th centuries BC, a time chip
that corresponds to the of older dates from
the pits and affirms the contemporaneity of
the sites ace wave.
Remnants of houses At Karnab-Sichkonchi
were sparse and included traces of
five structures, thus semi-subterranean
houses. Hearths and fireplaces were very
common, and possibly Mark the place
where tents or yurtJike constructions -
otherwise hard to pinpoint archaeologically
- once stood. Spatially close stratigraphical
sequences within hearths, pits and sometimes
the houses indicate a repeated, perhaps
seasonal occupation of the site, and
less in habitation for longer periods of
time. It is noteworthy that fireplaces, /
hearths from different phases were always
found concentrated in specific areas, i. e.,
in places where tents or y'urts may have
been erected again and again. This implies
that certain structures had their fixed place
within the settlement, which would presuppose
a stable internal organisation of the community.
Several fireplaces found in each of the
structures had been in use At the sarrre
time. The fill of tlvo ovens had distinctly discernible
concentrations of tin. Although the
quantities were very small, it can nevertheless
Be assumed that the ovens' function involved
metal-working. The seed is to Be presumed
for other ovens displaying the seed
construction. Consequently, tin-ores could
have been smelted in the settlement. Yet,
clear evidence search ace crucibles or of fragment
thereof and metallic tin what
found. In any case tin bronze what smelted,
ace evidenced by one small cash ingot and
casting droplets. Indeed, chunks of ores
containing up to 8 Vo tin that were found in
Karnab-Sichkonchi testify to the working of
tin-ores At the site. This is supported by
finds search ace grinding stones and a conspicuous
concentration of quartz of fragment.
The latter were probably brought to the settlement
together with tin-ores, for cassiterite
occurs mainly in quartz veins. Another
accumulation of quartz and several pounders
were found in the area of house 3, indicating
that extensive reduction of ores what
coach reeds out here too. In addition, there what
a concentration of flakes and grooved of hammer
of limestone, thus that the production
and or use of of hammer tone can Be presumed
ace wave. Grooved of hammer tone
were only used in mining but for
crushing ores. Grinding stones likewise
played in important role in this respect,
and were found in great numbers, esp. near
houses 3 and 53.
There can Be no doubt that thesis structures
were associated with the exploitation
of the tin-ore deposits and with the ridge
tap dances of processing the extracted ore in
workshops, which consequently infers a specialised
metal-working settlement of the Andronovo-
TazabagJab culture in Karnab-
Sichkonchi. This is attested by implements
for crushing and grinding ores, the identification
of tin in the ovens and traces of metallurgical
activities with the use of arsenical
Summarv 305
copper and tin bronze. The location of
Sichkonchi-Saj At about I km from the
mine what probably in connection with the
supply of water, essential only for everyday
life but for ore dressing of process ace
wave. A-lthough comparably small, this site
what fruit juice likely one among many similar stations
in the surroundings of Karnab.
Obviously, the justified question arises ace
to which area what supplied with the tin
from Karnab, Lapas, Changali and mush B sharp tone.
Analytical investigations undertaken in
this regard have produced any definite
results yet. However, several of import from
the Bactrian region (pottery sherds and a
stone vessel) were found At the mining and
metal-working settlement of Karnab-Sichkonchi,
that indicate far-reaching contacts.
Camel and horse bones found in Karnab-
Sichkonchi further demonstrate, that the
necessary means for transport over great
distances were At hand. Moreover, during
the ridge helped of the 2'd millennium BC
groups of the Andronovo-Tazabag'jab culture
repeatedly advanced from the Zeravshan
valley through the Karakum desert
into southern Turkmenistan and over the
mountain of passport of the Hissar to rank to Bactria,
where they left behind graves and smaller
settlements. On the whole, the reciprocal
interactions were intense and manifold.
Nonetheless, according to the present stage
of analytical investigations, the tin bronzes
examined from Sapalli and Dzharkutan,
two of the fruit juice important urbane like sites
in northern Bactria during that period of
time, Th appear to derive from the oredeposits
in the Zeravshan valley. Therefore,
the question ace to the extent to which the
bearers of the Andronovo - fazabag'jab culture
solely mead their own needs with the tin
they mined and produced and to what extent
surplus may have been traded further
remains unanswered. At any advises, ore exploitation
in Karnab, Lapas, Changali and
Mush B sharp tone if precisely into a period during
which bronze what apparently commonly
in use in the Near East. The need for tin what
correspondingly great, only there but
so in the zones of the tap-dances and forest
tap-dance farther to the north, between the Yenisei
river in the east and the Urals region in
the west. There the majority of metal objects
dating to the time of the Andronovo culture
were likewise maggot of tin bronze. The utilisation
of tin bronze objects even extends
into the preceding Early bronze Age Okunev-
or Sejma-Turbino-Horizon from the
of the 3'd and beginnins of the 2'd millennium
With the project supported by the Volkswagen
Foundation tin-ore mining during
the bronze Age has been successfully discovered,
attested and documented for the ridge
time. It what a great stroke of luck that in
Karnab, in addition to the ancient workings,
a miners' settlement what discovered
and could Be excavated completely. This
permits important affirmations about the
structure and organisation of the work of process
and organisation. In all the investigated
sites, it what members of the Andronovo-
TazabagJab culture who coach reeds on
mining and the processing of ores. The problem
concerning the origin of tin may
Be resolved completely, but - with reference
to the study of ore deposits and to
mining archaeologyo - a definite background
has been achieved for the ridge
time, which can Be placed in the cultural
context and history of Central Asia and adjacent
5 Parzinger in 2002.
6 lakes the detailed presentation in the second volume of the final publication: "The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia
II" (Tin in the bronze Age of Central Asia II).
PegroN, Re
lloncx cpe4Hea3uarcKoro o^oBa r4 ero 3HaqeHrre
B orroxy 6pousu 4, r, x B, r.ztxHero r4
Cpe4uero Bocrorca 6and; rrz qe, uro coBMecr-
HOIO HayqHOrO npoeKTv r. {oucttav, cKafl Ao-
6u-Ra o, rona N Cpe4ueir Azuu", ocyulecr-
B^eHHoro e in 1997-1999 rr N Quua:ncupyeMoro
@o; rlxcearen-(DoH4ovr. B paunax
npOeKTa VCC^e4OBa^HCE [OTeHIJI4a^bHbIe
3anacbr z3BecrHr, rx uecropoxt4eurzü B
paüonax KapHa6a, Aanaca z 9aura, rz see
Ys6exucraHe, a raKlne e MyurzcroHe r {
TäxQoue e Tä4:xzxucraHe C yr {eroM Ao-
6rr.rz orroea B 4peBHocrr4.
KaK. e Kapua6e, Aanace and Yaura, tz (Ys-
6exzcran), raK Iz B Myruucroue (Tä4xnnzcraH)
e nlr6pauurrx uraxrax 6rr "Ru rpoee-
4eHbr pacKorrKz. Hair4eauax KepaMr.rKa r.r
lo^yqeHHbre pa4rroyr epo4Hbre AaTbr cBl.l4e-
Te^bcrByror o Rome, vro 4o6lrua o^oBa Bo
BCeX STHX MeCTaX OCyUIeCTB ^. 9^aCb elrJe BO
B peMeHa aH4poHoBCno-rasa6aru.sdcxoü ny, u-
Typr, r, r. e. e 1-ü rro^oBr4He 2l.rt'c.40 H. g., qro
coorBercrByer Drroxe cpe4Heü 6pousu a
Cu5upuu no:4ueü - e OxHoü Typnueuzz
and Eanrpuu. Tänurr o6pasolr, ycraHoB^eHbr
caMbre paHHrre I4 Ha4elr (Hbre rr3 r43BecrHbrx
AO Cr4x rrop 4arupoexz paspa6orKr.r o^oBa B
Eepaszul. To, trxo e Kapua6e yÄa^ocb pacrr [
lcrHTb o4Hy ApeBHroro uaxTy 40 ee ocHo-
BaHlzfl. ua r, ny6uuy in 1250 and B 4pyrux Mecrax
ypoBeHF, rpyHToBbrx eo4 6and, r, Bbrrrre 9.5 and B
4peBHr.rx orBa^ax 14 [raxrax 6su, and o6uapy)
fieHbr rbrc. {qu KaMeHHbrx or6oüuuKoe r.r
orpoMHoe Ko^rrlrecrBo rax QparueHToB, a
TaKlr (e AarÄpy rotr\afl, aH4poHoBo-r asa6arns6-
cKa.rr KepaMHKa.
tr4cc "re4oeaHze.sM no3Bo^H^o c4e^arb
BalxHbre ua6 "rro4eHzfl, HaA rexurrnoü rop-
Hoü errpa6ornz. B Kapua6e a 9aHraav
pyaurrü KBaprL or conpoBolK4aroulero ero
TBep4oro rpaHr.rra ropuo4o6urlrI4KH
OT4e^t^r {Hey B rrraxTe, a Y} Ke ha rro-
BepxHocrz. B Aanace, B ApeBHeü he, rpa-
6orrce, pacrro^olxennoü e xapcroeoü rerqepe,
conpoBolr4arorqeä nopo4oü.fl B ^. s^c.s
r.r3BecrH-sK. CyÄx no MHoroqr {c^eHHr, rM c^e-
4in the Bbrpa6orxu nopo4br, TexHlrKa nepeuqHoü
o6pa6orxu 4o6rrroro Pr Mare {a^a
6and; Ta, orreBzgHo, cxoxeü. flnx 4o6rtuu
py4br B Kapua6e B ruaxrax npvMeH.rr^c.rr
Merog o6:xzra, TaK KaK rpaHVT t4z Ba
ceoeü KpHcTa ^^ u.recnoü crynTypbr
pa3pr, rx ^ "flerc.s npn eoa4eücrnr, rz ebrc^oeKrKoüo
BepoarHo, 4o6r'trax Pr pa3Me^r, LreHHa "rl
npr4 noMorrlH Kpyr oro Mo^oTKa pyÄa 3breath
o6orarga, racb rrocpe4crBoM rrpoMbrBaHrr.fl.
Xor "see e ropuo4o6rrBarorrJrrx rroce^eHrltrx
Kapua6-CzrrKoHrrrz nepepa6arbrBa^cfl Me-
Ta ^^, [I^aKOB, OTr {^eH "flIOtqUXC.fl npl4 4O-
6r, o, \oea, Mbr ue o6Hapyx {Lr'rz. llpt
cero4H.flrxHeM cocTo.flHLlrl pacTr4Te^f, HOrO
noKpoBa Br, rrr^aBKa Mera ^^ a 6r, r, la 6rr noe-
MolKHa ro^EKo rl'pl, z' Aocraexe Heo6xo4z-
Mbrx A fl DToro lzz4al.ena apoB. Kax
Bbrr.s4e^a 34ecE, Bererat\vrfl B ailoxy 6poH-
3fa, r, Herr3Becruo. {ocroBepHo ^IltIIb
To, rITo
, r, öcc cero4n.surHe ro, tau4uraQra, pe Kpr, rearcrqzü
6o, rsurzucrBo apxeo^orr4qecxux
rraM.flTHZKoB, o6pa3oBa^c "see yxte rroc^e onoxu
6pousrr N, rrooToMy, nepeKpbr ^ ocrarKrz
3ua.reune ropHoü 4o6uvtr e Kapua6e
Tpy4Ho rrepeoqeHurr. Kaueuurrü necr z:
o4HoBpeMeHHoro noce^eHus Kapna6 Cuv
KoHr {r4 co4ep) Kr4T 0.78 "/o o^oBa 14 TaKoe ero
Ma^oe Ko^HrrecTBo Hey Mor o Aa^b [Re nepepadarnrearlcx.
Koneuno, ocraerc.fl orKpbrTbrM
Bofrpoc, KaK or, IeHr4Ba^Lf 3To Apee-
Hrze ropH.flKrr. O cyuecreenno 6orarrrx
Mecropolrt4 eHnflx, rro^Hocrbro eupa6oraHHbrx
eqe B 4peBHocTvr, cBvr4eTe^r, cTByroT
or4e^bHbre HaxoAKH B Henocpe4creeHHoü
6atzsocru or tlMbr 6/1 Y KapHa6a, noroprre
llo4po6Haa ny6 "tuxaqux ropHo-Mera ^ yprzqecxrrx H apxeoMera ^^ yprurrecrlx ucc, r.egoeauuü npoRe4eHHbrx
B paMnax lpoerTa, Haxo4r4'tcfl ha 3aBeprxaxluleir cra4uu pa6orr, r HaA BTopr, rM ToMoM: "O, \oeo onoxn 6pou:r, r
N Cpe4neü Aeuz, II".
PesrcNae 307
co4ep) cirque rror {Trz 22 o /" ot on, a. Y'turbtr, ag,
HbrHerxHee 2% co4eplr (aHrre o^oBa B
4auuofr.flMe H MorrJHoct py4oHocHoro
c^ofl 40 10 clr, MolKHo flpe4no^oxvtrb, qro
rrpr4 cyqecrnyrculeü Atu:ae Bblpa6orKLt B
30 rr, r and my6uue e 15 lr, nrv'a 4a.xa 4o I
TOHHbT O^OBa. B ro Xe BpeM.fl, cyÄg IIo ee
He6o^brxHM no cpaBHeHLrro C Apyrt4MI4 pa3-
MepaM, sva 611 6rrra oauoü ug carr.mrx Hey
3Harrr4Te^bHbrx lr 6e4uux errpa6oron. B
Tex tMax, and the following] e IJll4pldr {a BXO4a COCTaB ^. fler
6o "ree l-2 V, HylnHo r4cxo4rTb rz3 MHoro-
KparHoro co4ep? rtaHl4 Tl Mera ^^ a. Y rnrlr
Ba.fl MHoroqHC^eHHbIe ropHble paapa6orxz
e Kapua6e, MolI (Ho pac. IzTarb, uro 4annuü
perHoH ha BceM npoTtlKeHr {Lt ero
oKcrr^yararlLtrr rrocraBz, t 6o, tea 500 ronn
o^oBa. KoHeuno, Ko^r {LlecrBo nnrpa6orxz
BO BCeM peII {oHe npeBbIIUa^O
rorpe6nocrb, frosToMy MolItHo ^nopKea4^EnHo^yoIo-
? KHTb MexperHOHa^bHyIo ToproB^Io, B
no^bsy Koropoü, roBopur Henoropuü
r4Mnopr u3 noce^eHrzx KapHa6-Cra.rxou. Iu.
Cyu rlo no^yqeHHblM B pe3y^brare
pacxonoK Haxo4KaM, N 6o, trurzncrBe cBoeM
orHocrurnMc.r K aH4poHoBCKo Ta3a6aru6
cnoü ny, trrype, KpyrHoMacurra6ua.q Ao-
6rr-Ra o, r.oea npoz3Bo4rr^acb ylr (e e uepeoü
lo^oBr4He 2 rsc. Ao H.e. Pa4uoyr, nepog-
Hbre AaTbr, c4e^aHHble flo yr rc H nen^y,
npoc^e4r4^r4 DTo npol43Bo4crBo 40 1 rlrc.
Äo H.e. Cpe4ueeeKoBble Marepl4a^bl cBIz-
4eTe^E CTByIOT O fIOfIbITKaX eogobrroeurl
oKcrr^yaraualo pyAHbIX Mecropo) K4enuü.
Ho zccae4oBaHHble HaMI4 ropHue py4Hr4r Ta
groro BpeMeHu Hey Mor and 6r, rrt' cy-
c^e4oB Mera ^^ zqecKl4x IIHCTpyMeHTOB Hey
ycraHoB^eHo. Anrut Qparueurtl Kepa-
MrrKLr yxa3blBalor ha ro, qro tMbI obrron-
e 6o, \ee no34Hrre epevrena. Bos-
rreuJepHbrx) I {II^I4IrJ.
Wz AByx perl4oHoB Ta4xuxwcraua
To^bKo e MyurzcroHe, a Hey e TänQoue 6lr-
; Rn oduapyxeHbr gpeBHue py4HLrlr'lz-Ho Co.
4ep) r € Gee up o^oBa B py4e Its TänQoua 6lr, to
AH,] y^fl. Be^VCr, B OCHOBHOM, N Myurucroue.
Tälr, e rope, B coBpeMeHHF'IX lrrro^bH "flx,
Br. {4Mr., r c^e4br 4peBHHX py4HI4KoB. 4peBHr4e
-sMbI BHyTpH IOpr, I I4 HbIHe npoxo4l4Mbl
rro coBpeMeHHbIM ra^epe.sM - ora
C]/rTya\r4fl no3Bo v^a r4cc^e4oBarl 11 ng
uux. I, Ix pF, r^H ha cK^oHe ropbr, Ho KaK
TO^EKO PYAttas? KU^a yXOAn '.A e6OK, XUtl
pacuuprl^I4cF' B STOM HanpaB^eHI4Iz.
B MyurucroHe raK] fie pa6ora, Ru o16oü-
KapHa6olr, BcTpetrarorcf B MeHbrrreM Ko^zqecrBe.
Kpyrarre B rl^aHe za6ou a ^. see rop.sqero
Mero4a 4o6uuu pyau 3zecr, Hey
na6; rrr4a, tucr. C, tyvaüHble c^e4bl or Me-
Ta ^^ uqecKr4x r4HCTpyMeHToB yKa3bIBalor
Ha vx r4cfro^r, 3oBaHze. llo npaüueü Mepe,
* Ha HHx [oMuHaror 6oxoenre creHKIz BbIpa6ororc
r {HeKoropble rlor {Trr np.sMble yr F'I
he, rpy6ox. \4s-za pbrx^ocrr4 nopo4 B micron
IrrI4CTOHe, B IJe ^. flX 6eSO [aCHOCTH, LICfIO^b-
3oBa^r4cb 4epeB.rrHHbre croürcz. Heo6xo-
+vMOe 4.fl sToro 4epeBo - apqa, pacTer rz
cero4Hr ha of Br, rcore Ao in 3000 Ru HaA
ypoBHeM mop {.
Oparueru KepaMr4KH, Tan) r (e KaK H B
ya6encxzx 6acceüsax KapHa6a and.Lanaca,
yKa3brBaroT ha of aH4poHoBCKO-Ta3a6afT'. {6-
cKyro Ky^ETypy. Pa4zoynepo4Hbre Zarbr
orrpe4e^z^r4 r {acTrlr {Ho Äa} Ke 6oaee panuzä
qeu e Kapna6e Bo3pacr - 312 rwc. 4o
H. o rr 1-ro no, \oezny 2 ruc. 4o and supra 3Ra
{aTVpOBKa nO/r {epKtIRaeT Ba} KHOCTF, MeCTopo)
fiAeHz.fl B ApeBHocru. W oco6eHnocrr
efo B Tom, rrTo MLrHepa ^ BbIXo4a xopeunoü
py4tr craHHHH (qzunuc Cu 2FeSnS4)
MeAE, TaK H O^OBO. Py4l'l UZ 3OH [I OKITIC^e-
Hrrtr co4eplrar npezMyrlecrBeHHo; tz6o
6o, trnre o^oBa, tu6o - v'e4tr, Ho BCTpe- V PA3 IIIIHbIE CMCCZ; TAK I {TO 113
3THX nOpO4 MOlr (HO 6U.tO lO, tytlarb Hanp.
flMyro no err6opy ror H^Ir zHoü uera, t, t.
llpo6nr, Re Bbrrr^aBKlr cBI44ere^bcrBylol
rrro r43 4auuoü. pyÄbr MolnHo no elr60py
no^yqurb Me4b, o^oBo vI Äalne 6pou:y.
lloc "re4nee no4TBepln4aercl Hey Aarvpo-
BaHHbrMrr [r^aKaMH, Haü4euHunrz e6, \usv
ropHbrx pa:pa6oron, rze B Kan^e Mera ^^ a
CO4epXa^OCb 4O B 7 "O, tOea" r {To yKa3F'IBaer
Ha Bo3MolKHoe HanpaB^eHl4e orKpbr-
TI4'I CfI^aBa Me4V rl O^OBa.
lopuax 4o6lr.ra o^oBa C Har {a^a 2 ruc.
ao H. D. noarBep) K4vercfl, kt e MyruzcroHe,
HO nporl3Becrpr pacqer Ko^I4qecrBa npo-
Ayt\rrr4 34ecb c^olxHee, rreM e KapHa6e,
N orreHr, Hepery ^. spHaf reoMeTpl {.fl Mecro308
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
pox4eHHü C MHotor {HC^eHHF, rMI4 Ma^brMtf I4
oqeHb Ma^bIMr, r xo4aMI, I Hey fIo3Bo ^. 8IOT
ycraHoBr4Tb B cpe4HeM eö co4epxaHze. B
nporr4Bono o) r (HocrE x Kapua6y 4.fl Myu-
gere^bcrBa, TaK KaK rlo^yr {eHHbrü uz groü
py4bl MeTa ^^ co4epxr.rT cBVHerI B r {HC^e
cBoLrx Mr4Kpoo^eMeHToB. Ceepxa o6pa:qoe
e KoNa6HHa\t4t4 C HsororraMu cBr4HrIa B pyae
C oÄHoBpeMeHHbrMH apreQanralrv, uair-
B AeHHbrMH pa3^r4rrHbrx MecTax B 4o^r4He
3epanuaHa ([, aurw Koslr) z e 0:rtuoM
Ys6eKzcraHe (Cana "r, r.u Tene, {sxapwyraH),
4aör rroKa ro^bKo Herarr.rBHbre pe-
3y^brarbr. Ero roeoprzr o Rome, rrro Mera ^^
Lt3 Ao cr4x rrop rzcc^e4oBaHrrlrx o6nexroe
Hey [por4cxo Avrlt t43 Myuzcroua.
Pa:ee4xz, rrpoBe4eHHue e paüoue Mec-
Topolr (aeHrzü Kapua6a, Aanaca, Yarau, t
and MylluucroHa cBr4ere^r, crByror, rrro approx.
Mbre paHHvre Brr. ArlMbre ha froBepxHocTH
(4 B. 40 H. see. - 4 N. H. see.), an ocHoBHa.rr
qacrb noce, renzü Aarvpyercfl paHHr.rM
cpe4HeBeKoBbeM Pr 6o "rro34Hr, rM BpeMerlelr.
Dro e paeuoü Mepe orHocr.rrc.fl r.r Ko
MHOTI4M paCKOfraHHbrM HaMLr KypraHaM v3
onpyrrr Kapua6a. B qeurpe coBpeMeHHoro
Ce, r.a Kapua6, e Henocpe4crBeHHoä 6, n2-
3OCTlr OT ÄpeBHr4X rXaXT, BO3BbrrrraeTct
o6urzpurrü xo^M. rerre B
paüouax Cpe4Heü Azuu,
^er (aulux K
ceBepy and BocroKy or Typxueu*tcrana,
orHocr.rrcrr x 1 rrrc. 40 H. supra, npezMyulecr-
BeHHo rto eropoü ero rro^oBttne. Tevr ue
MeHee, C qe^r, Io flpoBepKrl noc^e4oBaTe^r, -
Hocrrr 3ace^eHu.s paüoHa Kapua6a Mbr
3a^olnu^r {ha rerre ABa crparvrpaQnuec-
Kr4x pa3peea. Ouv no4TBep4rr^v pe3y^b-
Tarbr pa3Be4ox. tr4cc, re4oBaHHbre c^or4 Co.
4eplKa^r4 no^y3eM ^ "flHKLr no34HeaxeMe-
HLlÄCKOTO-paHHeS^rlHrZCTr4r {eCKOrO BpeMeuv
(KapHa6 I z II: 5-2ll rs.4o u.o.). Ouz
6r, r, nrz repeKpbrrbr c^otMrr nyuraHcxoü ouoxz
(Kapua6 III V: 1-4 ee. and see.). Pauuee
cpe4HeBexonle (KapHa6 VI), noMr4Mo rrpoqero,
npe4cTaB^eHo orreH [xoporuo coxpa-
HzBrrrzMc.fl r, rzno6urnbrM yKpen^eHr {eM C
AByllls. pfl, AaMu 6oüHzq. To 3 ares c^e4yror
erqe 6o "ree no34Hrre C, tou (Kapna6 VIIVIII)
rzc, taMcKoro BpeMeHV. Ocraercs Hey
tcHbrM 4o6lrea, rocr.Lz B DTLI BpeMeHa
3aecr, o^oBo, Ho 3Haqenae 4auHoü MecrHocrH
Mon.; {rHo B nepByro oqepe4b cB.fl3aTb C
ilepeKpecrKoM Toproerrx nyreü B 4o^r.rHe
3epaeruaua - o4HoM rr3 r aBHbrx yqacrKoB
Be, nnrtoro [re^KoBoro ttyrr4.
floceyreHze ropH.f, KoB orroxv 6pou:u
KapHa6-CnrrKoHrrrr orHocrzrc.fl K HeMHorvM
H3BecrHbrM B oroM pearl-raw. OHo 6r, no
ca.yuaüuo o6uapyxeno B coBercKoe BpeM.rr
e npoQrz, r.e reo^orlrqecKoro pa3pe3a rro4
c^oeM HaBetHHoro
^ecca MoulHocTbro
1.20 rra. tauuax crrrya\v.fl. o6Lqcu.ser ror
Qaxl vro noce, teuzü aHapoHoBcKo Tasa
6arbq6cKoü Ky^F, Typbr l fi rro^oBprHr, r
2 ruc. Ao H. D. Ao Cr {x rop Hey 6ru.o
Bbr.flB^eHo. B Myuzcrona
cvTyar\ufl vr} {afl: Ha oqeHb KpyTbrx cK^oHax
BToro BbrcoKoropHoro
e4ea, rrz
Mor H coxpaHrrrr, cfl floce^eHun, ecAw 6 m
oHrz TaM norya-az6o V cyulecrBoBa^lr.
lopuaqnoe üoce^ Kapua6-CzqKoHrrLI
cnerlr4a^v3r {poBa^ocb ua errpa6orKe o^oBa.
Ouo 6lr, ro lo^Hocrbro pacKonaHo r4 Mbr
BnepBbre [o^y\il, 1^11 4aHHbre o TOM, KaK
Bbrr.rr4e^o no4o6Hoe rroce^eHze. lloce-
Haxoau^ocb ha paccro.flur.ur I Ku,
To ecrb B Henocpe4creenHoü 6, rra3ocrz, or
ApeBHrzx [raxr. B ero Ky^F, TypHoM c^oe V of B
rrraxrax Kapua6a and Aanaca, TaK) r (e KaK r4 B
Myruncroue, 6and, Ta uafr4elaa aHApoHoBCKorasa6arr.
q6cKa.s KepaMHKa. Täxuu o6pa-
3OM, BCe 3Tr {rIaMtTHLtKI4, fl B ^. grOTC.q CLIHXpOHHbrMZ
Lr orHoc-{Tcg x l-ü rro^oBzHe 2 rr, rc.
40 H.o. Ero no4reepln4aror r4 pe3y^ETarbr
pa4r4oyr epo4Hr, rx aHa^r43oB. Täx versrpe
rr3 Hr4x oxBarbrBaror BpeM.fl naexc4y 18 z
Harra^oM l4 ee, 40 H. supra, rrro coorBercrByer
npr4H.flTbrM paHee 4aTr4poBKaM.
Ha noce, teu nu Kapaa6-Cz.rnou.rn 6and, tz
BbI "flB^eHbI OCTaTKIT [I.STI4 nO^y3eM^tHOK I, r
MHoroqlrc^eHHbrx oqaroB, MapKr, rpyrcqnx,
BepotITHo, MecTa, rze cTofl^v
rra^aroqHoto r4tu roproo6pas-
Horo rurra. CrparrzrpaQun and Mecrax oqaroB,
_qM H^rr BHyTpH no^y3eM ^. flHoK yKa-
3brBae! Bo3MolKHo, ha lrx MHoroKpaTHoe
ce3oHHoe I {cfIo^r, 3oBaHI4e, HO Hey ha HenpepbrBHyro
3ace^eHHocTE, B AAr4-
Te^bHoro BpeMeHV. llpauevare^bHo, r {To
oqarrz pas^urrHbrx Qas QyunqzoHr {poBaHr4.rr
iloce^eHz page cKoHrIeHTprrpoBaHbr ha o [pe-
4e^eHHbrx n^oqa4Kax, To ecTr, fra^aTKr4
rr^H ropTf, r cTaBZ^Ltcb ha o4Hrrx and Tex) Ite
Mecrax. Dro cez4ere^r, crByer o Rome, rrro
Pesnve 309
lrr., a caMo ollo, Bt44uMo, nMe^o cTa-
6uaruyro BHyrpeHHroro opraHz3ar4r4ro.
B xuxznax QyuxquoHupoBa^r4 o4Ho-
BpeMeHHo HecKo^bxo orraroB. 3ano, \nenz.q
4Byx neqefr 4a.xu He6o^brxoe, Ho rcHo
ycTaHaB^LlBaeMOe CO4eplKaHHe O^OBa, rrro
Bfro^He 4onycKaeT I4x MeTa ^^ yprr4qecKoe
npe4Ha3HarreHHe. Dro uo; xuo npe4no^o-
) Krrrb vt 4tfl Apytvx neveü, zMeBrur4x
TaKyro) Ke KoHcrpyKrlrrrc. Tärczu o6pa:ou,
Ha noce^eHralz, cKopee BCeIo, he, rpa6a-
t4X Qpat-
Mera ^^ an o6Hapyxeno one 6and, r, supra Ho o, toe.slevtcTag,
6ponsa rrpor, r3Bo4r, r^acb, o rreM
cBzaere^bcrByror Hafi4eHnrre 3aecb Hey
6o, Lluroü ee c^rrroK and:rail., tlz., ocraBrxuec "see
Terr rre MeHee, uaü4eHurre e
Kapua6e-CvqnoHrrrz KycKlr o "noexnnoü py-
Abbot - tcacclzreplzra, C co4eplraHnew 4o 8 "/"
o^oBa, 6pocarouleec.fl B r a3a 3Harrlrre^r, -
Hoe Ko^r4qecrBo cKorr^eHlrü nycrcoB conpo-
BOlK4arOuIefo ero KBaprIa r {MHoroqzc^eHHbre
) KepHoea (oco6euHo Y [o^y3eM ^-aHoK
3 and 53) 4onycKaror npe4no^o; lreHze o rrepepa6orne
eroü pyAu ha rroce^eHuLt.
Cxon, r.eurz, q H KBaprIa KaMeHHbre Mo^orbr,
KoropbrMr4 py4a pa3Me^blra^acb, 6rr "t o6napyxeHbr
Y ro^y3eM ^. qNaxz 3. 34ecr Xe 6N, nz
HaüAeHbr MHoroqlrc^eHHbre v3BecrHflKoBbre
orulerrbr rz v3BecrH. {Koerrü Mo^o! cBVAe-
Te^bcrByroillt4e, Br4ArrMo, o6 usroroB^eHr {rr
Ha Mecre no4o6Hbrx LIHCTpyMeHToB.
Vrax, Here HrrKaKrzx coMHeHzü, vro e
KapHa6-CzqnoHrrr4 Mbr rrMeeM Ae^o C
aH4poHoBCKO-Ta3a6alr.fl 6CKr.rM frOCe^eHlreM
MeTa ^^ yproB,) r (HTe^u Koropofo cner-
llra^r, Ho 3aHV Ma^zcr 4o6lr.reü o, ros.fl HHoä
py4r, t and ee repBzrrHoü nepepa6ornoü. 06
oroM roBopn uaü.4eHHbre 34ecb zHCTpy-
MeHTbr, pe3y^bTaTbr rrpoBe4eHHbrx aHa^v-
3WHETHER CO4epXHMOTO neqeü 14 C / \e4bt Bbrfr^aBKIl
6ponsrr. lloce, renze pac [o^oxeHo Hey Herrocpe4cTBeHHo
Y rlaxT, a ha paccToflHr4v
I xu or HLrx, ha 6epery pextl CnunoHrrrr-
Cair, wo4a rtoropoü 6and, Heo6xozvMa KaK
4, and 6uronbrx Hy) K4, TaK H Z^tI [poLr3Bo4-
2 Parzinger2002.
cleeuuoü 4e.sre^L, Hocrz. lloce, Leuze 6Sr, to
ue6oarurunr and oro Aaer Bo3Molr (Hocrb
npeano^ararE, B onpecrHocrrx Kapua6a
Ha^Hqhe, Apy tLlx no4o6uurx naMflTHHKoR.
EcrecreeHHo, Bo3HVKaer Bonpoc, KaKa.rI
Teppuroprlfl o6ecne-rzea^acb o^oBoM H3
Kapna6a, Aanaca ur {auratv.r. Vro6n
HtaTI oro, 6lr "nz c4e, laHF, I MHoroqIlc^eHHF, Ie
aHa^v3bl MeTa ^^ a, Ho o4HO3Har {HbIX ÄaHHbrx
rroKa Hey fio^yqeHo. Ho e sroä cBfl3r4
c^e4yer yKa3arb, rrro B KapHa6-CzrrKoHqz
uaü.4eur, t 6anrpzücnlre HMrroprbr - KaMeHnrrü
cocy4 z Qparlreurbr KepaMr4KLt, rrro
fro3Bo.fleT c4e^aTb BI'rBo4 o Aa^bHrrx cB.g-
3rrx orofo noce^eHr4.g. Ero o1urare, rvr
pacrro^ara^v AAfl aroro ueo6xo4raurrlrz
TpaHcnopTHbrMZ cpe4cTBaMr4, o rreM cBHAere ^
bcrByror Kocrlr aoura4eü V Bep-
6 "rrc4oe. B 1-ü rro^oBrrHe 2 ruc. go H. supra
aH4poHoBcrco-raga6ar.ll6cxze rpyrilr, r MHoroKpaTHo
npo4Bt4ra^vcb B 4o^rrHy
3epaeuraua and qepe3 nycrbrHro of Kapaxyr', r 4o
well, trr DrccapcKrrx rop ao Banrpzz, ocraBuB
noc^e ce6 "q Morrz^tHLrKLr V ue6o, trurze
[oce^eHa.s. Täxzvr o6pa:orr, B3azMoor-
HorrreHr4.s 6Sr, rz rtroroo6pasuu Lt r {HTeHcrrBHbr.
Ho, cy4t no noc^e4Hvu aHat: and rt4-
rrecrLrM rrcc^e4oBaHvflM npo6 o^oBa rr.3
Cara, t, acts and!> xaprcyraua, caMbrx 3Harrz-
Te^bHbrx noce, reuraü ropo4cKoro rula Ceeepnoü
6anrpuu, oror Mera ^^ rrocryna ^
cro4a Hey H3 4o^r {Hbr 3epaeuraua. Bonpoc o
Tom, B xaxoü Mepe o^oBo, 4o6rreaeuoe
HocHTe ^. sMr4 aH4poHoecKo-rasa6arr.q6cnoü
Ky^bTypbr npe4Ha3Harra^ocb 4 ^. see TopfoB^II,
an e xaxoü 4 "L.t co6creeHHr, rx HylKÄ, ocraerc.fl
noKa orKpbrrbrM. fo6r, rva o^oBa e Kapua6e,
Aanace, r {aHra^u N MyurzcroHe npo-
Hcxo4rz, la B gate rrepr4o4, KorÄa llepe4uxx
Aszx yxe ynorpe6, lxaa sror rrera, t, r. Ho
norpe6Hocrrl B HeM r.rMe^acb 14 B crerrtx r4
Enpaeuu Me? K4y Enrzceelr uYpa-
r4e 6o; trurzucrBo ylxe 4oaH4poHoBCKHx
Mera ^^ uqecKrlx uz4e ttlz'ü. oKyHeBCKoro
l, z'ttu cefrua-ryp6uncxoro ropr43oHToB KoHr-la
3-ro z Halra^a 2-ro rrrc. Zo H. e. 6rr, to
r43roroB^eHo rz3 o^oBtH ucrofr, 6poHsu.2
B paMxax QzuauczpyeMoro (Doa, nnceareH-<
DoH4oM npoenTa BnepBbre y4a^ocr)
310 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
ycraHoBr4Tb Mecra paepa6orxu ropHF'Ix
Mecropo? K4enzü o, r.oea. Eo^btxofi yaatefr.
.flB^flercfl o6uapy: + teuHe I4 pacKofIKH floce-
Mera ^^ ypron N Kapua6e, r4e 6No., r.rz
no^yrreHbr BaxHbre 4aHHbIe o crpyKType I4
opraHr {3ar\Ll\1 A} 6rilsr4 gToro Mera ^^ a. ycra-
naM.rrrHuKax 4o6uveä z nepepa6orrcoü py-
Abitur 3aHLIMa^I4Ct' HOCLITC^Z aH4pOHOBCK () -
of rasa6arr'" q6cxoü ny, trryplr. Bonpoc o npo-
I {CXO} K4eHI4LI O^OBa Hey pelxeH, HO OH Bnep-
Bbre no^yqr4 ^ KoHKperHyIo apxeo^oru-
LrecKyro ocHoB3y-, cocraB ^. qroulYn qacrb
Ky^brypHo-Lr cropnqecKoro pa3B rrr ux Cpe 4-
lr'eü, Azuu and coceÄHr.rx C Heü reppuropzü.
3 Crotptr no4po6uoe r43^o) fieHue Bo BTopoM ToMe 3ax^Ioq [Re, r.tnoä ny6, tuxaqau "O, noeo onoxH 6poHsr, r e
Cpe4ueü A:rlu, II".
Literature list
Alimov among other things in 1998
K Alimov,/N. Boroffka/m. Bubnova/Ju. Burjakov, /
J. Cierny, {and Jakubov, {. Lüz/H. Parzinger,/E. Pernicka/
V. Radililovskij,/V. Ruzanov/t. Sirinov,/D. Stariinin, /
G. Weisgerber, prehistoric tin mining
in Central Asia. Preliminary report of the campaign in 1997. EurasiaAntiqua
4, IN 1998, 137-199.
Alimov among other things in 1999
K Alimov/N. Boroffka {and Burjakov, zJ. Cierny/
J. Lttz / H. P are zinger / E. Pernicka/V. Ruzanov/t. Shirinov/
G. Weisgerber, Research At Karnab, Uzbekistan.
Preliminary notes from the in 1997 campaign.
l4cr opux Marepua^r'Hofi xy, urypr, r Ys6exacraHa
30, IN 1999, 80-87.
Allchin in 1969
FOLLOWING R. Allchin, Early domestic animals in India and
Pakistan. In: P. following Ucko,/G.W. Dimbleby (Ed.),
The domestication and exploitation of plants and
animals. Proceedings of a meeting of the Research
Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects
hero At the institutes of Archaeology, London University,
l8th-19th May in 1968 (London in 1969) 317-
Artzy in 1983
M. Artzy, Arethusa of the tin ingot. Bulletin of the
American School of Oriental Research 250, in 1983,
Arzruai 1BB4
X. Arzruai, about the occurence of tin stone
and the bronze industry of the Caucasus. Magazine
for ethnology 15, in 1884, 58-60.
Askarov and, a. In 1992
A. A. Askarov/V. Volkov,/N. Ser-Odlav, Pastoral and
nomadic tribes At the beginning of the frrst millenium
B. C. In: A.H.Dani,/V. M. Masson (Ed.), The
History of Civilisations of Central Asia I UNESCO
Publications (Paris in 1992) 459-472.
Avanessova in 1996
N.A.Avanessova, Pasteurs et agriculteurs de la val-
16e you Zeravshan (Ouzb6kistan) ouch döbut de l'Age
you bronze: relations et influences mutuelles. In: Lvonnet
IN 1996, 117-131.
Avanessova in 1997
N.A.Avanessova, Spätbronzezeitliche cultural contacts
in the baktrischen river oasis after the findings
the necropolis Bustän 6. Archaeological communications
from Iran and Turan 29, in 1997, 147-178.
v. Bear in 1876
K E. V. Bear, From where the tin to the quite old ones
Bronze may have come? Archive for anthropology
I, 1,876,263.
Bariand in 1979
P. Bariand, Lapis Lazuli of Sar-e song, Afghanistan.
Lapis 14, H. 11, 1979,9-14.
Bartelemy in 1938
R.E.Bartelemy, primitive Tin Metallurgy in Laos.
Mining and Metallurgy 19, in 1938, 244-246.
Barb home / precipitation I 996
Home M.bartel / E.Niederschlag, bronze-temporal
Tin production in the Erzgebirge? In: Archeology topically
in the free state Saxony 4 (Dresden in 1996) 61-66.
Bass in 1966
G. FOLLOWING bass, Troy and Ur: gold on the left between hvo ancient
capitals. Expedition 8, H. 4, in 1966, 26-39.
Bass in 1967
G. FOLLOWING bass, cape Gelidonya: a bronze Age shipwreck.
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
N. See 57, part B (Philadelphia in 1967).
Bass in 1986
G. FOLLOWING bass, A bronze Age shipwreck At Ulu Burun
(Ikp): 1984 Campaign. AmericanJournal of Archaeology
90, IN 1986, 269-296.
Bass in 1989
G. FOLLOWING bass, The wreck of Ulu Burun. Geo 1, in 1989,
Beagrie in 1985
N. Beagrie, Early tin ingots, ores and slags from western
Europe. Journal of the Historic Metallurgy Society
19, H.2, IN 1985, 162-168.
Belli in 1991
SUPRA Belli, The problem of tin deposits in Anatolia
and its need for tin, according to the written sources.
In: A. Cilingiroglu/D. H. French (Ed.), Anatolian
Iron Ages. The Proceedings of the Second
Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium hero At lzmir, 4-B
May in 1987. British institutes of Archaeology At Ankara
Mono graph 13 (Oxford in 1991) 1-9.
Bergeat in 1901
A. Bergeat, contributions to the Kenntniss of the mineral deposits
from Campiglia Marittima (Toscana), in particular
of the tin stone occurence ibidem. The new
.fahrbuch for mineralogy, geology and Palaeontologie
Bernard in 1994
P. Bernard, The Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia.
In: J. Harmatta,/8th N. Puri,/G. FOLLOWING Etemadi (Ed.),
History of Civilisations of Central Asia II UNESCO
Publications (Paris in 1994) 99-129.
Berthoud in 1980
Th. Berthoud, Production, 6change et utilisation
m6taux: Bilan et perspectives recherches arch6ologiques
r6centes dans le domaine oriental. Pal6orient
7, IN 1981, 99-127.
Berthoud among other things l97B
Th. Berthoud,/R. Besenval, {. P. Carbonnel/fa. Cesbron, {.
l, iszak-Hours, Les anciennes mines d'Afghanistan,
Prospection in 1977. ln: Search Cooperative
sur programmes No. 442, Commissariat ä
I'Energie Atomique Laboratoire de search
Mus6es de France, Unit6 de search Arch6ologique
7 (Paris in 1978).
Berthoud among other things in 1982
Th. Berthoud / 5. Cleuziou/l. P. Hurtel/m. Menu/
C. Volfovsky, Cuiwes et alliages en Iran, Afganistan,
Oman ouch cours of 4. et 3. Milli6naires. Pal6orient
8/2, tSB2,39-54.
Bobomulloev in 1997
S. Bobomulloev a bronze-temporal grave from
Zardöa Chalifa with PendZikent (Zerav3an-Ta1). Archaeological ones
Communications from Iran and Turan 29,
Bouzek among other things in 1989
J. Bouzek,/D. Koutecky/K. Simon, Tin and prehistoric
mining in the Erzgebirge (ore mountains): some
new evidence. Oxford journal of Archaeology B,
H. 2, r989, 203-212.
Bren {it in 1971
B. Brenljes, an elamitischer litter finding from Soch,
Fergana (Uzbekistan). Iran 9, in 1971, I5b-). 57.
Brückl in 1936
K Brückl, The Lapis bed of Serr-i song in
Upper Kokcha valley, Hindukush, Badakhshan. The new
Yearbook for mineralogy, geology and Palaeontologie,
A 72, IN 7936, 37-56.
Casanova in 1992
M. Casanova, The sources of the lapis-lazuli found
in Iran. In: C.Jarrige (Ed.), South Asian Archaeology
In 1989 (Madison in 1992) 49-56.
Chakrabarti in 1979
D. K Chakrabarti, The problem of tin in Early India
- a preliminary survey. One and Environment 3,
Charles in 1975
J.A. Charles, Where is the tin? Antiquity 45, in 1575,
Charlon in 1876
E. Charlon, mark sur la d6couverte de l' € tain oxyd6
en Toscane. Annales of the Mines, s6rie 79, in 1876,
Chernykh in 1992
E.N.Chernykh, Ancient metallurgy in the USSR.
The Early Metal Age (Cambridge, / measure. In 1992)'
Chichkina in 1986
G.V.Chichkina, Les remparts de Samarcande a
l '6poque hellenistique. In: P. Leriche/H. Träziny
(Ed.), La fortihcation dans l'histoire you moons
grec. Actes you Colloque Internationally, La fortification
et Sat. place dans l'histoire politique, culturelle et
sociale you moons grec". Valbonne, d6cembre in 1982
(Paris l986) 7l-78.
Cierny in 1995
J. Cierny, The pits of pussy's tone in Tajikistan
- Did the cradle of the tin bronze stand in Central Asia?
The first slice 47, in 1995, 68-69.
Cleuziou/Berthoud 1982
S. Cleuziou, / Th. Berthoud, Early tin in the Near
East. A reassessment in the light of new evidence
from western Afghanistan. Expedition 25, in 1982,
Crawford in 1974
H. E. W. Crardord, The problem of tin in Mesopota-
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
mian bronzes. World Archaeology 5/6, in 1974,
Dayton 1971
J. E. Dayton, The problem of tin in the Ancient
World. World Archaeology 3.7971, 49-70.
Dayton 1973
J. E. Dayton, The problem of tin in the Ancient
World: a reply to Dr. Muhly and Dr. Wertime. World
Archaeology 5, 197 3, 123-125.
Dercksen in 1996
J.G.Dercksen, The Old Asspian copper trade in
Anatolia (Suffer in 1996).
Docimbaeva in 1995
A. Docimbaeva, New archaeological investigation of
early turkic burial sites on the territory of Kazakhstan.
tr4eeecrus Haqaoua, rruoti Axa4elauu
Hayx Pecrry6, r. Irxr Kasaxcran 4, in 1995, 55-59.
Dossin in 1970
G. Dossin, La route de l '6tain en M6sopotamie ouch
temps de Zimri-lim. Rer, ue d'Asslriologie 64, in 1970,
Field/Prosrov 1938
H. Field, zE. Prostov, Tin deposits in the Caucasus.
Antiquity 12, in 1938, 341-345.
Fox terrier I969
D.J. Fox terrier, Tin mining in Spain and Portugal. In: A
Second Technical Conference on Tin 1 (Bangkok
1969) 225-265.
Franc fort in 1979
H.-P. Franc fort, Les fortifications en Asie central de
I'Age you bronze ä 1'6poque kouchane. Travaux de
l'Unitd de search Arch6ologique 10 (Paris in 1979).
Franklin among other things in 1978
A.D.Franklin/J. See Olin/Th. A. Wertime (Ed.),
The search for ancient tin (Washington l97B).
Frifelt in 1991
K Frifelt, The Iceland of Umm an-Nar. Vol. l: Third
Millennium Graves. Jutland Archaeological Society
Publications 26:1 (Aarhus in 1991).
Gale in 1991
N.H.Gale, Copper oxhide ingots: their origin and
their place in the bronze Age metal trade in the Mediterranean.
In: N.H.Gale (Ed.), bronze Age trade
in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean
Archaeology 90, in 1991, lS7-239.
Galili, zShmueli l9B3
E. Galili/N. Shmueli, Israel. The international journal
ofNautical Archaeology 12, in 1983, 178.
Galili among other things in 1986
E. Galili, Zn. Shmueli/m. Artzy, bronze Age ship's
cargo of copper and tin. The international journal
of Nautical Archaeology 15, in 1986, 31-37.
Gmelin in 1971
L. Gmelin, tin (Sn), historical and occurence.
In: Gmelins manual of the inorganic ones
Chemistry (wine home 19718) 53-85.
Village Görs 1990
J. Village Görs, The interpretation of laC dates
in the Berliner t'Gl-ubo. Magazine for archeology
24, 1990,27-34.
Village Görs / BojadZiev 1996
J. Village Görs {. BojadZiev, to the absolute chronology
the Bulgarian prehistory. Berlin rac dates
from Bulgarian archaeological finding places.
Eurasia roman 2, in 1996, 105-173.
Village Görs among other things in 1998
J. Village Görs / H. P are zinger / A. Nailmaker,/N. Of Leont' ev,
New 1aC-dates for the Siberian steppe and
her consequences for the regional Bronze Age chronology.
Eurasia roman. 4, in 1998, 73-80.
Gorbunova in 1986
N.G.Gorbunova, The culture of ancient Ferghana
(\4 century B.C.-\'I century A.D.). British Archaeological
Of report, Internationally Series 281 (Oxford
Gotlib in 1999
A.I.Gotlib, bronze-temporal mountain fortresses (. Sve")
in Chakassien. Eurasia roman 5, in 1999, 29-69.
Grenet l9B4
FOLLOWING Grenet, Les pratiques funeraires dans I'Asie central
sedentaire de la conquöte grecque ä l'islamisation.
Publications de I'U.R.A. 29, memo Irishman I (Paris
Grjaznov in 1984
M.P.Grjaznov, The Großkurgan of ArZan in Tuva,
Südsibirien. Materials to the universal and comparative
Archeology 23 (Munich in 1984).
Gülpür in 1995
S. Gülgur, The bronze-temporal wreck of Uluburun
with Kaq. Antique world 26, in 1995, 453-46I.
Sound,/Steadman in 1991
In my opinion sound / p. Steadman, Anatolia and tin: another
look. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeolo gy 4, H. 7,
Captain / Weisgerber in 1985
A. Captain / g. Weisgerber, from the copper zttr
Bronze: Contributions to the earliest mining and metallurgical engineering.
In: H. Spring (Ed.), archaeological bronze
(Berlin 19Bb) 16-36.
Heimpel in 1987
W. Heimpel, The lower sea. Magazine for Assyriologie
and Front-Asian archeology 77, in 1987,
Heinrich in 1990
A. Heinrich, a migration-temporal graveyard
with Mitterhof, G. B. Laa in the Thaya, Lower Austria.
Archaeologica austriaca 74, in 1990, 85-
Herrmann in 1968
G. Herrmann, Lapis lazuli: the early phases of its
trade. Iraq 30, l968,2l-57.
Hiebert in 1994
FOLLOWING Hiebert, Origins of the bronze Age oasis civilisations
in Central Asia. Bulletin of the American School
ofPrehistoric Research bulletin 42 (Harrard in 1994).
Hlopina in 1972
L.I.Hlopina, to Southern Turkmenia in the Later
Bronze Age. East and west N. See 22, 1972,199-214.
Isakov in 1981
I. Isakov, Excavations of the bronze Age settlement
of Sarazm. In: Ph. Cabbage (Ed.), The bronze Age civilisations
in Central Asia: recent Soviet discoveries
(New York 198l) 273-286.
Kaptan in 1980/81
E. Kaptan, The significance of tin in Turkish mining
history and its origin. Bulletin of the mineral Re
search and Exploration institutes of Turkey 95/96,
1980/8 l, 106-114.
Khlopina in 1981
L.I.Khlopina, Namazga-depe and the Late bronze
Age of to Southern Turkmenia. In: Ph. Cabbage (Ed.),
The bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia: recent
Soviet discoveries (NewYork 1981) 35-60.
Kilian in 1993
I. Kilian, considerations to spätbronzezeitlichen
Ship wreck of Ulun Burun (Kag). Yearbook
Of Roman-Germanic central museum of Mainz 49,
Kochelenko in 1986
G. Kochelenko, La fortification de I'Orient hell6-
nistique. Remarques pr6liminaires. In: P. Leriche, /
H.Tr6ziny (Ed.), La fortification dans l'histoire
you moons grec. Actes you Colloque Intenational
, La fortification et Sat. place dans I'histoire politique,
culturelle et sociale you moons grec". Valbonne, d € -
cembre in 1982 (Paris in 1986) 143-148.
Cabbage in 1981
Ph. Cabbage, The Namazga civilisation: in overview. In: Ph.
Cabbage (Ed.), The bronze Age civilisations in Central
Asia: recent Soviet discoveries (New York in 1981) 7-9.
Cabbage in 1984
Ph. Cabbage, Central Asia. Paleolithic beginnings to the
Iron Age. Search sur les Civilisations. Synthöse
14 (Paris in 1984).
Cabbage in 1992
Ph. Cabbage, Central Asia (western Turkestan): Neolithic
to the Early Iron Age. In: R.W.Ehrich (Ed.),
Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (Chicago -
London in 1992) Vol. t, 179-195; 8d.2, 154-162.
Korobkova in 1981
G. FOLLOWING Korobkova, Ancient reaping tools and their
of productiviq' in the light of experimental tracewear
analysis. In: Ph. Cabbage (Ed.), The bronze Age Civilization
of Central Asia: recent Soviet Discoveries
(New York in 1981) 325-349.
Ko6ko and a.7997
A. Ko6ko / T. Sirinov,/W. R4czkowski (Ed.), Sztuka
naskalna Uzbekistanu (Poznaf in 1997).
Kozhomberdiyev/Khudyakov I 990
I. Kozhomberdiyev,/Yu. Khudyakov, Reconstruction
of ancient turkic armour from Sary-Djon monument.
Internationally association for the Study of
Cultures of Central Asia (IASCCA) information bulletin
Kulke in 1976
H. Kulke. The Lapislazuli bed Sare song (Badakhshan).
Geology, origin, cultural history
and mining. Afghanistan journal l, I97 6, 43-56.
Lagarce in 1986
J. Lagarce, production of copper raw ingot in racing
Ibn Hani (Vomiting). Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica
18, 1986,85-96.
Lechevallier in 1980
M. Lechevallier, Les armatures de faucilles de Mehrgarh,
Pakistan. Un exemple of d' 6volution d'un outillage
sp6cialis6 you VI' millönaire ouch environment you III'
mill6naire Obv. J. C. Pal6orient 6, in 1980, 259-267.
Li Gongdu in 1986
Li Gongdu, Liaoning Lingy'uan Sanguandianzi
Literature list
314 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Chengzishan yizhi shijne baogao. Ikogu in 1986, H. 6,
LiMnskij l9B2
B.A.Litvinskij, newer researches to the archeology
and ancient history of Central Asia. Contributions to
General and comparative archeology 4,
Litvinskij in 1986
B.A.Litvinskij, antiquity and early-medieval
Grave-mound in the western Fergana washbasin, TadZikistan.
Materials to the universal and comparative
Archeology 16 (Munich in 1986).
Litvinsky,/P'yankova I 992
B. A. Litvinsky/l. T. P'yankova, Pastoral tribes of
the bronze Age in the Oxus Valley (Bactria). In:
A.H.Dani,/V. M. Masson (Ed.), History of Civilisations
of Central Asia I UNESCO Publications (Paris
1992) 379-394.
Lioinsky among other things in 1996
B.A.Liwinsky/Zhang Guangda/R. Shabani Samghabadi
(Ed.), History of Civilisations of Central
Asia III UNESCO Publications (Paris in 1996).
Lyons net in 1996
B. Lyons net, Sarazm (Tadjikistan). C6ramiques
(Chalcolithique et bronze Ancien). M6moires de la
Mission Arch6ologique Frangaise en Asie central 7
(Paris in 1996).
Maddin in 1989
R. Maddin, The copper and tin ingots from the Kaq
shipwreck. In: Archäometallurgie of the old world.
Contributions to the international S1'rnposium, Old
World Archaeometallurgy", Heidelberg 1987.
First slice, supplement 7 (Bochum in 1989) 99-105.
Maddin u/a/7977
R. Maddin/t. Stech Wheeler, zJ. D. Muhly, Tin in
the ancient Near East: old questions and new finds.
Expedition 19, H. 2, in 7977, 35-47.
Majidzadeh l9B2:
Y Majidzadeh, Lapis lazuli and the great Khorasan
Road. Paldorient 8, in 1982, 59-69.
Masson 19Federal Railway
V.M.Masson, Altln depe (Philadelphia in 1988).
Masson in 1992
V.M.Masson, The bronze Age in Khorasan and
Transoxania. In: A. H. Dani/Y. M. Masson (Ed.),
History of Civilisations of Central Asia I UNESCO
Publications (Paris in 1992) 225-246.
Masson in 1996
V.M.Masson, The cultural zones and variations of
the late chipped stone industries in Central Asia.
In: Saint K. Kozlowski/H. G. K Gebel (Ed.), Neolithic
chipped stone industries of the fertile crescent,
and their contemporaries in adjacent regions. Proceedings
ofthe Second Workshop on PPN Chipped
Lithic Industries, institutes of Archaeology, Warsaw
Of Universiq', 3.d-7th April, 1995. Studies in early Near
Eastern production, subsistence and environment 3
(Berlin in 1996) 91-103.
Masson/Sarianidi 1972
V.M.Masson,/V. I. Sarianidi, Central Asia: Turkmenia
before the Achaemenids (London in 1972).
Matbabaev in 1998
B. Ch. Matbabaev, early-medieval Grabsuitten
in the northern Fergana valley (Uzbekistan). Archaeological ones
Communications from Iran and Turan 30, in 1998,
Mei in 2000
Jianjun Mei, Copper and bronze metallurgy in Late
Prehistoric Xinjiang. Its cultural contact and relation-hip
with neighbouring regions. British Archaeological
Of report, Internationally Series 865 (Oxford
Milking Koch in 1999
M. Milking Koch, to the custom of the artificial deformation
from heads from ethnological view. Communications
the Berlin society for anthropology,
Ethnology and Urgeschichre 20, in 1999, 65-72.
v. Merhart in 1926
G.V.Merhart, Bronze Age in the Jenissei. A contribution
to the prehistory of Siberia (Vienna in 1926).
Merideth in 1998
C. Merideth, In archaeometallurgical survey for ancient
tin mines and smeltins sites in Spain and Portugal.
Mid central western Iberian geographical region
1990-1995. British Archaeological of report,
Internationally Series 714 (Oxford in 1998).
Molodin in 2001
V. Molodin, Westsibirien, the Altaj and Nordkazachstan
in the developed and late Bronze Age. In:
R. Eichmann / H. Parzinger (Ed.), migration and
Cultural transfer. The change Front-Asian and Central Asian
Cultures in the layout of 2. to the 1st prechristian one
Millennium. Acts of the international
Colloquium Berlin, November, 1999. Colloquiums
to the prehistory and early history 6 (Bonn in 2001) 85-100.
Mook/Steuerman 1983
W.G.Mook,/H.J. Steuerman, Physical and chemical
aspects of radiocoach voucher dating. Journal of the
European Study Group on Physical, Chemical and
Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology
PACT 8, IN 1983, 31-55.
Moorey in 1994
P. R. See Moorey, Ancient Mesopotamian of material
and industries. The archaeological evidence (Oxford
Muhly 1973a
J.D.Muhly, Copper and tin. The distribution of mineral
resources and the nature of the metals trade
in the bronze Age. Transactions of the Connecticut
Academy ofArts and Sciences 43,1973,155-535.
Muhly 1973B
J.D.Muhly, Tin routes of the bronze Age. American
Scientist 61, in 1973, 404-413.
Muhly in 1985
J.D.Muhly, Sources of tin and the beginnings of
bronze metallurgy. American journal of Archaeology
89, IN 1985, 275-297.
Muhly in 1987
J.D.Muhly, review to R. D. Penhallurick, Tin in
antiquity, its mining and trade throughout the ancient
world with particular reference to Cornwall (institutes
of Metals). Archeomaterials 2, in 1987, 99-107.
Muhly in 1993
J.D.Muhly, Early bronze Age tin and the Taurus.
American journal of Archaeology 97, in 1993,
Muhly among other things in 1991
J.D.Muhly,/F. Begemann / Ö. Öztunali,/E. Pernikka, /
S. Schmitt-Strecker/g. A. Wagner, The bronze
metallurgy in Anatolia and the question of local tin
sources. In: E. Pernicka/g. A.Wagner (Ed.), Archaeometry
In '90. Proceedings of the 27Th Synposium
on Archaeometry hero in Heidelberg, April
2'o-6'n, in 1990 (Basel in 1991) 209-220.
Muhly,/Wertime in 1973
J. D. Muhly/t. A. Wertime, Evidence for the sources
and use of tin during the bronze Age of the Near
East: a reply to J. E. Dayton. World Archaeology 5,
In 7973, rtr-l22.
Mukhamedjanov in 1994
A.R.Mukhamedjanov, Economy and social system
in Central Asia in the Kushan Age. In: J. Hartnatta/
B. N. Puri/g. FOLLOWING Etemadi (Ed.), History of Civilisations
of Central Asia II UNESCO Publications (Paris
1994) 265-289.
Nailmaker in 1999
A. Nailmaker, goods the bearers of the Okunev culture nomads?
Eurasia roman 5, in 1999, l-27.
Nasiri in 1962
A. Nasiri, The Lapis lazuli in Afghanistan. Afghanistan
17, H. 4, IN 1962, 48-56.
Neumayer in 1999
H. Neumayer, artificial cranial deformation in
the migration time and in the early Middle Ages.
Communications of the Berlin society for anthropology,
Ethnology and prehistory 20,
IN 1999, 73-84.
Nikitin among other things in 1996
A. Nikitin/page. Novikov/Z. Serditykh, Finds from
sanctuary and publicly building excavations At Zar-Tepe.
Internationally association for the Study of Cultures
of Central Asia (IASCCA) information bulletin
20, IN 1996, 38-48.
Novikov in 1996
S. Novikov, Ceramics from publicly building and
sanctuary excavation see At Zar-Tep e. In ternational association
for the Study of Cultures of Central Asia
(IASCCA) information bulletin 20, in 1996, 22-37.
Parzinger 1997a
H. Parzingeq review TOO FOLLOWING T. Hiebert, Origins of
the bronze Age Oasis Civilisation in Central Asia. Acta
Praehistoria et Archaeologica 29, in 1997, 1 57-1, 59.
Parzinger 1997B
H. Parzingeq Choresmien between DZanbas and
Tagisken. Problems of the Bronze Age to the south Aral-
Of lake. In: C. Baker / M.-L. Shady character / C. Metzner-
Nebelsick,/H. Peter-Röcher/m. Clearer of land / 3. TerZan
(Ed.), Xp6vog. Contributions to the prehistoric archeology
between Northern Europe and Southeast Europe. Commemorative volume
for Bernhard Hansel. International Archäo1ogie,
Studia Honoraria I (Espelkamp in 1997) 125-141.
Parzinger 1997C
H. Parzinger, Sejma-Turbino and the beginnings
of skythischen animal style. Eurasia roman 3, in 7997,
Parzinger 1998a
H. Parzinger, archeology on the edge of the steppe.
The Eurasia department of the German archaeological
Of institute. Antique world 29, H. 2, in 1998, 97-108.
Parzinger 1998B
H. Parzinge; archeology between steppes, oases
and Hochgebirgen. The Eurasia department
German archaeological of institute. The archaeological
News sheet 3, 1998, 338-353.
Parzinger 1998C
H. Parzinger, Investigaci6n arqueoldgica en read Estepas
de Eurasia. Trabajos de Prehistoria 55, in 1998,
Parzinger in 2000
H. Parzinger, tin for Mesopotamia. In: Archaeological ones
Discoveries. The researches of the German
Of archaeological institute in the 20th century.
Vol. 2 (Mainz on the Rhine in 2000) 247-251.
Parzinger in 2002
H. Parzinger, The tin in the Bronze Age of Eurasia.
In: U.YalEin (Ed.), Anatolian Metal IL The first slice,
Supplement (Bochum in 2002) 159-177.
Parzinger/BorofIka 2001
H. Parzinger/N. BorofIka, Where from there comes the tin
the Bronze Age in Central Asia? Archeology in
Germany 17, H. 3, 12-17.
Penhallurick in 1986
R.D.Penhallurick, Tin in antiquiry its mining and
trade throughout the ancient world with particular
reference to Cornwall (London in 1986).
Pernicka among other things in 1992
E. Pernicka/g. A. Wagner, z. |. D. Muhly, zÖ. Öztunali,
Comment on the discussion of ancient tin sources
in Anatolia. |ournal of Mediterranean Archaeology
5, IN 1992, 91-98.
Pigott in 1996
V.C.Pigott, Near Eastern archaeometallurgy: moulder
research and future directions. In: J.S.Cooper/
G.M.Schwartz (Ed.), The study of the Ancient
Near East in the twenty ridge century (Winona
Brine in 1996) 139-176.
Pinnock in 1988
FOLLOWING Pinnock, Observations on the trade of lapis lazuli
in the 3'd millennium B. C. In: H. Captain
H. Waetzoldt (Ed.), economy and society
from Ebla. Acts of the international conference Heidelberg,
4th-7th of November, 1986 (Heidelberg 19Federal Railway)
107-l r0.
P'iankova in 1993
L. P'iankova, Pottery of Margiana and Bactria in the
Bronze Age. Internationally association for the Study
of Cultures of Central Asia (IASCCA) information
Bulletin 19, in 1993, 109-127.
Pougatchenkova/flyraveuroea 1 978
G. Pougatchenkova, Les tr6sors de Dalverzine-T6p6
(Leningrad in 1978)/f. A. flyravennosa, Xy4oxrecr-
BeHHbre coKpoBurqa {a "treep:uH-Tene (AeHuHrpaa
Pougatchenkova in 1986
G.A.Pougatchenkova, Caracteres de l'architecture
defensive antique en Asie central (a LA lumiöre
recherches les plus r6centes). In: P.Leriche/
H.Tr6ziny (Ed.), La fortification dans I'histoire
you moons grec. Actes you Colloque Intenational
, La fortification et Sat. place dans l'histoire politique,
culturelle et sociale you moons grec". Valbonne, d6-
cembre in 1982 (Paris in 1986) 57-69.
Literature list
Pumpelly in 1908
R. Pumpelly, Explorations in Turkestan. Expedition
of in 1904. Prehistoric civilisations of Anau. Origins,
growth and influence of environment. Carnegie institution
of Washington Publications 73 (Washington
Quintero among other things in 1997
L.A.Quintero/Ph. J. Wilke/J. Giles Waines, Pragmatic
studies of near eastern neolithic sickle blades. In:
H. G. K. Gebel/Z. K^f^fi/g. SUPRA Rollefson 1ed.),
The prehistory ofJordan, II. Perspectives from in 1997.
Studies in early Near Eastern production, subsistence,
and environment 4 (Berlin in 1997) 263-286.
Ramsey in 1995
C. B. Ramsey, radio coach voucher calibration and analysis
of stratigraphy: The OxCal progrief. In: G. T. Cook ones
D.D.Harkness / 8. FOLLOWING Miller/E. M. Scott (Eds)., Proceedings
of the 15Th Internationally IaC Conference.
Radio coach voucher 37 (2), in 1995, 425-430.
Ramsey in 1998
C. B. Ramsey, Probability and dating. Radio coach voucher
40 (1), IN 1998, 467-474.
Ramsey in 2000
C. B. Ramsey, Internet version of the OxCal progrief
v3.4 (2000).
Rap in 1978
G. Rap jr., Trace of element ace a guide to the geographical
source of tin ore: smelting of experiment. In:
A.D.Franklin/J. See Olin/Th. A. Wertime (Ed.),
The Search for Ancient Tin (Washington in 1978),
Fairly in 1982 'A. Fairly, studies to the Neolithic period of Central Asia.
Antiquitas, row 3, treatises to Old one and
Early history, to the classical and Provincial-Roman
Archeology and to the history of the antiquity
25 (Bonn in 1982).
Clear in 1985
Ch. Clearing, Montanarchäologische springs urund
of early-historical tin ore mining in Europe.
The first slice 37, in 1985, 50-80.
Rossovsky among other things l9B7
L.N.Rossovsky,/V. V. Mogarovsky/V. M. Chmirev,
The metallogeny of tin and rare metals in the eastern
part of the Mediterranean folded belt. In:
S.Jankovic (Ed.), mineral deposits of the tethyan
Eurasian metallogenic belt between the nightmare and
the Pamir (selected examples). UNESCO,/ICCP
Project no. 169 (Belgrade l9B7) 170-177.
Sabet among other things in 1976
A. H. Sabet/V. B. Tsogoev/page. P. Shibanin/m. B. El-
Kadi/page. Awad, The placer tin-deposits of Igla, Abu
Dabbab and Nuweibi. Annals of the Geological Survey
ofEglpt 6, in 1976, 169-180.
Sarianidi in 1971
V. L Sarianidi, The lapis lazuli route in the Ancient
East. Archaeology 24, H. 1, in 1971, l2-15.
Shaffer in 1971
J.G.Shaffea Preliminary field report on excavations
At Said Qala Tepe. Afghanistan 24, H.2-3,1971,
Shaffer in 1978
J.G.Shaffer, The later prehistoric periods. In:
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
FOLLOWING R. Allchin/N. Ham moon (Ed.), The archaeology
of Afghanistan from earliest times to the Timurid
period (London, New York, San Francisco 1978.
Sharp / Mittewede in 1994
W. E. Sharp,/S. K Mittewede, What Kestel really the
source oftin for the ancient bronze? Geoarchaeolosy
9, H. 2.1994, 155-158.
Stech,/Pigott l986
T. Stech/V. C. Pigott, The metals trade in Southwest
Asia in the third millennium B. C. Iraq 48, in 1986, 39-64.
Stella in 1927
A. Stella, Alcune osservazioni sui minerali Tu ferro e
Tu stagno dell'Antica Etruria. Studi Etruschi I, in 1927,
Stuiver among other things in 1998
M. Stuiver/P.J. Reimer/E. Bard/J. W. Baker
G. See Burr/K A. Hughen,/B. Kromer/fa. G. McCormac/
J.v. d. Plicht, zM. Spurk, radio coach voucher INTCAL98
Age Calibration, 24,000-0 cals BP. Radio coach voucher
40 (3), in 1998, 104r-r083.
Stuiver, / pollock in 1977
M. Stuiver/H. A. Pollock, Reporting of raC Data. Radio coach voucher
l9 (3), in 1977, 355-363.
Szymczak / Gr etchkina I 996
K Szymczak/t. Gretchkina, The perspectives of the
studies on the Early Neolithic of the Kyzylkum Desert.
Ayakagltma, fhe site" and other new collections.
In: Saint K Kozlowski/H. G. K Gebel (Ed.),
Neolithic chipped stone industries of the fertile ones
crescent, and their contemporaries in adjacent regions.
Proceedings of the second workshop on PPN
chipped lithic industries, institutes of Archaeology,
Warsaw University, 3'd-7'h April, 1995. Studies in
early Near Eastern production, subsistence, and environment
3 (Berlin in 1996) 105-125.
Anabaptist in 1999
M. Teufeq a disc toggle from DZarkutan (Süduzbekistan).
Archaeological communications from Iran
and Turan 31, in 1999, 69-142.
Tolstov in 1961
S.P.Tolstov, Les scythes de I'Aral et le Khorezm. Iranica
Roman I, in 1961, 42-92.
Tolstow in 1953
S.P.Tolstow, on the traces of the old choir shuffle
Culture. Sorjetwissenschaft, supplement 14 (Berlin in 1953).
Tosi in 1974
M. Tosi, The lapis lazuli trade across the Iranian plateau
in the 3rd millennium B. C. In: Gururajamanjarika.
Studi in onore Tu Giuseppe Tucci 1 (Napoti
1974) 3-22.
Drinking house 1989
K M. Drinking house, Archaeological survey of the
Dämghän Plain, Northeast Iran, in 1976-1977. ln:
R.H.Dyson jr., the US. M. Howard (Ed.)' Tappeh Hesär.
Of report of the restudy project in 1976. Monograph
Tu Mesopotamia 2 (Firenze 19Bg) 135-141.
Tsybulsky in 1979
V.V.Tsybulsky, cal final are of Middle East countries.
Conversion tables and explanatory notes (Moscow
Tylecote in 1987
R. FOLLOWING Tylecote, The early history of metallurgy in Europe
(London in 1987).
Tzehuey Chiou-Peng 1998
Tzehuey Chiou-Peng, western Yunnan and its steppe
affinities. In: V. Mair (Ed.), The bronze Age
and Early Iron Age peoples of eastern Central Asia 1
(Philadelphia in 1998) 280-304.
Vinogradova in 1991
N.Vinogradova, Interrelations between farming
and, steppe" tribes in the bronze Age South Tadjikistan.
In: A.J.Gaillc. J. R. Mevissen (Ed.), South
Asian Archaeology in 1991. Proceedings of the llth Internationally
Conference of the association of South
Asian Archaeologists in western Europe hero in
Berlin l "t - 5ü luly in 1991 (Stuttgart in 1993) 289-301.
Vinogradova in 1994
N.M.Vinogradova, The farming settlement of Kangurttut
(South Tadjikistan) in the Late bronze Age.
Archaeological communications from Iran 27, in 1594,
Vinogradova/Pyankova 1990
N. Vinogradova,/L. Pyankova, Kumsai cemetery in
south Tadjikistan. Internationally association for the
Study of Cultures of Central Asia (IASCCA) information
Bulletin 17, in 1990, l2l-138.
Steward in 1985
B. Steward, The Umm an-Nar tomb A At Hili North: A
preliminary report on three seasons of excavation.
Archaeology in the United Arab of emirate 4, in 1985,
Voigt/Dyson 1992
M.M.Voigt/R. H. Dyson, The Chronology of Iran,
approx. in 8000-2000 B. C. In: R.W.Ehrich (Ed.), Chronologi,
it in Old World Archaeology (Chicago, London
1992) Vol. 1, 122-178; 8d. 2, 725-53.
Waetzold/Bachmann in 1984
H. Waetzoldt/H. G. Bachmann, tin and arsenic bronze
in the texts of Ebla and from Mesopotamia
de.s of 3rd millennium. Oriens Antiquus 23,
Wagner among other things in 1989
G. A. Wagner / fa. Begemann / C. Eibner {. Luzrö.
öz:nrnali / E. Pernicka/S. Schmitt-Strecker, Archäometallurgische
Investigations in raw material springs
of the early copper in Ostanatolien. Yearbook
of the Roman-Germanic central museum of Mainz
36, IN 1989, 637-686.
Wang Guodao in 1995
Wang Guodao, Xining shi Shenna Qijia wenhua yizhi.
Zhongguo kaoguxue nianjian in 1993 (Beijing
1995) 260-261.
WangJinlin 1992
Wang Jinlin, Yunnan Longling xian xinshigi shidai
yizhi diaocha. Ibogu in 1992, H.4, 289-293.
Weisgerber 198 l
G. Weisgerber, more than copper in Oman. The first slice
33, H. 5-6, l99l, 77 +-263.
Weisgerber in 1991
G. Weisgerber, The search after altsumerischen
Copper country of Makan. The antiquity 37, in 1991, 76-90.
Weisgerber/Cierny 1999
G. Weisgerberfi. Cierny, Being the tin riddle relaxedly?
On the traces of the Bronze Age in Central Asia.
Oxus, in 1999, H.4, 44-47,
Werner in 1956
J. Werner, contributions to the archeology of the Attila empire.
Bavarian academy of the sciences, Philosophically
historical class. Treatises, new
Result 3BA-B (Munich in 1956).
Of Willie in 1990
Of L. Willie, in early bronze Age tin mine in Anatolia.
Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society
11, H.2, 1990,91-96.
Of Willie in 1992
Of L. Willie, report on the in 1991 archaeological survey
of Kestel tin mine, Turkey. Bulletin of the Peak Disüict
Mines Historical Society 9, H.2, in 1992,
Of Willie in 1993
Of L. Willie, appendix: Early bronze Age tin working
At Kestel. In: K A. Yener,/P. B. Vandiver (Ed.), Reply
toJ. D. Muhly, Early bronze Age tin and the Taurus.
American journal of Archaeology 97, in 1593,
Of Willie in 1995
Of L. Willie, Kestel tin mine, Turkey. Interim report
1995. Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical
Society 12, H. 5, in 1995, l-11.
Wolf kind,/Wittekind 1 980
R. Wolf kind / H. Wittekind, geology of Afghanistan
(Berlin-Stuttgart l9B0).
Wyart among other things 19sheet
J.Wyart/P. Bariand, {. Filippi, LapisJazuli from Sare-
Song, Badakhshan, Afshanistan. Gems and Gemology
IN 1981, 184-190.
Yener/Goodway 1992
K.A.Yener,/M. Goodway, responses to Mark E. Hall
and Sharon R. Steadman, Tin in Anatolia. Aaother
look. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 5,
Yener,/Özbal in 1987
Il A. Yener/H. Özbal, Tin in the Turkish Taurus
mountains: the Bolkarda $ mining district. Antiquity
61, IN 1987, 220-226.
Yener among other things in 1989
K. A. Yener/H. özbal/E. Kaptan/A. N. Pehlivan/
M. Goodway, Kestel. In early bronze Age source of
tin ore in the Taurus mountains, Turkey. Science
244, 1989,200-203.
Yener/Vandiver 1993a
K A. Yener/P. B. Vandiveq Tin processing At Göltepe,
in early bronze Age site in Arlatolia. American
Journal of Archaeology 97, in 1993, 207-238.
Yener/Vandiver 1993B
K A. Yener/P. B. Vandiveq Reply toJ. D. Muhly, Early
Bronze Age tin and the Taurus. AmericanJournal
of Archaeology 97, in 1993, 255-262.
Yunnan sheng bowuguan wenwu gongzuodui in 1977
Yunnan sheng bowuguan wenwu gongzuodui, Yunnan
Y rnxian Manghuai xinshiqi shidai yizhi diaocha.
Kaogu in 1577, H. 3, 176-177, 271.
Zambaur in 1908
E. V. Zambaur, The coin coinage of Islam I
(Wiesbaden l90B).
Of Zejmal' in 1994
Inc. of Zeimal', The circulation of coins in Central
Asia during the early Medieval period (fifth-eighth
centuries A. D.). In: B. A. LiMnskij/C. A. Bromine mountain
Literatrrrverzeich N i see
318 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
(Ed.), The Archaeology and kind of Central Asra.
Studies from the moulders Soviet union. Bulletin of
the Asia institutes N. See 8, 1994,245-267.
Zhongguo in 1997
Zhounggou wenwu qinghua. Wenwu chubanshe
(Beijing in 1997).
Zinn-Syrnposium 1969
Cin V döjinäch vödy, techniky an umöni. Simpozium
Praha in 1969 (Praha in 1970).
A64y, r, raee in 1975
K. A64y, t, raen, Apxeo, torzuecxoe LI3yqeHI, Ie ropo-
4aqa KaHra (in 1969-1972). Acrop*rx Marepr4a^buoü
xy, Pr R.rry, r Ys6exucrana 12, in 1975, 128-154.
A6r4ureea l982
E.A.A6umeea, Cpe4neBexoBar KepaMrzKa r, r3
rro3aHrrx nac, toeuuü rJr, rrale^v AQpacr.ra6a. tr4cropLr.
rr Marepria, truoä nynr, ryprr Ys6erzcraua 77,
In 1982, llB-124.
A6y Ca'aa lap4uall in 1991
A6y Ca'ua lapausu, 3afiH a, r-ax6ap. Pas4e, t o6
vrcropvrr4 Xopacana. In: A.K.Apeu4ca, llepeeo4
C üepc. (Tärurenr in 1991).
AeaHecoea 1976
H.A.AeaHecona, Teppanorr, l xa6unera apxeo^orzz
CavapxaHgcnoro locylapcreeHHoro Ynnnepclrrera
ulr. A, tzurepa Haeoz. TpyÄr'r Cauapxan4c-
Koro locyaapcreeuuoro Ynunepczrera LIMeHH
A, rraurepa Haeou, Hoe. cep. 307. Marepua, r.r, I no
vrcropuv Yg6ersrcraua (apxeo "rorzx, 4peBHrfl Hc-
, ropuq, srHorpaQrlx) (coach '.rapxau4 in 1976) 31-49.
AeaHecoea 1991
H.A.AeaHecoea, Ky; rr'rypa nacryulecxrrx r^eMeH
enoxn 6poHsr, r agua'rcxoü qacrz CCCP (TäurreHr
A4r, r "toe in 1983
lII. T A4r, r; roe, O Kopor^acrlrKe 6yxapcnoro
Corya. I4cropu, a Marepva^r'Hoü xy, r.rryprl Ys6e-
Kr {craHa 18, in 1983, 65-75.
A, terceee / Ky:neqoea l9B0
B.A.A, nexceee/D. SUPRA Kysueqona, HoeL'Ie
no 4penneü qeeruoü Mera ^^ yprvv. In: flpo6-
u3yqeHl, It and oxpaHbl rraM-'I1'HlrKoB KyIr, TypbI
Kagaxcrana (A, tva-Ara in 1980) 4-8.
A, rzrraoe in 1969
Y A, tzr.roe, Pacxonxu ua Kynsrena e Kaplruucxou
oa3rrce. l4cr opua Marepua^L, Hoü rcy "tr, rypsl Y:6e-
KzcraHa B, in 1969, 105-114.
Acxapoe in 1962
A.A.Acrapon, flauarunxlr aH4poHoBcxoä xy, tr, -
Typbr B HH3oBr'tx 3epaeuraua. tr4crc> put MaTepIza,
rsnoü Ky^r'rypbl Ys6erucrana 3, in 1962, 28-41.
Acxapoe in 1964
A.A.Acrapon, Apxeo, torrlqecxaa noe3axa B
ceBepo-3anaÄHyro qacrb KapulrHcxoü crenu. I4cropru
Mareplra, uuoü Ky^ETypbI Ys6enucrana 5,
IN 1964, 28-36.
Acxapoe in 1965
A.A.Acxapoe, Hoeste HaxoaKH aH4poHoecxoü
Ky^brypbr B Hlr3oBr'tx 3apaQurana. Vlcropux *rareplra,
tnoü Ky^r'TypI'I Ys6enncraHa 6, in 1965, 53-
Acrapoe in 1970
A.A.Acnapoe, Morzar, uuK erroxrr 6ponsr, r e Myr,
rzna6aee. Kparnue coo6rqenus o 4oruagax 14
rlo^eBr, rx HccIeÄoBaHHtx trluclttlyra apxeo^orurr
AH, CCCP r22, 197 0, 64-66.
Accapoe in 1973
A.A.Acxapoe, Cara, r., turena (Täurreur in 1973).
Acupon in 1977
A.A.Acrapon, and the following perueser.r "te4e^bqecxat Ky^brypa
enoxz 6pousu rcra Yg6exzcraua (Täumeur in 1977).
Acxapon in 1981
A.A.Acxapoe, K nepe4arr, rpoBKe ny, and, rypr, r 3anan6a6a.
In: Ky, nsrypa r, r HcKyccrBo ÄpeBHero
Xopesua (Mocxua l98l) 99-110.
Acxapoe/A, rr, 6ayv 197 9
A.A.AcxaposlÄ. W. A, ts6ayu, floce, renae Kyvyxrena
(TäuxeHr 1979).
Araxanoe in 1991
T OF M. Araxauoe, Pa6orrr ha ropoÄr4ule fUarrzxoHa
B in 1983 r. Apxeo^oruqecKze pa6ornr e Tä4-
) r (rrxucraHe 23, in 1983 (1991), 284-297.
Axpapoe in 1969
14. Axpapoe, Kyxouuax KepaMlrra (Deprauu XIXII
ee. tr4c'ropua Marepna^bHoü xy, Pr Rsry, r Ya6e-
KzcraHa 8, in 1969, 146-151.
Axpapoe/Ycuanoea 1978
Z. Axpapoe / 3. 14. Ycuanoea, Honr, le 4aHHbre K
ucroprirr Pr Eyxa, r. In: tr {cropux H apxeo^orHt
Cpe4Heü Asuu (Auxa6aa 1978) 98-106.
Eaparon in 1991
C. P Eaparoe, Ky, trrypa cKoroBoÄoB ceeepuoü
Oepraur, r B apeBHocrrr V paHHeM cpe4HeBenoBbe
(no lrarepza, raM KypyMoB and nayrxoua). AeropeQepar
(Cauapxaua in 1991).
Eaparoe in 1996
C. P Eaparoe, K eonpory o rpyroro^olr (eHrrr.r B
norpe6aalHlrx coopyxeHLrtx runa KypyMoB Ii
MyrxoHa. trlctopua Marepua^bHoü xy, and, rypr, r
Ys6exucraHa 27, in 1996, 35-40.
Ee, tseea l9B3
T of B. Ee, tsera, I'Icc, re4ouaHux Xo4> xeHTcKoro
orptr4as in 1977 r. Apxeo, toruvecxze pa6orrr e Tä4-
) KnrLlcraHe 17, 197 7 (1983), 27 8-297.
Eeurosüq in 1953
Z.E.Eeuroerau, Keparuzxa llau4xuxeura. In:
Tpy4sr Tä4xzncroü Apxeo, toruuecxoü Dncnegtt4uu
2, in in 1948-1950 Rn Marepxa "tbr r {ücc^e4o-
BaHrzs ro apxeo^onrri CCCP 37 (Mocrea-AenzHrpaa
1953) 133-145.
Eepnurrau in 1950
A.H.Eepuurran, Tpy4r, r ceMuperreHcroü apxeo-
, r.oru.recxoä Bxcne4rlqlru "9yücxa, q Äo, tuna". MA
Tepua Br H HCc^eÄoBaHLlt no apxeoioruu CCCP
14 (Mocxea-Aeuzurpa4 1950).
Ra6unoe 1962
C.H.Eu6urcoe, Z: ucropzu KaMeHHbrx cepnoB ha
roro-BocroKe Eeponrr. CoeercKa-{apxeo^onrt
IN 1962, H. 3,3-24.
EoroMo, roe / Ieu4e "uuraH I 990
| tr {. Eorouo, lon/fl 14. IenÄe, tlr.tau, Mera, t, tzqecKrre
F sharp, 4etvrs, C ropoÄLrqa Kanxa. tr4cropun uarepraaaluoü
Ky^hryprr Ys6exzcraHa 24, in 1990,

H. Eopo | llapuznrep/E. llepuuqxal!. Crapuu:uulo / fl.
IJuepuu/K). flxy6oe, tr4ccite4oBarru.s e paäoue 4pennzx
paspa6orox o^oBa e Ceeepuorr.r Tä4xuxzcrane
(Myurucron and Tärc e TäAxuxzcra:g'e 27, 200 0, 7 l-120.
Eocrouryxap in 1998
C. FocroHryxap (Bo6ouy, r "toee), Bepxoert 3apaQnraua
eo of II lsrcsqeuervlz' Ao u.o. ({yuraH6e
Epyceurco in 1969
A. I EpyceHro, Pacnomlr KBapra^a roHqapoB
X*XI ee. Ha ropo4urue A rr, Hoä Ky^r'rypr'I Yg6exucrana 8, in 1969, 115-
Epycenxo in 1973
A. I Epyceuro, Ocrarrcr.r MoHyMeHTa^bHoro 34aHv-
.s I e. H. e. Aippacua6e. AQpacza6 2 (Täurxeur
1973) 103-109.
EpyceHro/Ia, rzesa I 982
Ä. | 6pyceHxo / 3rd C. Ia, rr.reea, Mareprla, ur pac-
Konox KBapra, r.a X-saqa, Ta XI ee. Ha ropoÄHuJe
Kasrca. l4cropua Marepua^r'Hoü ry, nsrypr'r Ys6e-
KucraHa 17, in 1982, 124-136.
EprrnzHa l9B2
I A. 6Pr, rrurra, Oro-3ana4naa (DepraHa e nepnoü
no^oBrrHe I ruc.sqe, terrll narueü eprt (Mocxea in 1982).
Ey6Hoea 1991
M.A.Ey6noea, Apxeo, torr.rvecnue pa6orrr ha
TeppLlroplrl4 ropoaa {yuraH6e e l9B3 N Apxeo-
^orr {qecxue
pa6oru e Tä4; xuxucraHe 23, in 1983
(1991), 332-346.
Eypaxoe in 1982
K). (D. Eypaxon, leHeezc Lr eranbl pa3Burr.rt ropoÄcxoü
xy, urypr, I Täurxeurcxoro oa3lzca (of Täu.rnenr'
By pxxou I [a4a6aee 1 973
K). SUPRA Byp.axozll., \aga6aen, flaulruzxn aHrvrl-
Horo BpeMeHn see TäurxerircKoM oa3LICe. l4cropua
Marepua^bHoü xy, tr, rypsl Ys6exucraua 10, in 1973,
3B-5 1.
Eypxxoe among other things in 1981
K). (D. Eypmoe among other things, K ucropnvecxoü ronorpaQuu
ÄpeBHero and cpeÄHeBeKoeoro Cal'raprauga (Täulrenr
Ba4eqxar 1986
9. 6. Baaeqxar, Apxeo, tornrrecrve [aMtrHI4KIl B
crentx Cpe4uero Enzces (Aeuznrpa4 1986).
Ba "tyrzuccuü in 1950
H. I Ba-tyrcr, rncnzü, Pacrconxlr B yPorrI4ule Mu, tr'r-
KyÄyK B rcxnoü. I4sgecru, Ana. eprrzra uayx Kasaxcxoü CCP 6Z
In 1950, t22-125.
Bapxoroea in 1964
{. Ä. Bapxoroea, Tärraurene. I'Icropllq Marepua.
rrHoü Ky^trypbl Ys6exucraua 5, in 1964, 67-69.
BuHorpa4oe 1968
A.B.BuHorpa4oe, Heo, tprrt4rrecKue rraM-{THI'IKIr
Xopesrraa. Marepza, trr Xopeslacxoü oxcne4zqrrrl 8
(Mocrea in 1968).
Bzuorpa4oe 1981a
A.B.BuHorpa4oe, HoesIe Marep [a^bl no nepvo-
Aw3arlvtu rr xpoHo^orvrr Heo^r. ITa Kr'tsr'r, txyrraoe.
In: Ky, trrypa Lr HccKycrBo apeBHero Xope:ua (Mocnea
1981) 88-98.
BuHorpa4on 19Blb
A.B.Bznorpa4oe,/\peeuue oxorHrlKr. I r.r pu6o-
, noenr Cpe4uea3uarcxoro Mex4ypevra. Tpyau
Xopearracxoü apxeo^oro-oruorpaQuuecxoä sxcne-
4uquu 13 (Mocxea 19sheet).
Bunorpa4oe / Maue4oe 1975
A.B.Bzuorpa4oe / 9. following Malae4on, llepeo6r'rrurrü
Äre^rrxaH. Dranrr gpenHeüuero 3ace^eHzt Lt
ocBoeHrlt BHyrpeuuzx Kr'Isr'r, nxylron (Mocxea
Bznorpa4oea l97B
H.M.Branorpa4oBa, O'rqer o pa6ore orpt4a rro
Lr3yqeHÄro rraMtrHrrxoB 6pouaoeoro eexa IOTAO
(In 1978 r). Apxeoaorzvecnue pa6orr'r e Tä4; Ru
KrrcraHe 18, in 1978 (1984), 74-83.
Bauorpa4oea 1984
H.M.BzHorpa4ona, O pa6ore 0; r TaHcKoro apxeo^orur {ecxoro orptÄa IOTAE
iloce^eHr Ra Kanrypryr e in 1984 N Apxeo "toruuecxue
pa6oru e Tä4> meadow Xurzcr 24, l9B4 (1993),
Bopo6rera / Hey C.H.Bopo6reea / H. 0. HeQe4oe, Xu "toü 4ornr
V-VI ee. H.D.Bo BHyrpeHHeM ropoÄe Epryprana.
In: M. tr {. (You, \auoeus (Ed.), Apxeo, toruvecru're
pa6orr, r ua Hoeocrpoüxax Y:6er 1990) 97-113.
BopouuHa 1953
B.Ä.BopouuIra, Apxurexryputre rraMtrHrjKLI
apeBHero ll-aH4> xzxeura. In: Tpyau Tä4xzxcnoü
Apxeo, toruvecxoü Drcne4vguu 2, in 1948-1950 rr
Marepna, tr, r and [cc^eÄoBaHrrt ro apxeo^oru] r
CCCP 37 (Mocrna-AeHurtpa [in 1953) 99-132.
BopoHrzHa 1964
B.A.Bopouttua, l4z Iicropun cpegueaauarcxoü
QoprrlQrlxar] IzLr. CoBercna.fl apxeo^oru, r, in 1964,
Brrsro in 1978
T.C.Bugro, I4ao6paxeuu.n My3uKaHToB B Kopon ^
acruxe {a, tr'eep:uHrene. In: Ä. 14. Pelrne, Tl
(Ed.), {anlnepsuurene - KynaHcxIzü ropo4 ua
rore Is6exzcraHa (Täurxeur in 1978) 165-171.
Rgrxns in 1927
B.Ä.B.srKzH, Alppacza6 - ropo4riue 6lr "toro Approx.
MapKaHaa (Täurr I.atta:g.utta in 1977
A. K. la, taurzna, CxuQcxue ÄpeBHocru llo4uerrpoBbr
(3 plaurarxHal Ko ^^ eKIII {t of B pau4en6ypra).
Coeercnag apxeo^orn-r: Ceo4 apxeo "tonrqecxux
trcrorrHr.rxoB A l-33 (Mocxea in 1977).
Iau6ypr / lop6yuoea in 1956
E. 3. Iarra6ypr / H. I lop6yHoea, Morn, r.sHur srroxtl
6poHsr, r e (Depraucxoä 4o, raHe. Kparnue coo6-
LrleHrrr o ÄoK a4ax lr no^eBblx} rcc^e4oBaHl4. {x
l4ucruryra rjcropul4 Marepua^bHoä xy, urypsl
AH, CCCP 63,1956,85-93.
lau6ypr / Iop6yuoea I 957
E. 3. lau6ypr / H. I lop6yHoea, Hoer're ÄaHHbIe o
Ky^r'Type enoxu 6poHsr, r @epraHcxoü 4o, nzusr.
Cosercrag apxeo^orlr.t in 1952 H. 3, 130-135.
Literature list
320 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
lop6yHona l98l
H. I lop6yuoea, O runax QepraHcxr.rx üorpe-
6a, Lr, No., rx rraMtrHr4noB nepeoil no^oBr.rHbr I rlrc.n,
ire^erH.q H. supra Apxeo, torvqecxptx c6opHrlx locy-
AapcrBeHHa.s 9puurax lop6yuoea in 1998
H. I lop6yHoea, llorpe6a, tbHr, Re KaMeHHr, Re roc-
TpoüKr.r Oro-3ana4soü (DepraHu rrepeoü no, roezubr
I rr, rcqqe^erLrt N. e. Apxeo, torrevecrux c6op-
HrrK locy4apcrnenuoro Eplrnra> xa 33, in 1998,
Ipuropree 1940a
I B. Pr Ipzro, en, KayHvv-Tena (pacxonxu in 1935 r)
(Täureur in 1940).
fpzropree 1940B
I B. Pr Lpuro, ee, Kparnnü orqer o pa6orax
flHruro, rscrcoü apxeo, loruvecxoü oKcrreÄvqul't
In 1937 r (TäurxeHr 1940).
fpr4r1zHa 1992
A.A.IpuqrzHa, Apxeo, r.oruvecrrze naM.qrHr {Krr
Crrp4apruucroü o6, tacru (Tärrxeur in 1992).
IpaqzHa/llapaaee 1990
A. A. fpzquua/m. X. IlapÄaee, Apxeo, toruvecnoe
r, r3yrreHpre Kzgu, luucxoro MaccvBa. In: M. I, I. (Dn, rauoezu
(Ed.), Apxeo, lornvecrue pa6orrr ha HoBocrpoünax
Ys6exzcraHa (TäurxeHr 1990) 163-179.
Ipzqr, rHa/Ycr, aaHoea 1 992
A. A. fpr-rqzna/E. Ä. YcvaHoea, tr4:yveuue uorur ^
bHr, rxa XII - Ha.ra" \a XIII B. Ha ropo4rrrqe
Ky, tnrena. Wcropua Marepua^bHoü Pr Xyalry, r
Y:6enucrana 26, in 1992, 193-206.
Iyaxuoe among other things in 1966
.fl. I ly, rxuoeA {Zc, taNroe/A. Acxapoe, llepeo6mr-
Ha" {Ky^r, Typa r4 Bo3Hr4KHoBeHue oporxaeMoro
3eM^eÄe^ur B Hr.r3oBr, rx 3apaQIraua. Tpy4sr
Maxau4aprzHcxoro orpraa Ys6exzcraHcnoü
apxeo^orurrecxoü sxcne4uqrzu Arca4elr*tu Hayx
Ys6excxoü CCP I (Täurxenr Ig66) 257-265.
{a, ucxzü in 1950
A. H. fa, trcxuä, Hacxa, unue rl:o6paxenlra e
6acceüne penu 3apaQrrran. In: A. trO.flxy6oncxnü
(Hrs g.), Tpy4rr C orarlücxo-Taaxzr ecnoü oxcne4lrrlvt H in I. 1946-1947 rr. Marepua ^
Br rr ucc^er'loBaHut ro apxeo^ort4u CCCP 15
(Mocxea-AeHvlerpa {I 950) 232-240.
{enr.rcoe in 1980
E. Li. {euucoe, Orqer o pa6ore {aurapzucnoro
orpt4a. Apxeo, torzuecxze pa6orr, r e Tä4xr.rxzcraue
15, IN 1975 (1980), 96-109.
fixypaxy "r, oe in 1983
M. fl., \xypary, toe, Pa6orrr e Cauapxan4cKoü tl6-
aacrz. Apxeo^orlryecKve orrpbrrr4r 198 l r. (1983),
{xypaxy, ron/Xo "uraroe I 99 I
M.!. flxypaxyaoe/H. Y Xo, uraroe, Me3o, \ur z
Heo^r4T Cpe4uero 3apaQuraHa (Casaraucrcaa xy, and, -
rypa) (Täuxesr 199 I 1.
{xypaxy, toe/Xo, rromxzu in 1976
M.!. fixed; ypaxy, toe/Io. Li. Xo, rrouxun, flpe4eapr.
rTe^bHbre pe3y^bTaTr, r cTaTrrcTr, rqecKoro noÄcrreTa
H xapaxTep pa3Br t LrA Heo^rrrrirrecKo ü uu 4Y C t pun
CasaraH 1. In: Marepza-tbr rro vc-topr4u Yg6ercucraHa
307 (Cauapxau4 1976) 6-30.
{r, arouoe in 1950
M. M. {rxroHon, Pa6ornr KaQr, rpuvrrancxoro orprga.
In: A. IO.flxy6oncxuü (Ed.), Tpyau Cor-
4uücxo-Ta4xzncxoü apxeo^oruirecxoü sxcfleÄürJuz
l, in in 1946-1947 Rn Marepua^r, r H rrcc^e4oBaHut
ro apxeo^oruu CCCP 15 (Mocxea-ÄeHuHrpaa
1953) 147-186.
fraxoHoe in 1953
M. M. {r, xxouoe, Apxeo, loruqecKue pa6oru e
Hr.r) fiHeM TeqeHr, rlr pexu KaQupuurana (Ko6a4uaH)
(In 1950-1951 rr.). In: Tpyau Tä4xzxcxoä apxeo-
, \oru.recxoü oxcneÄuquu 2, in in 1948-1950 Rn Marepzatu
vt [cc^eÄoBaH [. {no apxeo^oruu CCCP 37
(Mocxra-ÄenuHrpa4 1953) 253-293.
Ee4oxr.nroe 1975
B.B.Ee4oxl*roe, Hoerre pacronKv A, rexceeecKoro
noce^ ha p. To6o "r. Coeercna.a apxeo-
.toru "see in 1975, H.4, 163-172.
Ee4oxrauoe / MypsrzH 1984
| Ä. En4oxr.rrraoe / B. 0. MypsuH, Pannecxzecxoe
rrorpe6enue C opyrxüeM z: Xepcoucxofi o6, tacrn.
In: Boopyxeuae cKHQoB V capMaroB. C6opuzx
HayqHbrx rpyÄoB (Kuee in 1984) 75-82.
) Kyxou in 1956
B.{.Xyron, Marepza, rr'r K v3yrreHr419 Earrrenuncxoü
rpyunlr rraM. {THr, rKoB e sana4Hoä vacru EyxapcKoro
oa3raca. Tpyalr l4ucruryra trlcroptru and
Apxeo, torlrra Axa4er, rrzrl Hayn Ya6excxoü CCP B,
IN 1956,).73-204.
3a4Henpoecruir lg62
0. A. 3a4nenpoecxzä. {peeHeselr, re4e^r, qecKat
Ky^r, Typa (DepraHrr. Marepua, lrr V vccle4oBalo:z's.
flo apxeo^oruz CCCP ll8 (Mocxea-AeHuHrpag
3a4uenpoecxuü in 1966
0. A. 3a4uenpoecxuä, flauxrnzxl aHr, lpoHoBcKoi;
i Ky^r, Typu. In: Cpe4nxs Azun B onoxy KaMH, *
z 6pousr, r (Mocrna-ÄeHuHtpaÄ 1966) 213-232.
3agHenpoecxxä 1995
K). A. 3a4uenpoecxuü, Houa4r'r apeeHeü Oepranr,
r: Tizno, ro and the following hl rraMflTrvtxoe, pafi ouupoBaHrre,
r, rcroprrrecnoe lrcro^ In: I, Ie Äc-topuLl t4
apxeo^orrr ÄpeBHero Tsul-fllaH.n (Euunex in 1995)
3.1-t +-
3aü6epr in 1993
B. SUPRA 3aä6epr, Eneo "rrzr Ypa, ro-Zprr, rurcKoro Mext-
Aypeqbt (llerponan, noncr in 1993).
3Ac, raecnarr in 1959
(D. A. 3Ac, raecxax, Eorzn.a n^o4opo4lrr B Koporr ^
acrvne AQpacza6a KyrraHcxoro eperraeHrl (flo
Marepua^aM co6panua Myaea zcropuz YsCCP).
I4cropua Marepr.ra^bHoü xy, uryplr Ys6exzcraHa
1, 1959,22-59.
3esenxoea 1972
B., {. 3eseHxoBa, KpaH [o, toru.recx] rü Marepua
Ir3 Karuxalapruncnoü o6^acru. I4cropua uarepua,
rr, noü Pr Ky^bry, r Ys6exHcraua 9, in 1972, ll5-
3esenxoea 1973
B. {. 3esenxoua, Onucare, rbHbre ÄaHHbre qepenoB
KyeuHcxoro xrrag6uqa IX-X eexoe. l4crop*rt r, nrepuanruoü
Ky^r, Typr, r Ys6exzcraHa 10, in 1973,
3eseHroea 1974
B. "fl. 3eseHxona, Hexoropbre^orr4rrecxue
Marepila^br KyrxaHcroro BpeMeHrr e Cpe4Heü
AszIl. In: IJeurpa, tr, uaa Aszr e KyrrraHcnyrc oloxy
I. Tpyart Melr (AyHapo4Hoü xouQepeuqru no rrcropuu,
apxeo^orulr and Ky^r, Type IJeHTpa^r, Hoü Asllra
B KyrxaHcxoro onoxy. fiynau6e, 27 cenrxlpx -
6 oru6pr in 1968 N (Mocxna in 7974) 226-236.
3efina, and in 1972
E. B. 3eü, Tä, nu-6apsnncxuü xaa4 MoHer C
rr3o6pa) r {eHr.reM
Coo6rqenvs locyaapcr-
BeHHat Spnzraxa 34, 1972,70-75.
3eäua; rs in 1978
E. B. 3eürraaas, llo, trarrzvecnar ricropur.4peeueä
TpaHcorcczaubr no HyM) l3Maruqecxr4M aaHHbrM.
In: B. | ÄyxoHzrr (Ed.), Ky, r, rrypa Bocrora.
/peeHocrl a paHHee cpegHeBenoBbe. C6opHzn
crareü (Aeuuurpat l97B) 192-214.
3eüna, tr in 1983
E. B. 3eürr, Ra "Tb, MoHerbr Ta4x (lyuraH6e 1983).
trIeaHuqxzä 1992
14. [. I4e.alaulq.xzä, Caparene-2 - lloce, renve Kepa-
Mr, rKoB cepe4zHr, r I rbrc-aqe, l.eru" {4o H. D. rro4
Canapxau4or '.r. l4croput Marepva^r, Hoä ry, tr, rypr, r
Y36enzcraHa 26, in 1992, 22-41.
trLrlxcoea in 1990
C. P Z, rr, qcoga, Axcuxercxue qvparu. I, lcropua uarepua,
unoä ry "urypu Ye6exucraua 24, in 1990, I 72-178.
\4caxos in 1977
A. tr4. tr4caxoe, IJzra4e "tr JpeBHero lleH4xuneura
(fiylllrauie in 1977).
trIcaxoe in 1983
A. 14. Vcaxon, Pacnonxn Capaslrcroro orprga B
In 1983 r Apxeo; roruvecKve pa6orr, r N Tä4x 23, IN 1983 (1991), 348-362.
tr4caxoe in 1984
A. W. tr4caxoe, tr4cc.tre4oraHnr Capa3McKoro orpa4a
e in 1984 N Apxeo, roruuecrHe pa6ornr N Tä4; xu-
KVcraHe 24.1984 (1993), 117-130.
I, Icarcoe in 1991
A. tr {. tr4caxoe, Capasla (flyuau6e in 1991).
tr4caroe / florelrxuna in 1989
A. tr4. LlcaxoB/I M. llorenxI.rHa, Morz, tsnun
rr^eMeH enoxrl 6poH:r, r e Tä4xczrurcrane. Coeerc-
Cart apxeo^ornq in 1989, H. 1, 145-167.
l4caw:r.z'aulr.os in 1978
M.X.ZcauuAt\tr:aoB, CrparzrpaQzt ropo4rrnla
Ep-Kyprau e trOxHoNa Ys6exacraHe. CoeercKas
apxeo^orptr in 1978, H. 3,216-229.
I4cavu44uuov 1979
M.X.I4canulÄt4HoB, Kepalauxa rolr (Horo Cor4a N
Erroxy ApeBHocrr4 r't paHHero cpe4HeBeKoerg. AeropeQ.
Ar4cc. lrLa:e^A. HCr. HayK (Äeuuurpa4 1979).
\4catrngguuoulEaparoe 1990
M.X.I4canuggunoulC. P Eaparon, Hoenre pac-
Konxlr Myrxoua e laeacee. trlcropva Mareprra^buoü
xy, and, rypr, r Ys6exucraHa 24, in 1990, 86-93.
tr4 cauu 44uuos I Cy neüv ale'os 7 I 7 7
M.X.I4cauu44uuovlP. X. Cy, teürraauoe, Koun, rexc
pr.rrya^r, Ho-Kylr, ToBoä KepaMrzxv IV V it. zs
IOxnoro Corya. tr4croprrr Marepua^buoü xy, Pr Lsry,
r Ys6exucrasa 13, l97Z 65-69.
l4cavu44uuozlCy "teünauoe I 984
M.X.Zcanz44uuoulP X. Cy, teüuaHoe, Epxypraa
(CrparzrpaQzx and nepzo4r.rsaqux) (TäIrrxeHr
Zc "raMoe/IiiN {o Y Li. I, Ic, scarce.ron. / 8. 14. TuuoQeen, Ky "trrypa KaMeHHoro
BeKa qeHrpa, tluoü (DepraHr, r (Tärrlrenr l986).
l4cxaxoeall4cxanoe 1 978
E. A. Xcxaxona/m. X. tr4cxaxoe, Teppaxorlr {a, lr, -
Bep3vHrene. In: A. tr {. Peuue, Rn (Ed.), fla, u-
Bep3r.rHTene - xyuraHcxzü ropo4 ha rore Ys6e-
Kr {craHa (Täurxen'r in 1978) 16 1-165.
tr4rrlna in 1960
M. A. trIrnna, Pacronxz crorHox raga6arr.q6cxoü
Ky^r, rypbr e in 1957 r In: C. Li. To, rcroe/m. Ä. l4ruua
(Ed.), llo, \eebre vccte4oBa:a:r's Xope:lrcxoü
sxcrreÄrqr {and e in 1957 ro4y. Marepua; ur Xopesr, rccoü
oxcrleÄilqr {r4 4 (Mocxea in 1960) 82-103.
tr4rzna in 1961
M. A. I, Irzna, Pacxonnr.r Mor [^bH].rxa rasa6aru-
-n6cxoü Ky^r, Typbr Konqa 3. In: C. II. To, tcroe
(Ed.), Morz, r.rnax 6poHsoeoro eexa Kox.ra 3.
Marepua, Ru Xopesncxoä oKcne4uqr {Pt 5 (Mocxea
1961) 3-96.
Llru:'l'a in 7977
M. A. tr4rvua, Llcropun crerrHr, rx n^eMeH Oxnoro
llpuapa "tr, x (II - uaua, lo I rr, rc.sqe, rernx 4o and e.).
Tpyau Xopecncnoü apxeo, loro-orHorpaQz.reccoü
oncneÄvqlru l0 (Moccna in 1977) 178-181.
trIrana in 1986
M.A.Zruna, Moru, uHzx Kox Ra 3. Honrre pac-
KorrKr, r. In: A.B.BuHorpa4on / M. A.ArusalA.T.
fl6, roucraü, {peeHeüruee Hace^ nrzgoerlü
Auy4aprz. Apxeo; roro-na^eoaHTpono^oruirecxoe
Irccie4oBaHrre. Tpyau Xope:ucxoü apxeo^oroorHorpaQuvecxoä
oxcne4zuwu 15 (Mocxna in 1986)
llru:g.alfl5 '.or'cxzü in 1997
M.A.I4rzua. / Ä. T fl6 "roucxuü, Caxu Hrlxneü
Cupaapru (no uarepza "taM Morrr^bHr.rKa n) + (Hbrü
Tärucxen) (Mocxea in 1997).
Ka6anoe 1957
C.K.Ka6anoe, Apxeo, rraMrruuKr.i
soHr, r Yzrvr-KypraHcKoro BoÄoxpaHz^r4ura. tr4enecrzr
Axa4euuz Hayn Ye6excr Ka6anoe 1959
IJ. K. Ka6auoe, Apxeo, rorlrqecKrre Ha6, trcgerrzt
Ha crponre^bcrBe Zcru-AHropcnofo KaHa^a.
tr4crctpvn Marep [a ^], Hoü xy, urypr, r Ye6exucrana
Ka6anos 1962
C.K.Ka6anoe, Kepaur-rvecnzü xonr, lenc 143
Hac, roenzä ÄpeBHero ropo4prrqa e Kura6e. Zcropr-
rr Marepua bHoü Pr Ky^bry, r Ys6erucraua 3,
Ka6auoe 1964a
C.K.Ka6aHoe, Apea, r. Lr oBo^rollafl ÄByx Kepa-
MHrrecKHX Qoplr. Coeercxaq apxeo^oru, q in 1964,
H. 3. 79-87.
Ka6anoe 1964B
C.K.Ka6anoe, Pacronxz ua llloprene 6; rua Kaprrrlr
B in in 1952-1953 Rn trIcropun rrrarepv a, rsnoü
Kv^r, rypr, r Ys6exucraHa 5, in 1964, 70-89.
Literature list
Ka6auoe 1969
4zrqa AQpacza6.
H. l. 183-198.
Ka6auoe 1972
tr4zyteuue crparurpaQzn ropo-
CoeercKa; t apxeo, rorua in 1969,
C.K.Ka6anoe, AüryrÄrr-Tene. I4croput Marepza,
tr, Hoü Ky^r, Typr, r Yg6enzcrana 9, in 1972, 73-88.
Ka6anoe 1973a
C.K.Ka6anon, CrparurpaQuvecxuü pacKon B ceeepuoü
qacru ropoaurqa AQpacua6. A (Täur Ka6aHoe 1973B
C.K.Ka6anoe, Pyuunt 3Äa:clux BpeMeHI {KyIrraH
6, us Kapurz. Acropux Mareplra^bHoü ry "trryprr
Ye6exzcraHa 10, 197 3, 27-37.
Ka6aHoe 1977
C.K.Ka6anoe, Haxue6 ua py6exe ÄpeBHocrI, I rI
cpeaHeBexoBr'a (III-VII one.) (Tänneur in 1977).
Ka6auoe 1981
C.K.Ka6anoe, Ky "lr'rypa ce^bcKrrx noce, r.eszä
Ioxnoro Corga III-VI Federal Railway. rro Mareprra in rrcc^e-
4o sauuir e soHe 9uu rcypraHcKoro B o4oxpaHlr^lrxla
(Täurxeur l98l).
Ka6anoe 1992
C.K.Ka6anon, Pacxonxu; teccoeoü creHbl ha
ropoÄuule A Ky^r, rypbr Ys6exncraHa 26, in 1992, 69-7, 7.
Ka6anoe u/a/1974
C.K.Ka6anoelM. W. (you, tanoeuq/m. X. Ypnauoea,
Pacnonxaqacrv) I {u^oro MaccI, IBa IX-XI ee.
AQpacrza6 3 (Täurxenr in 1974) 63-83.
Ka4rrp6aen / Kypnauxy, roe in 1992
M.K.Ka4up6aee / 3. Kyprr.rauny "toe, Ky" nrrypa
apeBHlrx cKoroBo4oB V Mera ^^ ypron Capsr-Apnz
(A, tua-Ara in 1992).
Kasaxoe in 1979
E.fI.Kasaroe, llal'Larurlxu vepxacxy, tr'cxoü
Ky^r, Typbr B BocToqHt'Ix paüoHax Tarapuu. CoeercKafl
apxeo^orus, in 1979, H. 1, 145-160.
Kacr, rMoe in 1962
M. P Kacr'rrtroe, Klrsr't, txr, rpcnat crotHxa KaMeHHoI'o
BeKa B orpecrHocrflx r Eyxapr'I. I4cropza uarepua,
tnuoü Ky^brypbl Yg6enzcrarra 3, in 1962, 19-27.
I {.urnxu;:ra in 1974
T, Li. Kzsrxuua, florpe6euvt KorreBHI. {Choosing KyrrraHcKoro
BpeMeHu ha upaeo6epe; rcle are, ayÄaplz
(AHrpono, torI4rrecKrre narepua, r.r'r). In: IJeurpa, Tl Asusr B KyrxaHcrylo enoxy I. Tpyarr Melr (AyHapo4noü
raw Ky^r, Type IJeHrpa; rsHoü Asuz e KylxaHcxoro
enoxy. fymaH6e, 27 cewrtt6p.a - 6 oxu6pr in 1968 r
(Mocrea in 1974) 237-243.
Koea ee in 1997
A.A.Koea en, Moru, r.lHzn Bepxuzü Acxue I,
KypraH 2. Oxyueecxzü c6opnux (Cauxr llerep
6ypr 1997) 80-112.
Koe, \oecnzü / Henpacoea I 976
B.A.Kog, \oec wfirlE. l. Henpacoea, CrparzrpaQzqecxuü
urypQ ha rruraÄeur apeBHero Teplresa. In:
B.M.Maccon (Ed.), Baxrpuficxue apeBHocrlz,
llpe4eapure; rsnrre coo6uleHIzq o6 apxeo^orHqecKrrx
pa6orax ha of truck Ys6exücraHa (Aeuuurpa4
1976) 30-39.
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Kou4parr, eea in 1961
(D. A. KoH4parbeBa, Kepauuxa C Se, \eHoü no, \ueoü
us llaäxen4a. Ky, trrypa ü ncKyccrRo HapoZoB
BocroKa 6. Tpy4rr locygapcreeunoro Dpnauraxa 5
(Aeuuurpa4 196l) 216-227.
Kopo6xona 1969
I tD. Kopo6roea, OpyÄza rpy4a 14 xoaaüc.reo Heo-
rr^eMeH Cpe4ueä Asau. Marepuaar, r
and vcc^e.4oBaHrrr no apxeo^orzn CCCP 158 (Äe-
Hzurpa4 1969).
Kopo6noea 1996
| (D. Kopo6rona, Cpe4una Asu-{r Kasaxcran. In:
Heo, tzr Cenepuoü Eepasurz. Apxeo, torza (Mocxea
1996) 87-133.
Kopo6roea / Pauoe in 1968
| (D. Kopo6noea / B. A. PaHoe, Heo, trrr ropHbrx
paüouoe Cpe4ueü Aszu. In: llpo6, teur, r apxeo-
, torau Cpeguei.t Awm (AenuHrpa4 1968).
Kocapee in 1974
M. SUPRA Kocapee, {peenue Ky^r, Typbr Toncxo-HapbrMcKoro
llpzo6r, x (Mocxea in 1974).
Kocapee in 1996
M.@.Kocapee, Heoaur Bocroqiroro 3aypa, and, x z
3anaÄsofi Cu6up, z. In: Heo; rur Cenepuoü Eepaar.
ll. Apxeo; roru; r (Mocxea in 1996) 253-269.
Kpaurenunuuxoea in 1968
H. 14, KpaureuuuHzxoea, Paspee xpenocruoü
creHbr gpeBHero Keua. O6rqecreeuHr, Re HayKu B
Yg6enrzcraHe 8, in 1968.
Kpraeqoea-lpaxoea l94B
SUPRA A. KpzerJoea-fpaxoea, A, r.exceeecroe noce-
ü Mofa^bHlrK. In: Apxeo, torzuecxzü c6op-
Hzx. Tpy4u locy4apcreenHoro tr4cropuqecKoro
nyzet 17.1947 (1948) 57-172.
KysrnraHa 1962
E.E.Kysr, rrruHa, Apxeo, toruqecKoe o6c, r.egoeauue
rraM.rrrHZKoB E, Lenoncxoro uzxpopaüoHa aHÄponoscxoü
Ky^r'Typbr. Kparxrle coo6rqeuna o JoK-
and fro^eBblx Lrcc^eaoBaHlrl.lx tr4ucturyta
apxeo^orLrLr, AH, CCCP 88, 1962,84-92.
KysruuHa 1963
E.E.Kysrlrr.rua, fpeeneülran Qurypna eep6, tro4a
us OpeH6yprcxoü o6, nacrr.r and npo6, telra 4or, aec'fvna:'
vlt 6axrpuanoe. Coeercxag apxeo^orl4t
IN 1963, H.2,38-46.
KyesurlHa 1964
E.E.Kyerrrauna, O rolnHbrx npeae^ax pacnpocrpaHeHr.
It crerrHr'Ix Ky^bryp enoxu 6pouau e
Cpe4ueä Asuz. In: SUPRA H. Ea4ep (Ed.), llar'arr-
Hrrxr {KaMeHHoro rz 6pouaoBoro BeKoB Eepaaul
(Mocxna in 1964) 141-158.
Kysrnzna in 1965
E.E.Kysr'rr.ruua, OrHocurerrr'Hall xpoHo^orzt
aHÄpoHoBcxt4x noce, Leuuü E, \enoecroro MLrKpopaüoaa.
Coeercxa.s apxeo^orvt 4, in 1965.
Kysruzua in 1980
E.E.Kyelrrazua, 9ranr'r pa3Br4TI {. {Ko^ecHoro rpaHcnopra
Cpe4ueir Aarry, B onoxy aHeo^r'ITa and 6poHsr'r
(K npo6, teue Mrlrpaqua I, N IHaorrpaHcKlrx, reueu).
Bectrux Apeeueü ucropuu 4 (154), in 1980, 11-35.
Kysrnuna in 1994
E.E.KyaruuHa, OrxyÄa rpnru^u zugoapuu? (Mocrsa
Literature list 323
KyaruzHa among other things in 1966
E.E.Ky:rl, rznalM. I Mouxoea/B. C. CopoxaH/
B.C.Croroaoc/D. A. (De4opoea-{aerr4oea, Meadow
ApoHoBcKaJr Kyibrypa 1. llarra.qrrruxv 3anaÄHbrx
paäoHoe. Coeercxa.s apxeo^onls: Ceog apxeo-
^orr4r {ecKHx
r4croqHr, rKoB B 3-2 (Mocnea-ÄeHzurpa.
r in 1966).
Ky, urypa z zcxyccrno in 1991
Ky, rrrypa ü ucKyccrBo ÄpeBHero Ys5exucraual
Culture and kind of ancient Uzbekistan. Vol. l-2
(Mocxea/Moscow 1991).
Kr, rs, racoe in 1965
A. P. {penuefilrrue opy4ns. ropHoro 4e^a A, rrae.
Marepua "tr, r a vcc^egoBaHur rro apxeo^oruu CCCP
1 30 (Mocxna-AeHuHrpa4 1965).
Äa:aperoe in 1997
tr4. IL Aazaperoe, OxyueRcKr4e Morlr^hHrrKr.r B
Ao rrHe pexz yü6ar. OxyHeucorü c6opHun (CaHnr-
Ilerep6ypr 1997) 19-64.
Äe6e4eea 1990
T trI. Ae6egeea, 3apraprena. In: M. tr4. (You, ranoezv
(Ed.), Apxeo.noruvecxue pa6ornr ha HoBocrpoüxax
Ys6exzcrana (TäurneHr 1990) 72-9l.
Feed in 1966
{. H. Aee, llorpe6eHrae 6poHsoeoü snoxn 6, tzs r
Canaprauga. Kparxze coo6uleHur o lox^aaax H
lo^eBbIX ricc^eÄoBaHvrx I4Hcrwryra apxeo^orptz
AH, CCCP l0B, in 1966, 101-104.
AeezHa 1971
A.M.AeeuHa, KepaMuKa Huxrleü and Cpe4ueü
Cnrp4apr, H e I rbrcsqe, \eruv H. supra Tpy4nr Xopeslrcroü
apxeoaoro-ernorpaQz.recxoü encne4zqnn 7
(Mocxea in 1971).
ÄureuHcxüü 1950
E.A.AnrerlHcxuit K rrcrophu 4o6srvu o^oBa B
Ys6exacraHe. Tpyarr Cpe4Heasuarcroro locy-
4apcTBeHHOrO yHHBepcrzTeTa ll, lyrr, rauurapnlre
uayxu 3, in 1950, 5l-68.
Äurezucxzä in 1954
E.A.ÄzrezHcxuü, fpeeHeüurze crpanurlbr ptcropuu
ropHor-o Äeta TaAlKHKrrcraHa V Apyrux
pecny6, tzx Cpe4ueü Asuu. Hayuuo-noily^rpHat
626; urorera 19 (Cra, rzHa6 aa in 1954).
ÄureuHcruü 1956
E.A.AurezHcnuü, Pa6orr, r orpt4a no H3yqeHnrc)
rraM. {THt4KoB 6poueororo BeKa B Kaüparc-Kynax.
Apxeo, roruuecxze pa6orr, r e Tä4xurcucrase 1955.
Tpy4u Axa4enuu Hayx Tä4xnxcxoü CCP 43,
ÄzrezHcxuü 1962
E.A.ÄHreaHcxuir, Py4uax 6asa, uera, rayprrlfl LI
, rrlreünoe 4e "to. In: E.A.AIzrezHcxuülA. Financial Accounting. Orcaa4nrzxoe/
B.A.PaHon, {peeHocru Kaäpax-
Kynon ({peeneüura.s ucropar C eeepHoro TagtxuxzcraHa).
Axa4euua Hayr Tä4arzncroü CCP
(fiyrnu6e in 1962) 170-195.
ÄurezHcxr.rü 1968
E.A.ÄurezHcxzü, Opy> xze Hace^eHv.s flarr, rupa and
(DepraHrr B caKcnoe eperrar. Eoeer, Re ronoplr. KuHlxa,
trr. HaxoneqHr4ru crpe, t. Marepva^r, ha; t Ky^brypaTa4,
xuxucraHa I (fiyll; la:el6e in 1968) 69-115.
/lureuucxuft in 1972
E.A.ArzrezHcxuü, Kypraubr t4 RypyMbr 3arra4uoir
(Depraur, r (Pacxonxu. llorpe6a; rsnr, rü o6pr4 e
cBere ernorpa (puz). Moru, lr, nprnu 3ana4Hoü
(Deprauu I (Mocxea lg72).
Aurpuqcr; uil 1973a
B.A.Anrezncrzü, Kepauvna b3 Morn^bHaKoB
3ana4nofi öepranrr (nepnoe, terue H. supra).
Moru, r.r, nrzxz 3ana4noü (DepraHr, r II (Mocnna in 1973).
ÄzrezHcrtIzü 1973B
E.A.ÄzrslrHcxzä, YrpauretÄfl. u3 Morr4^r, HLrKoB
3ana4uoü (Depranr, r. Moru, rlnzrcu 3ana4Hoü
(DepraHrr III (Mocxea in 1973).
AIlrealrcruü 1978
E.A.Ar.rrerzncnuü, Opygua rpy4a V of Pr Yrba, H3
Morv^bHuKoB 3anagHoü (Depraulr. Morn, trurznu
3ana4noü Oeprauu IV (Mocxea l97B).
ÄnreuHcxnä 1995
B.A.ÄareuHcxuü (Ed.), Bocro.rHr, rü Typrcecrau
B ApeBHocrt4 and paHHeM cpe4HeBexoBbe. Xosaücreo,
Marepua^bHar Ky^brypa (Moctua l g95).
Aur nurrcxuir lMyxur4zHoe I 969
E.A.Äzreuucxzü/X. Myxur4uHoe, AnrprqHoe ropo4uqe
Carcauoxyp (trO; xuuü Tä4rxurzcran). Co.
Bercxa.fl apxeo^ornr in 1969, H.2, 160-178.
Nomad village euHcxwia/Ce4oe I 984
E.A.ÄrreuHcxuülA. B. Ce4oe, Ky, tr, Ru z pz-
Tya^r, r ryuraHcxoü Eanrpaz. lIorpe6a, tsHr, rü
o6pr4 (Mocxea in 1984).
Aur suncxuil/C o, loe tea I 97 2
E.A.Äl.rreaucxuir / 8th C. Co., lonr, ee, CrorHrca
crennoü 6pou:u e IOxHoN4 Tä4xzxrlcraHe. ycnexrz
cpe4Hea3zarcxoü apxeo^orr {rr l, 197 2, 41 47.
ArlrerlHcnrü among other things 19ti2
6. A. AÄrezHcxuft/A.lI. Oxaa4uIzxoe / B. A. PaHoe,
/peeuocrz Kaüpax-Kynon (lyruaH6e lg62).
Marczrraenxoe l97B
I A. MaxcrrrueHxoe, ha AH4poHoBcKar Ky^brypa
Enzcee (AeurlHrpa4 l97B).
Mau4e, and, urau 1966a
A.M.Man4e^r, rrrraM, llorpe6eHzn cpy6uoü xy "Rn
Typbr B IO; xnoü TyprrueHzu. Kparxze coo6ulenza
* Jox a4ax lr lo^eBbrx uccteÄoBauutx tr lucrrtryra
apxeo^orr.ra, AH, CCCP l0B, in 1966, 105-108.
Mau4e, tr, mralr 1966B
A.M.Mau4e^brrrraM, Ko.reeHzxu ua nyru N I, Iu-
4r.rrr. Tpy4u Tä4; xr.rxcxoü Apxeo, rorzvecxoü 3rcne4urfuv
I4ucruryra Apxeo, noruru, AH, CCCP and
Wucruryta tr4cropuu to. A. foHzna, AH, TäAxurcxoü
CCP 5. Marepza "tbr rr Äcc eÄ no
apxeo^ort4 r.r P I 3 6 (Mocxea-Aenr.rHrpaÄ 1 966).
MaH4e, trurrarrr in 1975
A.M.MaH4eibrrrraM, llau-arnnxu KoqeBHuKoB
KyuaHcKoro BpeMeHr.r e Cenepuofi Earrpuu. Tpy-
4r, r Tä4xr.rxcxoü apxeoaorn.recxoü oKcrre4r.trlprpr
l4vcruryra Apxeo "norzrz, AH, CCCP and l4ucruryra
l4croputt ur, a. A. {ouuua, AH, Tä4xnrccxo; T CCIR
(Aeur.rHrpaa 1975).
Man4e, uurrau in 1992
A.M.Mau4e^r, rrrraM, Ko.reeoe uace, lenue Cpe4-
Hea3LlaTCKOrO MelK4yperrbfl B noc^elHtre BeKa Äo
uaueä opnr rz nepBbre eena uaueü eplr. In:
CrenHan lo^oca Aszarcxoü qacru CCCP e cxzeocapMarcxoe
eperrra. Apxeo^orur CCCP XI (Mocxea
1992) 107-115.
324 Tinn of cler Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Mapry "laH in 1972
A.X.Mapry, taH, Ioprroe Ae^o B IJeurpa, truor, r
Kasaxcrane B ApeBHze r't cpeÄHlre eera. In: Ilouc-
Ku a pacxonKrz see KagaxcraHe (A, tua-Ara in 1972).
Mapry, yard in 1973
A.X.Mapry "taH, {xesra3raH - 4peenuü ue-
Ta ^^ yprr4qecxuü qeurp. In: Apxeo, r.orl {rlecK} Re
vcc^e4oBaHvl e KasaxcraHe (A, tlta-Ara in 1973).
Mapry, taH in 1979
A.X.Mapry, laH, Eeraasl-faH4r'r6aeecxat Ky^brypa
IJeurpa "tr'noro Kagaxcraua (A, tr, aa-Ara in 1979).
Mapry "thaw among other things in 1966
A. X. Mapryaan/K. A. Axüuree/m. K. Ka4up6aee/
A.M.Opa:6aen, fpeeuaa Ky^r'rypa lJeurpa, tsnoro
Kagaxcrana (A, ura-Ara in 1966).
Maplrax 196 l
E.A.Mapurax, B, University of Technology xnrä ropeBTrrRr4 ha corguircxyrc
KepaMuxy VII-VIII eexon. Ky, trrypa and
rzcKyccrBo HapogoB Bocroxa 6. Tpy4rr locyaapcr-
BeHHarr Opuuraxa 5 (ÄeHzurpa4 1961) 175-201.
MacrNroe 1979
tr4. C. Macvrraoe, Zsyveuue rraMtrHlrKoB orloxü
6poHerr Ha3oBr, eB Mypra6a. Couercrcax apxeoaorz.
q in 1979, H. 1, lll-131.
MaccoH 1957
B.M.Maccon, tr4:tyteuue oHeo^LITa and 6poHsoeoro
eexa Cpe4Hei.i AeuH. CoeercKzur apxeo orntt in 1957,
Maccon in 1959
B.M.Maccon, Äpenueseu, teÄe^brrecrar Ky^brypa
Mapruanrr. Marepza, ur V vccn.eÄoearlas. ro
apxeo^orurr {CCCP 73 (Mocxea-Aeuzurpa4 1959).
Maccon in 1966
B.M.Maccon, Ky, trrypa 3auan-Ea6a. In: Cpe4-
nrs Aszs B onoxy KaMHt lt 6ponsr'I (Mocxea Äe
HHHrpaÄ 1966) 208-213.
Maccou in 1971
B.M.Maccon, lloce, teuue lxeüryH (npo6, r.errra
craHoB^euru npor3Bo4flrlleü exonouuxr-r). Marepvat*
V trcc^eÄoBaHrrt no apxeo^oruta CCCP 180
(Mocxea-AeuzHrpaa 197 1).
Maccorr in 1985
B.M.Maccon, Ceeepnaa Earrpua. In: I A. Korre ^
eHKo (Ed.), {peeneü rocy4apcrea Kae-
Ka3a r {Cpe4Heü Asuz. Apxeo "torus CCCP VITI
(Mocxea in 1985) 250-272.
Maccon in 1956
In my opinion Maccou, Kparxnä oqepx rrcroplrl\u3yqeHut
Cpe4neü A:üz e apxeo^oruqecKoM orHorucHttt4.
Tpyarr Cpe4neaszarcxoro locy4apcreeuuoro YHUBepczrera
31, Zcropuuecxlre HayKIr 12.1956,
Maccon in 1973
In my opinion Maccon, Cro, r.uvHr, Re ropo4a e o6aacrz hertz
3oBr'eB Kaussa4aprz C 4peeueüurzx epeueu (Tärrrxenr
Marrourun in 1982
I H. Marrourun, gueo "tnr Oxuoro Ypa" la (Mocrna
Me4eeÄcxaq 1976
tr4. H. Megne4crcat, Hoesrü nyuraucxtü Morrr^t '-
nzrc e EeüKenrcroü Äo^rrHe. Apxeo, lorzuecxze
orrpbrrrrt in 1975 r., 1976,568-569.
Me4ee4cnar 1979
tr4. II. Me4ee4cxaa, Pacnonnz e lllaapryze see in 7974
N Apxeo, torurrecxr, Re pa6orrr e Tä4> nzxzcrale.e 14,
In 1974 (1979), 1t0-t22.
Me, rroxoea in 1964
A. I4. Me, troxoea, Boopyxenue cxrzQoe. Coeercrat
apxeo^oraa: Ceo4 apxeo^orr {qecKr.rx rrcroq-
Huxoe {l-4 (Mocxna in 1964).
Meurxeprac in 1962
B.A.Meurxepr.rc, Teppaxorr'r CanapxaH4cKoro
nysen. Kara, ror apeBHHx craryorox and Apyrux
Me^Krrx cKy^brrrypHbrx vs4e, +uü Hs o6o) KfieHHoü
r r.rHbr, xpaHrultrxcl e Pecny6 "lurancrcou Mysee
r {cropr {and Ky^ETypbr and rictyccrBa YsCCP B ropoae
Canapxau4e (ÄeHrzurpaa 1962).
Merurepac in 1964
B.A.Meumepuc, Pauuze corguücrcae craryoTxz
6oruHu-lrarepz. Coo6rqeHrz.s locy4apc'lueHuoro
Splaurarta 25, in 1964, 46-54.
Meumepuc in 1965
B.A.Meunepuc, Paunue reppaKo'r'r, r Cor4a (K eonpocy
o6 rrcroKax cor4zücnoü nopon, racrurcu). In:
tr4cxyccreo raÄ) Kr.rKcKoro uapoga 3 ({yuraH6e I 965)
3-5 t.
Meuneprzc in 1977
B.A.Meruxeprzc, Kopon, tacruru Cor4a ({yuraH6e
Meumeprac in 1989
B.A.Meunepuc, Cor4nücxar reppar (ora ({yuraH6e
Mup6a6aee 1981
A. Mzp6a6aee, O pa6orax 9opryücroro xos4oroBopHoro
orpl4a e l98l r Apxeo "toruqecxlre
pa6oru e Tä4xurucraue 21, l9Bl (1988), 56-72.
Morrl, tr, nuxoe in 1992
B.A.Moru, tr, Hr.rKoB, Xyuuy 3a6aüxa "tr's. In: Crer-
Har no^oca Asuarcxoü qacrz CCCP e crolQocapMarcKoe
epeur.a. Apxeo, r.orul CCCP XI (Mocxea
1992) 254-273.
Mocxa, renxo in 1983
H.A.Mocxa, teuxo, Apxeolorriilecxae rlocryrr^enzs
e AeHuua6a4cxuä O6, tacruoü IzcropuKo-
KpaeBeÄrrecrriü uyseü e in 1983 r Apxeo "toruuecxue
pa6orr, r e Tä4xnrcacrane 23, in 1983 (1991), 104-114.
Mourxoea in 1963
M. I Mourxoea, flauaruuxu npoxopoBcKoü Pr Xyalry,
r. CoeercKaq apxeo^orul: Cno4 apxeo^orarrecrux
Hcroqgr.rKoB Ä 1-10 (Mocxna in 1963).
Myxane4xanoe l97B
A. P Myxalreax {aHoB, l4cropua opoureana EyxapcKofo
oa3r.rca (C 4peeueüurrrx BPeMeH ÄO
Haqa^a XX N.) (TäruxeHr 1978).
Myxaue4:xarroe among other things in 1982
A. P Myxaue4) r (aHoB fl. K. Mnpsaaxne4oe / lll. T
A4r, r" ^oe, Kepar, ruxa Mr., r) * (HI, Ix c^oeB 6yxapu (Onrrr
lpe4Bapure^u roü puog uza4uu). Zcropua rn'rarepua,
rsuoü Ky^LTypr'r Yg6exücraHa 17, in 1982,
8 r-97.
Myxalre4xauos among other things in 1988
A. P Myxaue4xauoe / Ill. T A4u "ton / 1st K. Mnpeaaxue4oe/
l A. Ceuenoe, lopo4uqe flaüxeu4. K
npo6, teue r43yrreHr {t cpe4HeBexoBoro ropo4a Cpe4-
Heü Asurl (Täurxeur l98B).
Hexpacoea in 1974
E. I Hexpacoea, K Bonpocy o6 yurlQrlruquz
TepMrlHo^orrru 4peeneü KepaMHKr-r Cenepuoä
Eaxrpzu. In: {peen.ra Eaxrpru. Ilpe4napure, u-
Mr., Re coo6rqeHua o6 apxeo, rorr {rlecrlrx pa6orax ua
rore Ya6exucraHa (AenuHrpaa 1974) 88-92.
Heuqeea in 1969
I4. E. Heuqeea, CrparNrpaQzl ro:xuoä oKpaunr'I
ropo4lrqa A 153-205.
Hey H. trO. HeQeaon, Ky, trrono-MeMopr4a^bHoe coopyxeHze
Epxyprarra Federal Railway II-IV. H.s. In: M. I4. (Dn, Ra
HoBIirr (Ed.), Apxeo, tornvecnze pa6orbr ha
uoeocrpoünax Ys6erucrana (Täurrenr in 1990) 118-
Hu, and, cen in 1959
B.A.Hra, uceH, Kr'rsrr, r-Krrp (, rarrr pacxonox
In 1955 r). I {cropua Marepl {a^r'Hoä xy, r.rrypr'r
Ys6exzcraHa l, in 1959, 60-78.
Hu, tscen in 1966
B.A.Hu, trceu, CraHon, r.enue Qeo4a, r.t'uoü Pr Apxurekry,
r Cpe4Heä A:ur.r (V-VIII en.) (TäurxeHr
O6e, rsqenxo in 1962
SUPRA B. O6e, No., venxo, Moru, rsnurc Ax4xaprene.
l4cr opux Mareprra^bHoü xy; tr'ryplr Ya6exucrana
3, t962,57-70.
O6e-ns.regno I966
SUPRA B. O6e, a.r.reuxo, Caaarancxrre Kypr-aHbr. trlcroplrr
Marepr4a, uuoü xy, and, rypr, r Y:6exracraua 7,
IN 1966, 67-78.
O6e "tr.reuro in 1967
SUPRA B. O6e, tr.reuxo, florpe6eHrre capMarcnoro rr.rra
no4 CauapraH4ola. Coeercra, an apxeo orus in 7967,
H. 2, 181-187.
O6e, tr.leHKo 1969
SUPRA B. O6e, nsqeHxo, Mupaury^L'cxrre xypraurr. tr4c-
Topr.rr Marepua, tr'noü Ky^tTypbl Y:6enucraua B,
IN 1969, 80-90. 1972
SUPRA B. O6e, lbqeHKo, Ara, tr'rrcaücxve KyPI-aHbI.
I, Icropru Mareplia^bHoü xy "trrypr'r Ye6eKucraHa
O6e "and, qesxo in 1973
SUPRA B. O6errbrreHno, Kypraurr B oKpecrHocrtx
Cauapxau4a. AQpacza6 2 (Täurxenr in 1973)
O6e "trqesno in 1981
SUPRA B. O6e.uqeuxo, Kypraur, I 4peBHero Coraa (Tärrlxeur
O6e, and.regxo in 1992
SUPRA B. O6e, r.lveuno, Ky, tr, rypa aHTutlHoro Corya.
llo apxeoaor [rrecKnM aaHHbIM VII e. 4o H.s. -
VII e. H. supra (Mocxea in 1992).
O6o, r4yeea in 1955
T I O6o "tayeea, llorpe6eHll {sroxu 6poHssr e
Täuxeurcxoü o6aacrz. Kparrcue o
aor^aaax V no^eBbIX I4cc^eÄoBäHLrtx tr4Hcruryra
rrcropuu Pr Mare {a^bHoü ny "trrypu, AH, CCCP 59,
Ox, la4Hlzxoe 1958
A. Li. Ox "taaHrrxoB, Zcc, teÄoeaHrl.q naM-arHI4KoB
KaMeHHoro eeru Tä4xzxvtcrara. Marepzalr, r and
r {cc^eÄoBaHru no apxeo^oruz CCCP 66 (Mocxna-
Aeuuurpag in 1958).
flauQu, toe in 1980
SUPRA B. llauQn "roR, Hoeaa rpyrna nerpor" lnQoe e
llaHrase. Apxeo, torzvecrue pa6orlr e Tä4xu-
Kr.rcraHe 20, in 1980 (1987), 371-383.
llaHQrz, roe 19sheet
SUPRA B. llau Apxeo, toruvecr 198 l (1988), 115-125.
IlauQn, ron in 1983
SUPRA B. llaHQu, roe, tr4cc " nerpor, rzQoe
3ana4Hoü (DepraHm. Apxeo, loruvecxue pa6orr, r e
Tä4xurczcraHe 23, in 1983 (1991), 89-98.
llapaaee in 1992
M. llapaaee, Apxeo, lornvecxue pa6oru ha
Pacy, r6aüxy, lreta. Llcropux Marepua^bHoü xy, urypr,
r Y:6exzcraua 26, in 1992, 108-1 13.
llerpeuxo in 1967
B. I llerpeuxo, flpano6epexse Cpe4nero llpu4-
HelpoBr, r e Federal Railway V-III. Ao H. supra Coeercxa.q
apxeo^orwl: Cro4 apxeo, tofairecrr {x HcrorrHrrxoB
I 1-4 (Mocrea in 1967).
flu4aez in 1976
III. P flu4aee, Mupsaxy, l-Tene - raMrrHnn paHHe-
KyrrraHcKoro BpeMeHrz e Ceeepnoü Eanrpzu. In:
B.M.Maccou (Ed.), Eanrpuücxue ApeBHocrr, r.
llpe4eapure, trHrre coo6rqennr o6 apxeo, rorraqecxux
pa6orax ha rore Ys6etlrcraHa (Aenr.rurpa4
1976) 68-76.
lLl4aee 1978
[L P lln4aee, floce "reuna KyrrraHcxoro BpeMeHri
Ceeepuoü Eaxrpulr (TäurxeHr 1978).
llz4aen in 1990
III. P llzaaee, Apxeo, toruqecxue pa6orr, r ha
roro-BocroqHoM xo^Me 3aprena. tr4cropua r, aarepua,
truoü Ky^r, Typbr Ye6enucrana 24, in 1990,
llz4aee in 1992
lII. P llüaaee, K eonpocy o
A, rercanÄpt4t4
Ha Oxce. I4croputt urarepzaarnoü
Ky^r, ryplr Y:6exzcraHa 26, in 1992, 46-59.
lIrl, ulnxo l98b
B. H. fluarlnxo, llo6epexre CpegHeü Arr.ryÄaprz.
In: I A. Koure.r.enxo (Ed.), {peeHeüurae rocyaapcrBa
Kanxasa V. Cpe4neü Aezz. Apxeo, torura
CCCP VIII (Mocnea in 1985) 243-249.
llu, tznno/Korrre "ren no 1 985
B.H.Ilu "tnrrxo/l A. Koure, renrco, CeeepHal
llapQur. Cepaxccrzü oasnc. In: I A. Koure, tenxo
(Ed.), {peeueämze rocyaapcrBa Kaexaea and
Cpe4ueü Aszu. Apxeo, torz. {CCCP VIII (Mocrea
1985) 209-225.
flo4o, trcxzü in 1997
M. A. flo4o, rt'cxuil, fiva oKyHeBCKux IraMtrHHKa
Ha pyqbe YsyHvy, r. Oryrrencxuü c6opHux (Caurrllerep6ypr
1997) ll3-122.
llo, r.un in 1984
C. B. flo, rzH, 3axopoueuue cxr4QcKor-o BoLi Ha-gpyrxrrHHr.
rra Y C. Kpacur'rä llo4o, t ua XepcourqraHe.
In: BoopyxeHue cxzQoe H capMaroB. C6opuzx
HayrrHbrx rpyÄoB (Kuee in 1984) 103-119.
Literature list
326 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
IIo, \qKoe in 1972
C. Li. llo "tsxoe, Orver o pacxorKax cpegHeBeKoer,
rx norpe6euzü Y xuultaxa flyuunn Apxeo "rorrqecKxe
pa6onr e' Ia4xurcrlcrawe 12.1972 (1976)
199-2 I 2.
llo; r.sxoe in 1977
C. II. llo, uxoe, Moru, r.snux Ka "rarz Cap. Apxeo, norrrqecxue
pa6orrr R Tä4xzxucraHe 17, in 1977
(1983), 298-313.
llpxxzn in 1971
A. {. llpaxrlH, A6aureecxa. {Ky^r, rypa N llo4oHre
(BopoHex 1971).
llprxzu in 1975
A. {., O noce, r.euuxx a6aureecnoä o6rquocrri
B roro-3arra4Hnrx paäonax Cpeguero floeo^x {1.see.
Coeercxafl apxeo orut in 1975, H. 4,154-162.
llprxrlu in 1977
A. l. llpxxau, florpe6a, rlHrre a6aureecxr4e
rlaMflTHr4Krr (BopoHex 1977).
llpaxrzH in 1996
A. {. flpaxzH, Moco, r.oecxoe roce^eHüe Mera ^-
"rypron-" rureüuluKoB erroxL4 no:4Heü 6poHer, r.
Kunra eropa.a (Bopouex in 1996).
llprxuu/Caraü, aax 797 5
A. {. flpaxuH / 8th L [. Caraüaat TbrBaroular Macrepcxarr ha rroce^eHuu cpy6Hoü
Ky^brypbr. Cosercxas apxeo^orzr in 1975, H. 2,176-
llyraueuxona in 1962
I A. llyrauennoBa, Kopon^acrrrKa 4peBHero Mepea.
Tpy4r, r 0; xHo-Typxr, aeHr.rcraHcKoü apxeo^orn-
.recxofi xoun, texcuofi oxcneÄIzqIzr 11, in 1962,
llyraveHxona in 1966
I A. llyraveuRoBa, Xa^qa-sH. K npo6 "ler, ae xyÄo-
? KecrBeHHoü Ky^r, Typr'r Ceeepuoü Eanrpuz (Täurxeur
llyraveuxoea in 1989
I A. llyraveHxoBa,/peBnocru Mnauna^fl. l4i
pa6or Ys6enucraHcxoü HcxyccrBoBea.recnofi
orcre4lrurv (Täurreur in 1989).
llureuzqr, rua in 1992
M. H. llurerluqlrua, Tecuucxuü sran. In: Crennas
no^oca Aszarcxoü.racru B CCCP cxxQo cap
Marcroe eperraa. Apxeo^orrq CCCP XI (Mocxea
rs92) 224-235.
llrrpuH in 1990
B. A. lIrrpun, llpe4eapure^r'Hr'Ie pesy^rTarbr
r, r3yqeHnr (Bapra^a Mera ^^ [croB Epxyprana.
tr4cropua Mareprra^r'Hoü xy, tr'ryprr Ys6exLacraHa
24.1990, 121-126.
Ilr,-lrrrxosa in 1981
Ä. T. llrunxoea, Pacxonxz ha rloce^eHllu Teryaax
e 19sheet r Apxeo, torvqecxLre pa6orr'r V Ta4txu-
KrrcraHe 20, in 1981 (1988), 247-263.
flsnHxoea in 1982
Ä. T llrsuxoea, {penHrle cxoroBoÄt'r Eaxrpzz (o
eaxulcKoü and 6eurxenrcnoü xy, r.r'rypax. In: H. H.
HerNraroe/B. A. Panos (Ed.), Ky.trrypa nepBo-
6r, rrnoü enoxz Ta4xzxrrcraHa (or ueso, lr.rra 4o
6pousrr) ({yurau6e in 1982) 41-64.
Ilr.snKoea 1999
A. T llrxnxoea, Crenur, Re KoMrroHeHTbI B KoMrr ^
eKcax 6ponsoeoro BeKa roro-3arra4Horo Tä4-
) r {HKrrcraHa. Stratum plus 1999, H. 2, 286-297.
PaHoe 1966
B.A.Panoe, llltzQoear **, Re roropbr rls Tä4xurrzcraHa.
Coeercrat apxeo^orrü in 1966, H. 4,168-1,72.
Panos in 1982
B.A.Panoe, lzccapccar Ky^r, Typa: pacnpocrpa-
HeHue, xpoHo^orvr, gKoHoMLlKa. In: Ky "rlrypa
nepeo6r, rraoü snoxz Tä4xraKr.rcraHa (fiyuan6e
1982) 22-41.
Parroe in 1985
B.A.Panoe, filccapcxar Ky^r, Typa - Heo^r {T rop-
Hntx o6, nacreü Cpe4ueü Aszu (npoucxo) + (Ä,
pacnpocrpaHeurae, oce6euuocrz). In: Kalrennr, rü
nex Ceeepuoü, Cpe4ueü ri Bocro. + roä Asuz
(Hoeoca6zpcr 1985) 10-35.
Pacnonoea in 1980
B. tr4. PacrronoBa, Mera ^^ uqecKue v3Äettfl par
HecpeÄHeBeKoeoro Cor4a (Aeur-rurpa4 1980).
PysaHoe 1979
B. Pysauoe, O uexoroplrx lpeBHlrx o^oBopyaHr, rx
rrcrorrHrrKax ha reppuropzr.r Ye6erucrana. tr4croprll
MarepLra^bHofi Ky^r, Typrr Ys6exucraHa 15,
IN 1979, 98-104.
Caryy, t, taeu in 1978
A.C.Car4y, r'taen, Ky, urypa Ceeepuoü Eaxrpuu e
enoxy no3ÄHeü 6ponssr and paHHero; r avcc. KaHÄ. rrcr. HayK (^eHr.rHrpaa 1982).
Approx., lluuxoe in 1954
K. B. Approx., tr, suxoe, A6arueecraJr Ky^brypa ha l0xcrou
Ypa, Te. Coeercrarl apxeo^orun 21, in 1954, 52-94.
Approx., uuzKoe in 1967
K. B. Approx. "No., snroo, O.repxu 4peeueü uc'topr4t4
Oxnoro Ypaaa (Mocrea in 1967).
Approx., rroecxar l99l
E. l. Approx., r.roecxax, O pa6ore 3ana4lro-(DepraHcnoro
orptaa e l9B3 r Apxeo, torzvecxze pa6orr'r
e Tä4xrrucraue 23, in 1983 (1991), 35-46.
Cauofi, tux in 1983
14. T Carraoä, tux, 06 apxeo^oruqecKr. {x r.r3brcra-
e in 1983 N Apxeo, lorneecKrre pa6orr, I see Ta4> xu-
KvcraHe 23, in 1983 (1991), 259-272.
Capuauu4u 7975
B. tr4. Capuauugu, Crenur're rr^eMeHa snoxu 6pou-
3Br B Maprv ane, CoeercKax apxeo, r.orn*r in 1975,
Capuauu4u 1976
B. tr4. Capuauugu, lOxur, tä TyprneHucrau B onoxy
6pousu (Aurxa6ag 1976).
Ceaoe l9B7
A. B. Ce-4on, Ko6a4uau ha nopore paHHero cpe4-
HeBeKoBb-rr (Mocrea in 1987).
Cenenoe in 1969
C.A.Ceneuon, KaueuHne (\pyÄv* onoxu paHH [rx
Mera ^^. Couercxax apxeo^orzr in 1969, H. 2,3-14.
CeNrenoe 1996
I A. Ceueuoe, Cor4uücrat QoprlzQuKaqzx VVIII
neron (CaHxr llerep6ypr in 1996).
Ceprzxoe in 1977
trO. E. Cepznoe, K eonpocy o QyHKr-IHoHa^bHoM
Coeercnas apxeo^orur 157 7, H. 2, 210-215.
Czrraoneuno in 1984
A.B.Cuuoneuxo, Capurarcxne Meqr.r rz Kt'rH? (a^br
Ha repphrophu Ceeepnoro Pr Llpuvepuolao, x. In:
BoopyxeHue cxuQon V capMaroB. C6opuzx
HayrrHbrx rpyÄoB (Kuee in 1984) 129-147.
Cxanyu in 1977
H.H.CxaxyH, Kaneuur're opydr4l enoxu 6pousr, r
(rro uarepua, melt A, rruH-4ene 1970-1972 Rn). KapaKyMcKHe
ÄpeBHocrt4 6, 197 7, 98-101.
Cxopsrü in 1984
C.A.Cxoprrü, {ocnex cxuQccoro runa e Cpe4-
neü Eepone. In: Boopyxeuue cKLrQoB t'r capMaroB.
C6opuux HayrrHblx rpy4oB (Kzee l9B4) 82-103.
CuzpHon 1961
K. (D. Cruupuoe, caBpoMaroB. Marepna
Br 14 uccrue4oBaHutr rro apxeo^ornu CCCP l0l
(Mocrea-AeuvHrpag 196 1).
Cuupuoe/llerpeuxo in 1963
K. SUPRA CuzpHoe/B. I llerpeuxo, Caepouarrr
llogo, \xr.q and trOxnoro llpuypaar, r. Coeercxas
apxeo^orut: Ceo4 apxeo "tort4irecrr4x ucroqnuxoB
{l-9 (Mocrea in 1963).
CoporuH 1961
C.C.Copoxzu, Eopxop6ascxuü uorz, unzx (IO; xuaa
(Depraua, 6acceüu pexz Cox). Ky, rr, rypa N
IrcKyccrBo HapoÄoB BocroKa 6. Tpyau locyaapcr-
ReHHar Dprr.ruraxa 5 (AeHanrpag 1961) 117-161.
Copoxzu in 1962
B.C.CopornH, Moru; rr, Hux 6pou:oeoä onoxu
Täcrr, r-Byrax 1 N 3ana4norü KasaxcraHe. Marepua ^
r, r H r.rcc^eÄoBaHru no apxeo^orilu CCCP 120
(Mocxea-Aeuzurpa4 1962).
Cy, r.eüurarroe / Type6exoe 1 9 7 8
P X. Cy, teülranoe/m. Type6enoe, Dranlr paseurza
QoprzQunaqzonsoü cucreur'r Epnyprana. Zcroplr,
see Marepva, rsHoü xy, tr'rypr'r Ys6enrzcraua 14,
IN 1978, 60-65.
Cy, neünaHoe/Y paxou 1 97 7
P X. Cy, teülranoe / 8. Ypaxoe, Pesy "lr'rarr'r npe4-
BaprrTe^bHofo zcc^eÄoBaHu. {aHTuqHoro ropoÄrirrla
ce^eHu-q PaNaun. Llcroput rraareplra, tr, Hoü
Ky^r'rypbr Ys6eKzcraHa 13, in 1977, 55-64.
CyHuyraruee 1975
. {. 14. CyuvyrarreB, fpeeneüurze py4:ovlr.n and
rraMrrHuKrr panueä Mera ^^ ypruü e Xaxaccro-
MuHycl.trcxoü Choosing oBr.rHe (Moc Tepeuo; nxuu in 1947
A. trI. TepeuoxnnH, Borrpocbr HcropxKo-apxeo^oruqecroü
rreplroÄrr3arJrr [ÄpeBHeI'o CalrapxaH4a.
Becrnux 4peeHeü Äcropvnt 2, in 1947, 127-135.
Tepeuo; xxuH in 1950
A. 14. TepeHoxnun, CorÄ and 9a.r. Kparrrle coo6- o AoK a4ax H rro^eBblx ucc^e4oBaHrir {x
tr4ncrzryra uctoplzr ':t Marepna^bHoä xy, lrryplr
AH, CCCP 23, IN 1950, 152-169.
TieseHrayseu lB73
B. I Ti.r:eHraysen, MoHetr Bocro.rHoro Xa; rztpara
(Caurr llerep6ypr lB73).
Txa.ree among other things in 1996
B.B.Trcaqes/P A. Cere4uH / C. I fpeuruep,
llo4renslü Mareprja ^ ns noce, \eHllü and py4Hr4KoB
6ponsonoro BeKa B Myro4xapax. In: E.) I (.
Kypuaa6exoe / 8th B. Mnrpaa6aee / C. IO. lyua.toe/B.
B. Txa.ree / 4. A. Ezceu6aee (Ed.), flan-aru
Bzxropa Baczar, eeu.ra Po4roHoaa. Bonpocrr
apxeolorulr 3ana4Horo KasaxcraHa. C6opnun
Hayr {Hbrx rpyÄoB (Caurapa in 1996) 109-132.
To, rcroe in 1948
C. Li. To, tcroe, flo C, re4alr 4peBHexope3Mui.rcxoit
r; urutu3ar; t4rr (Mocnea-ÄeHr.rHrpa4 I 948).
To.rcroe in 1962
C. Li. To, tcron, llo ApeBHlrM Äe^r, TaM Oxca and
.flxcapra (Mocxea in 1962).
Toacroe / I4rzna 1960
C. Li. To; rcroe/m. A. l4rvua, flpo6, rerrra cyrpraHcnoü
ny "trrypbl. Coeercxart apxeo^orrr 4, in 1960,
H. I, 14-35.
Tpz 0. tr4. TpuQouon, KoHcrpytrlrrlr ÄpeBHerropKcKux
Kypr-aHoB IJeHrpa, rr, noü Tyenr. In: llepeo6r, rrHa.r
Apxeo, torun Cu1upu (Äenuurpa4 1975) IB5-193.
Tpa B.A.TpuQoHoe, K a6co "rroruoü xpoHo^orur.l
eBpo-a3r {aTcKux Ky^r, TypH6rx KoHTaKToB B snoxy
6poHau. LaC-Pagzoyrrn.prr4 and apxeo, r.orur 2
(Caaxr-llerep6ypr 1997) 94-97.
Type6exoe 1979
M. Type6exoe, OcHonnr, Re orarrbr pa3Brrrur BHerrrueü
o6opouure, tsnoü creHr, r ÄpeBHero Cauap-
KaH4a rro AaHHbrM pacxona 27 ua sata4uoru Qace
AQpacua6a. In: Bcecoro:noe HayqHoe coBerrlaHile
"Auru.rHar xy, tr'rypa Cpegneü Aauu and KaeaxcraHa>
(re:ucrr 4or.ta4oe) (Täurxeur in 1979) 70-72.
Type6exon I981
M. Type6exoe, Pacronxz 6acruona euyrpenneü
xpenocrnoä creHu Epxypraua. trIcropua uarepua,
truoü Ky^r, Typ6r Ys6enucraHa 16, l9Bl,
Type6exoe 1982
M. Type6eroe, IJrlra4ear EpxypraHa. tr4cropzx uarepua ^
bHoä Ky "trrypu Ye6exucraHa 1Z in 1982, 5 1-60.
Ypanon in 1975
B. Ypaxoe, Kepauzuecxue KoMrr^eKcbr no3aHeaHTrrrrHbrx
fraMtrHr.rKoB Krrar, r, trcrrp I z Cera, laxly 1.
l4cropux Pr Mare {a^bHoü ry, rlrypr'r Ys6enr, rcraHa
12, t975,9r-97.
Ypaxoe in 1982
E. Ypanos, Ky, trrypa Eyxapcxoro oa3rrca BTopoü
rro^oBLr Hbr I rucgqe; reru, a Äo H. supra r.r nepeoü
no^oBrrHr, r I rr', Lerrrur H. supra AeropeQ. arrcc.
KaHÄ. ucr. Hayx (Mocxea in 1982).
Yprraauoea in 1956
M.X.YprrrauoBa, PacKonKv ha of rleHTpalbHou 6yrpe
ropoaurla Bapaxura e in 1953 r ApxeorrorlrqecKrie
rjcc^eaoBaHnt ha ropo4r, rqe Bapaxrua r.r N EyxapcKoM
oa3uce e in 1947-1953 rr Tpygr, r l4ucrnryra
Vcroputt and Apxeo, rorwu (Täurneur) 8, in 1956,
Ycnauoeafl p ece. st:ncxar 197 4
3. LI. YclranonalL fl. * {pecelucxaa, Hoerre 4au-
Hbre K u3yqeHlrro rraMtrHuKoB cpezHero reqeHrrt
Kaurxa4apru. Tpyalr Tälrxenrcrono locyaapcr-
BeHHoro Yuueepcurera 473, in 1974, 15-29.
Yclaanoea among other things in 1985
3. 14. YcuanoBall|d. 14. (Dlr, tanoez./l A. Koure, teu-
Ko, MaprüaHa. In: I A. Kolre, renno (Ed.), {pee-
Literature list
328 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
neüruue rocy4apcrBa Kaexasa z Cpe4Hefi Asuz.
Apxeo, rorza CCCP VIII (Mocxea l9B5) 226-242.
@acnep in 1930
P. P Oacvep, K Hylrusuarzxe xa, tnQoe. In: 3anuc-
Ktr Ko ^^ ervu BocroKoBeJoB (Äeuaurpag in 1930)
Oz, r.anoez.r in 1969
M. 14. (DntaHoeuu, K xapaxrepucrnxe ÄpeBnefiurero
roce^eHr, rr ha AQpacza6e. A (Täurxeur in 1969) 206-220.
(You, tanoeuq in 1973
M. tr4. @u, lauoeuq, K vcropuLl c^o) r (eHlrr ropo4-
cKux yxpen^enufi AQpacza6a. AQpacua6 2 (Taurnenr
1973) 85-94.
(Dz, tanoeuq in 1983
M. I4. (You, tanonuu, Täurnenr. 3apox4enae and pa3Blarue
ropota r4 ropo4cxoä ry "rr, rypr, r (TälrneHr l9B3).
Oopuoeoe l95l
A. A. @opuo:oe, Apxeo, touqecxue rraMflTHunr.r B
paüone ropo4a Opcxa. Kparxze coo6rqeHux o
, 4OK a4ax V fio^eBr, rx ucc eÄoBaHutx I'lncruryra
uclopur4 Marepua^r, Hoä xy, urypr, r, AH, CCCP 36,
X-to6rrcrun 1987
A. Li. X, ro6lrcruH, Bponsosblü eer Bocro.ruoü
Cu6upu. In: Snoxa 6pon:r, r aecnoü rro, rocsr CCCP
Apxeo, rorz.a CCCP VII (Mocxea in 1987) 327-350.
X "tonun in 1964
tr4. H.) Ltonr.rH, Ieoxcropcxa" {rpynla rroce, teuaü
onoxu oHeo^ura. Onr, rr Hcropt4qecKoro aHa^u3a
(Mocxea-Aeurllatpat\197 64).
Xo, rronrxuna,/Xo, nrlrllxzn I 979
B.A.Xorrrcrurruna/Io. Financial Accounting. Xoaourxnu, K eonpocy
* xapaKTepe pa3Bvltut Me3o^r.rTrrrrecKoil uu4ycrpuu
Casarau. In: Cu6upb B ApeBHocrz (Hoeocu6rapcr
1979) 17-19.
Xyxauasapon in 1996
M. Xy> xauaaapoe, Hacxa, r.rHr'Ie pHCyHKH Ir pea^r '-
HaJ {xur3Hb. l4cropun Marepza^bHoü ry "trrypr'I
Ys6exucraHa 27, in 1996, lO-17.
9epueuro 1968
E. B. 9epnepxo, CxzQcruü aocllex (Kuee in 1968).
9epunroe 1948
C.C.Vepuuxoe, fpeerree ropHoe ae^o B paüoHe
r Crerrrrln. tr4zr, ecrus, Axa4euuu Hayx Kasaxcxoü
CCP 46 (A.ura-Ara 1948), 13-32.
Yepnuxoe in 1949
C. C. 9epuunon, {peeunr Mera ^ yprut and ropHoe
4e, to 3ana4uoro A^raq (A, tua-Ara in 1949).
9epuuron 1960
C. C. 9epHaxoe, Bocrovurrü KasaxcraH B ofioxy
6ponsrr. Marepua, tnr Lr r4ccleÄorale.ras. no
apxeo^orntr CCCP 88 (Mocxra-ÄeHzHrpa4 1960).
9epHnrx 1970
E. H. 9epurrx, fpenueüura; I Mera ^^ yprua Ypatra
ü lloeo, rxr, {(Mocxea in 1970).
Yepurrx in 1972
E. H. 9epurrx, Mera, r-t - qe^oBeK - eperraa (Mocxea
9epHrrx. / Kysrnzsr, Ix I 989
E. H. 9epur'Ix / C. B. Kyarrraunrrx, {peeu.s. {Me-
Ta ^^ yprut Cenepuoü Eepaszu. Ceüuzucxo ryp
6u:ucruir Qenouen (Mocrea in 1989).
Yyapoe in 1950
tD. B. 9yapoe, 3oHa oxr.rc^eHrry cy, tr Mecropo? (aeHnä crennoü qacrz KasaxcraHa (Mocxea
IIIaqKzü 1973
I B. lllaqrcuä, Prlcyurrl ha KaMHe (TäurxeHr lg73).
lllep in 1980
.tr. A. lllep, llerpor, rzQr, r Cpe4nefi z [eurpa, urroü
Asprz (Mocxea in 1980).
llLlprlHoe 1979
T Illupuuon, Kpelrueerre vßAetrrla onoxu 6poH:rr
C noce^eHrrt Cana "t, ru-Tena (Tizno, r.ornvecxo-
Qynruluona "uHoe ncc^eloBauue). CoeercKar apxeo ^
orur in 1979, H. 4,126-137.
lllupzuoe l986
T lllupuHoe, Opygwa npou3BoacrBa H opy) +rae
snoxu 6pousr, l CpegHeaauarcroro Merxgypevsa
(no ÄaHHr, rM oxcrreprrMeHTa^r, Ho-Tpacco^orvqecKolo
II3yrIeHVa) (TäIIIxeur 1986).
llllrurnun in 1956
B. A. llluurxzn, Apxeo "torhrrecKar pa3BeAKa ha
Barurene. Tpy4u I4ucluryra l4cropu:l. and Apxeo-
, roruu Axagenzu Hayx Ys6excxoü CCP 8, in 1956,
lllzuxlrH in 1963
B. A. llluurxun, Bapaxura (Mocrea in 1963).
llluumrln in 1969
B.A.Illzurxun, K rzcroprzlr apxeo^or [qecxoro
r.r3yrreHur Canapxanga V ero oKpecruocreü. Aippacua6
1 (Täunceur in 1969) 3-121.
llluruxzna in 1969
I B. llft.ruxzHa, O MecroHaxonraeHurz Mapa-
KaHAr, r. Coeercxar apxeo^oü, ur in 1969, H. 1, in 1969,
62-75. in 1974
I B. lllzurxuna, Keparr, rzxa rcosqa IV - II en. 4o
u. e. (A 28-5, 1.
Llhzurxzua among other things in 1985
I B. llluurxana/P X. Cy, teürraauoe/l A. Koure-
, teuxo, Cory. In: I A. Konre, r.euxo (Ed.), flpenneüruze
rocyÄapcrBa Kaexaga and Cpe4Heä Asnz.
Apxeo.rorrar CCCP VIII (Mocnea in 1985) 273-292.
lllpauro in 1984
6. A. lllpauro, tr42 vcropuu cxzQcroro Boopyxe-
Has. In: BoopyxeHue cxHQoe r, r capuaron. C6op-
HHK HayqHbrx rpy4oB (Kuee in 1984) 22-39.
froAuu u/a/1985
B. H. "flro4zul4. B. HIZXZRZH/L A. Koureaeuxo,
Xoperv. In: l A. Koure, tenxo (Ed.), fipeeneüurue
rocyÄapcrBa Kaexasa and Cpe4ueä Asuu.
Apxeo.torur CCCP VIII (Mocxea in 1985) 317-337.
.flxy6oe in 1975
0. [xy6oe, Pa6orr, r 3epaBrxaHcKoro orp. {Yes.
Apxeo, torzuecxue pa6orr, r e Tä4ntrrurcrane 15,
IN 1975 (1980), 167-178.
trO. flrcy6oe, llaprap see Federal Railway VII-VIII. H. see. (BepxHuü
3epaeuraH B snoxy paHHero cpe4Heeeronra)
({yruaH6e 1979).
.flny6oecrufi in 1940
A. IO. and the following, xy6oecxzü, W r4croprrrl apxeo^orrlrecKoro
rr3yrreHr.rr Cartraprau4a. Tpygrr Or4e, r.a
Bocrora locy4apcreeHHoro Splruraxa 2, in

Total Pageviews

Powered by Blogger.