Tuesday, June 22, 2010

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gaudi yapılarının akustiği üstüne ispanyolca 2 yazıdan ingilizceye çeviri

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Francesc Domènech Daumal. Arturo Rodriguez Campos.
Department Construccions Arquitectòniques l
Técncia School of Architecture
Polytechnic University of Catalunya
Avda Diagonal 649
08028 Barcelona.
Tel: 934 016 423
Fax: 934 016 426
E-mail: @ ca1.upc.es francesc.daumal
The Religious Architecture of Gaudí is Involved by mystic sounds, real or imaginary sounds, whispers
Almost imperceptible in STI interior, sonorous surprises in the journeys destined to the gathering and spiritual
calm. Internally Each building is isolated and has ITS own sound But, externally Presented is dominating the
place around it, Carrying internal ITS voice with force to the outside and making the city to Participate in the
sonorous events produced where is the blend of the songs of the temple and the songs of the people, in one
multitudinary and enthusiastic voice.
The religious architecture of Gaudi is involved in mystical sounds, sounds real or imaginary;
murmur almost imperceptible in its interior, sound surprises along the routes used for the gathering and
spiritual tranquility. Each building is internally isolated and their sounds are unique but, outwardly, is
present rulers of the environment, leading to the inner voice with great force to the outside and making
involve the city of sound events which blends the song of the temple and the singing of the people,
a massive and enthusiastic voice.
Sounds from the top of the temples, songs that transcend the city, silence and communion prayers
everyday rustic sound of the forms of space for the soul ...
The ringing of the bells of the temples is one of the messages that best stored in the memory
since ancient times. Sounds notice and invitation, sounds congregation of people to take
joint part in celebrations, festivals and major events. Sounds also recall their
historical uses to prevent the town event, all part of a report made by the sound
of bells, over and over again, consistently, anywhere. Every city has bells and
temples and, therefore, any city has its own sound but, really how many bells and
reach temples to produce joy and full participation of the people in the celebration, more now with the
dynamism of everyday life, where sound is heard but not heard in its entire message. Is it
possible to imagine a city that involved a total conclusion from the sound of the churches that
happens inside of them can transcend their boundaries and reach the maximum possible public
and, in one song and one song only available inside and outside a force so great that
covering the entire city from the temple?. The illusion to achieve this had no qualms about architecture
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religious Gaudí, who engaged enthusiastically and worked with the aim of making the voice of
temple and make it more citizen participation total. There are many examples in the world in
a religious space which is isolated, quiet and almost antisocial, such as spaces banned in any situation
of extrameditación. Gaudí is seen in the treatment of religious spaces from two acoustic
and demonstrate contrasting architectural philosophy faithfully. First, they are spaces that insulate your
inside from the outside, inside own life is deeply religious and, moreover, in stark contrast,
intended that what happens inside spread and reach the city beyond the limits of space. For a
this side of monastic life and quiet interior and, secondly, the expansion of the innermost feelings and to live
exterior. Traveling through space collecting this easily: Teresian College is isolated, his life is
complete interior, silent corridors stimulate thought and images, are perceived sensations
peace through the slight murmur of its corners, light and shadow that play each other subtly. The
Güell Crypt is a place that leaves the impression of being in a place that could only exist in
fantasy and imagination, where the soothing sounds through the crevices of porous materials
immediately felt the religious character, can breathe a calm visual, aural and spatial, which is
most pronounced in Gaudi's work, both the Güell Crypt as the Sagrada Familia will appear as
center where you involve the people abroad. All these works have materials and forms
According to what should represent loudly, their living spaces are welcoming everyday religious
while in their churches dominated sound diffusion through the forms of paraboloids and
hyperboloid and the relief materials.
The College Teresiano creates a sense of peace to be inside, it seems a universe where
problems do not exist, where every whisper is quiet but reassuring. The resonances are perfect for
meditation and prayer who lives daily. Both the large central hall and the beautiful corridors
white parabolic arches on the upper floors because of its great length and opening visual and spatial
manage to form a zone acoustic sounds very balanced and, in the same way as visually
create an overall sense of space, acoustically achieve the same total perception. This is seen in
pasilllos entire area, even where they are joined with spaces large number of columns in the
second floor, all integrated into a single perception of sound that is usually quiet. The
Contributing material, usually reflective sound, which together with the spatial extent,
create an environment warm enough acoustically. It also shows the insulation of the facades
external, very diffusing the sound off and, moreover, in the upper floors, windows have double
enclosure that produces greater sound insulation.
Figure 1. Location of the building, isolated from areas of high sound and surrounded by gardens.
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Figure 2. Teresiano cross section showing the overall sound zoning.
Figure 3. Main floor indicating the overall sound zoning.
Figure 4. Central hallway inside.
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In the Güell Crypt can not describe the space and any attempt to do so is a short reference to
the unreal reality. It breathes a supreme tranquility, undulating walls enclose the space and strong
isolate it, even though by itself is quite isolated in the environment. The colors and light changes, together
inner silence create a magic mechanism and spatial movement. Inside is a spiritual site
where each material, each construction element hardiness and has the voice of peace, yet very present
and personality. The Temple stands guard on the hill, toward the workers' colony, church and factory life and
work, relaxation and movement, competing in his sound while complementing. The voice of
Church would rise above the pines road, appearing gradually and making sounds and
chants in a voice for the people living and enthusiastically participate in one music, one song where
church, the people and the workplace would join in a massive popular and evocative sound.
Acoustically the Crypt has interesting elements of both sound design as
behavior due to the forms, materials and location. Gaudí followed the same principles to create a
isolated building, mystical, mysterious and now she does also driven by a need for symbolism
closely related to the overall plan for the workers' colony. Remoteness and isolation affects
quiet interior noise, this is a very important property and basic sound especially for a
space for a temple, where silence, as happened in the Teresian stimulates recollection
spiritual. Also at this location is perceived an intention that will be in Holy Family, the idea of
temple and its sounds as members of the city, where people, through the image of the church and
his voice, participate in one liturgical song, extending the temple beyond its boundaries and integrating
city to him.
Figure 5. Location Güell Crypt in an isolated acoustically.
Figure 6. The Church at the top of the workers', acoustic and visually dominating.
Predominate in the Crypt rustic materials, the sloping walls of brick, large columns
basalt, nerves, and ceilings of brick or cement floor diffusers and reflective materials of sound,
also absorb certain frequencies, the curved shapes of the walls, forming concavities and
convexities are producing a balanced sound diffusion throughout the space. The noise distribution is
from the front, is a directional emission, from front to back, taking the choir and the altar as
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emitting significant noise and noise optimization is achieved by the dissemination of materials and shapes.
Figure 7. Plant sound indicating general zoning in the Crypt.
Figure 8. Added sound diffusion by materials and interior forms.
La Sagrada Familia, in turn, is a temple where the sound paths exist from the outside,
from the city will be heard fully, with natural elements and where the melodic acoustic design
Choirs, bells and bell was a primordial idea of Gaudí, an isolated temple internally but
emerge from within with great force and live sound to the outside; sound of silence in each
symbol and each element, religious sounds, sounds of the people, the mysticism of sound and the isolation from
places for worship, sound real and the fictional are mixed to form a full sense of sound images
surprising. A living building, whose voice and sing with a people whose spirit will be a symbol of joy. Its
Edge faculty will be important between the street and the temple, a place of sound damping
yet a space for internal and processions and pilgrimages, therefore, also a transmitter
sound during certain activities. The great walls of the temple and closed it off from the outside, which
only penetrate the light, which will form an image and feeling of being in a forest, whose slight sound
seem to listen between light and shadow. The great and monumental aspect of the interior contribute
also the sense of isolation and silence, the large volume would create a strong resonance and warmth
Sight and sound as if they really were in the middle of a forest, perhaps magical or enchanted.
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Figure 9. Expiatori Temple of the Sagrada Familia.
In addition, the Sagrada Familia think of something very similar to the sound of the Güell Crypt, ie,
due to the high isolation from the outside, will be achieved within a balance of low noise levels throughout
the temple, denying access to external sound events. Inside does not penetrate the outside stays
Quiet but on the other hand, the voices of the church will emerge with great force, reaching his message to the city
as the center of a celebration, involving sound with the people in the songs and liturgy.
Inside, the sound will come from optimal diffuser shapes, the use of parabolic surfaces and
hyperbolic, fluted columns, embossed surfaces that will get the sound to avoid spreading
concentrations, extensions or echoes.
Figure 10. Plant sound indicating general zoning in the Holy Family.
The church steeples are the issuers of the voice from the temple to the city will be great
tornavoces and sounds of the bells will be reflected and disseminated from the top to the entire city,
Aid small apertures with a bending element out, diffuser sound waves, thus
will achieve a projection of the sounds bigger and better. It is hoped also that the sound on tour
Holy Family is full of surprises and transitions sound, it is not hard to imagine events and
pilgrimages to the people chanting, the bells would be felt their voices through the twelve
bell diffusers, flooding the city with sound. Inside the temple, the sound is presented purified
as creating a steady silence complete mysticism.
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Figure 11. The bell as sound transmitters throughout the city.
In this way, the everyday hum Teresiano, quiet sounds of the Güell and Crypt
great voices of the Sagrada Familia, are very tangible acoustic performances, each has a Gaudí
very strong sound, which combines several trips sounds of reality and imagination through their
forms, sculpture and symbolism, and where everything fits in a single voice, a song that makes these
sites in the spiritual center of a village that reach to gather in one room while all
thoughts and voices to create a message of fellowship, joy and deep spirituality.
VI Latin American Congress on Acoustics - FIA 2008
Buenos Aires, 5, 6 and November 7, 2008
The sounds of the religious architecture of Gaudí. The
Temple of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.
Arturo Rodriguez Campos
(A) Dr. Architect Arturo Rodriguez Campos. Calle 21 No. 111 x 22 and 24 Merida Yucatan
Mexico. E-mail: joseartca@yahoo.com
Sounds from the top of the Temple; songs of Loyals Going Beyond the city, sounds of the rustic
forms of the spaces for the soul, reality and miracle in just one voice, voice of religion for
participation, mystery, mysticism, meditation, happiness, music and songs, bells and church towers,
Choirs and pulpits, doctrine and learning, religion and city. The architecture of Gaudi is religieuse
Involved by mystic sounds, real or imaginary sounds, whispers and sonorous Almost imperceptible
surprises in the journeys destined to peace and spiritual calm.The Sagrada Familia in Barcelona is a
Where the sonorous itineraries Temple will exist and WHERE the acoustic design of Choirs, bells and bell
Was towers an essential idea of Antoni Gaudi. ITS A building with living with the people singing voice
Which will take a song in the whole city, ringing bells and bell towers crossing the sky and sending
music, view and hearing of all the people to the new cathedral, a new symbol to guide Pilgrimage
ceremonies, songs and festivals. The Sagrada Familia and Barcelona, Gaudi That union wanted to
WHERE turn in total and the acoustic design will be transformed in a daily murmur, highly spiritual.
Sounds from the top of the Temples of faithful songs that transcend the city, sounds of
rustic shapes in areas assigned to the soul, reality and fantasy in one voice, the voice of religion
for participation, mystery, mysticism, meditation, music and chants, bells and steeples
choirs and pulpits, religion and city. The religious architecture of Gaudi is wrapped Sound
mystics, real or imaginary, and surprises almost imperceptible murmur audible in the spaces
for peace and spiritual calm. La Sagrada Familia in Barcelona is a temple where
sound routes exist and where the acoustic design of the choirs, bells and bell were
Gaudi's an essential idea. A living building with his voice singing a song that people
transcends the city and bell ringing bells across the sky send music,
sight and sound of the new cathedral, a new symbol to lead pilgrimages, songs and festivals.
The religious architecture of Gaudi is full of mystical sounds, spaces for meditation
spiritual contemplation and to the sound. The Sagrada Familia and Barcelona where sound union
everyday will be transformed into a highly spiritual buzz.
VI Latin American Congress on Acoustics - FIA 2008 FIA2008-A007
1 The sounds of the religious architecture of Gaudí.
The Temple of the Sagrada Familia of Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona, is a temple
sound routes exist from the outside, where the acoustic design of choirs,
bells and bell was his primary idea. Acoustics of silence in each symbol,
religious sounds, sounds of people, life and hope, the mysticism of sound
places for worship, the outside edge of involving all the people and listen
voice of an individual building and more. A building where sound real and imaginary,
objective and subjective, are mixed to form a sound sense of endless images.
Figure 1. Expiatori Temple of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.
The Sagrada Familia is able to awaken a feeling of great strength and
impact, with a rich sound environment, the project design, schedules,
bells and bell towers were a major study of intentions and full sound.
Originally, the site where the Temple stood was a very isolated from the site
city, which is not bad wine Gaudí, who over the course of his work has shown the taste of
isolate and separate them from external events, creating its own internal life and with a
medievalism and an air of mystery. Here, the Sagrada Familia is no exception. An
acoustic and visually isolated temple by large stone walls, built over
street level and surrounded by a large cloister perimeter to achieve greater isolation
external noise.
Life, sounds and worship will be internal, inward toward the city. The cloister
Edge is therefore a very important element between the street and the temple, a site
sound damping yet a space for internal processions and pilgrimages;
and, therefore, a sound emitter for certain activities. The large, closed walls
Temple isolate it from the outside, which only penetrates the light, forming a
look and feel of wood between the columns and ornamentation branched type
herbalist. The great and monumental aspect of the interior will also contribute to the feeling
subjective isolation and silence, the large volume will create a strong resonance, in
turn, produce a visual and audible gentle warmth as if he were actually in the middle of
a forest, perhaps magical, enchanted, a long spiritual retreat.
VI Latin American Congress on Acoustics - FIA 2008 FIA2008-A007
Figure 2. Noise emission from the bell towers with broadcasters
sound to the city.
Due to the high isolation from the outside, will be achieved within a balance of
low noise levels throughout the temple. The four streets that surround sound will be points
external access to the church the most noisy and once inside, the sound will
back and will always be low. Moreover, the fact that the temple is raised above
street level, also creates a sound buffer, as the exterior and basement
three staircases act as reflective elements of the direct sound of the street elevation
decreases the volume of the Temple as he arrives. Internally there are three halls
distributors could be considered as zones of higher noise level by
direct link to the entrances: the main entrance lobby and entrance hall
side facades of the Gloria, the Nativity and the Passion, respectively.
All nave of the Temple, that is the area that makes up the church liturgy and
as the crypt under the apse, enjoy low sound levels, all this logically
If there is no celebration, in which case the noise levels increase.
Under normal conditions, no activity, the Temple has great insulation and a
low noise levels and well balanced, without significant fluctuations between areas. In the
time of celebration in the church would increase noise from several
emitter points, diverse both in its location and the type of sound produced.
In the Mass would sound, first, from the officiating at the altar,
located in the apse, second, sound from the chorus, located behind
the altar, surrounding or in the aisles and from an elevated position, these choirs
emit songs mixed in with the singing of the people at the center of space and ground level
principal. Finally, the musical sound is delivered from above and in the center, from
organs. It is then distributed global sound from the front (apse), the
center (true), side (chorus) and above (music). This will be the zoning or placement
emitting sound and light are important for three basic concepts in acoustics
Sagrada Familia: a high isolation of both exterior facade materials and height
Edge as the cloister, the balancing of the internal sound levels, still low
anywhere in the Temple and, thirdly, that conclusion would be able to issuers
sound zones, with certain types of sounds that together reach the entire space
Acoustically, the facades are both insulating materials such as
closed to the outside. The stone-based material, combined with forms and sculptures
townhouses, create a full receiving sound diffusion. The access doors are
heavy and tight and the openings in the walls are too high to
allow access notorious sound.
VI Latin American Congress on Acoustics - FIA 2008 FIA2008-A007
Gaudí was laying the foundations of his primary idea, gradually his intention of a
Temple beyond the temple itself was going to consolidate. The whole city and all the people
could contemplate and achieve total union through the sound of the church abroad;
the people hear the internal events, songs and participate in a liturgy. The
general considerations have been a number of sound treatment, first the situation
dual of the Temple, that is, within isolated, silent and low noise levels
balanced, where only in times of celebration products reach high levels
a zoning emitting points different sounds, words, songs and music. The
arrangement of elements of sound insulation and shock absorbers as the cloister Edge;
broadcasters facades and internal walls. And, finally, that desire that Gaudí
Temple outside the city loudly, that his sight and sounds reach far beyond the interior
reached the same and abroad, involving the people in song and celebration.
2 choirs and organ
Gaudí wanted the Sagrada Familia all sound good. Hence his comprehensive study
on the placement and distribution of the choirs and organ, as well as experiments
on the sound of bells. Within these ideas of emphasized sound momentum
by popular participation in the song, the word and the voice of choirs, priests and faithful
combine and predominate over the music. It had before it for specific sites
Choirs by type of voice and acting ability, for this reason, the Sagrada Familia
has the chorus of kids around the apse, where bleachers will be placed for 700-800
children who embraces the word of the priest. This first location will generate an emission
sound from the front of the church toward the back of it, that is, to the assembled people. It
complement the sanctuary with the chorus of clerics, located in the back at a level
intermediate between the ships and the plane of the altar.
The chorus girls perimeter located at a height of 15 m above
of the main floor. These stands are seven female voices will be for 1300
approx. In this case, the sound will come to the faithful from above and surrounding,
look like a celestial sound, coming from a kind of clouds and the singers would not be
viewed from below. In the center of the Temple will be the singing. The organs
placed between the columns supporting the main dome are the four bodies
which will be 45 m in height. It would thus laying in the different levels
types of sound, the faithful or spectators on the lower level, the voices and choirs in levels
medium altitudes and the music always comes from the top, because the organs,
are at the top.
With this arrangement, the Sagrada Familia will bring a total mix of sound;
Horizontally there sound concentricity. Vertically there is a total distribution
entire volume of the temple, the songs come from below and of the way and, from above,
organ music, right in the center, at the intersection of craft, this sound distribution
top-down and bottom-up, helped by domestic broadcasters forms and volume
space, would produce an optimal mix of singing and music, voices and melodies.
VI Latin American Congress on Acoustics - FIA 2008 FIA2008-A007
Figure 3. Reproduction computerized areas for choirs
female voices at 15 meters.
3 Broadcasters Forms
One aspect of utmost importance for the Holy Family in loudness
optimal distribution is derived from high internal forms, the use of surfaces
dishes and hyperboloids, fluted columns and many surfaces
relief will get a spatial sound diffusion to avoid concentrations in certain
Because of these internal forms woven in different ways and with many
reliefs on ceilings and walls, the sound levels will, extensions or echoes.
All surfaces can disperse the sound. This quality will be much appreciated
as on the roofs of the choir stands, consisting of a large composition
intersecting hyperbolic paraboloids to achieve a spread downward and front
singers, uniformly in space.
In the photographs shows the model of light made with the internal models
Sagrada Familia, and demonstrate that existing sound diffusion inside the Temple.
4 Bells and belfries
Gaudí took special care in the study of the towers of the Sagrada Familia and
bells, as long as the elements emitting them voice to the Temple
city. For this was supported by the great height of the Temple, with ample visual towards him and
powerful sound important. In addition, we are now as large tornavoces bell towers;
the sounds emitted by bells would be reflected and diffused interior from above
to the entire city aided by the "visor" in the towers, small openings
with an element tilted out, diffuser of sound waves; with this surely
reach a greater and better sound projection, the voice of the church reaching much of the
In the Holy Family will find a route not only sound as
perceived physically, but for all those symbols of the Temple that create sound messages
in thinking. Gaudi Temple set out to make a full song to religion, a
monument to God.
VI Latin American Congress on Acoustics - FIA 2008 FIA2008-A007
Figure 4. Interior of the towers - towers, which are observed
sound diffusers to the city.
Figura5. Distribution sound inside the Temple. Sounds
choirs from the perimeter to 15 feet high and bodies
central 45 meters in height.
It is expected that the acoustic tour of the Holy Family is full of surprises
sound. The turtles that hold the weight of the Nativity façade, which seem
actually be alive and moving, or angels with trumpets are to be heard in
mind a true celestial music, and also full of symbols are the facade of the
Glory and the Passion. Acoustics of silence where every symbol, image or form seems
being able to speak and listen, all through his great spirit, the very spirit of Gaudí.
Campos, Jose Arturo, (2002). "Voices of Gaudí." Ediciones UPC, Barcelona, Spain.


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