Tuesday, January 04, 2011

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The basic material for the Steingeräte87
it was varied. Silices of good quality from
brown, light grey-white blotchier or gebänderter,
of black and white colour became
prefers and the brown tones, often with
of white patina, dominate. The white, porcelain-like
Silex corresponds makroskopisch
to that which spreads above all in the Kyzylkum
was. There is also found more seldom
black Silex, for middle Zerav-
5an-valley typically his soll88. Where from the grey one
as well as the prevailing brown Silex
could come, is still unklarse. For
none of the Silexarten let itself in prospektierten
Surroundings of Karnab a bed
identify. Beside Silex became
also quartz or quartzite for smaller devices
uses. Both is everywhere in the surroundings
to find from Karnab. Moreover is able
also a rock crystal are calculated
(Fig. 51.7) in such a way.
Hammers became preponderant from fossil-leading,
to light beige limestone or from
Aplit made. The beige limestone
comes only in an area approx. 2 km northwesterly
from Karnab before, against which of the Aplit
in the whole area is to be found. For blow stones
if granite or basalt-like were able also
dark rocks are used. During
Granite to the south of the settlement in the mining district
anstehter, comes d.as basalt-like
Rock as a stone in different Trokkentälern
before, without to itself a primary one
Spring allowed to ascertain. Meal stones made
one of granite, conglomerates or sandstone.
Granite was already mentioned on top,
the conglomerates bite, on the whole, prospektierten
Area from, particularly to him
Terrace edges, against which the origin
of the sandstone unseklärt remains. The raw material
unilaterally angeschliffenen Fragmentese2
from black pebble slate
(Fig. 63.15) is not able from the immediate ones
lJmgebung from Karnab come.
A lump of red ocher with angeschliffenen
Side (fig. 63.14) lets pass itself
Iron ores explain, in the surroundings
of the settlement seem in tiny amounts.
He would be allowed to do use as a colouring
have found. One is surely foreign to place
pink-brown Kalkbreccie with big bright ones
To inclusions, from which one a well polished one
Stone vessel had produced (fig. 51.12;
To the Silexindustrie can be noted in general,
that blades and blade-like reductions
dominate.; soft" blow technology
with an interpiece becomes
by a small lip about the Bulbus
on the Ventralseite of a blade indicated
85 tests ZGMA 02888 and ZGMA 0295. In greater detail in addition E. Pernicka undJ. Lutz in: The tin of the Bronze Age
in Mittelasie N II (in preparation).
86 A groove with semicircular cross section might have been enough moreover. Such moulds are from different ones
to bronze-temporal connections known, as for example from Malo-Krasnojarka (9epuuxoe 1960, Taf.36,8; 38.1),
Milykuduk (Mapry, r.aH in 1979, fig. 183.2; 184.5) and further to the west from Mosolovka (flpaxuu in 1996, fig. 8,1*5).
t7 Tu b.onr.zeitlichen (or younger) stone devices have in Central Asia with few exceptions (2nd B.
Cenenog in 1969; CnaxyH 7977; lllv, pnuoe in 1979; lllupuHoe in 1986 in each case with other literature) up to now hardly attention
found, so that analogies mostly only from older periods can be called. Very well
to worked heads of the arrow from Silex, but also the objects from other rocks (see, to sum up
possibly lllrzpznoe in 1986), zeigenjedoch, that with numerous, varied and well worked stone devices
still in the Bronze Age (and in later times) is to be calculated, how this also for other areas already shown
88 verbal communications N. Cholmatov and M. ChuZanazarov.
8see as a spring the Lagersrätten with reddish-brown Silex come perhaps in Karatau-, Nuratau-and Alq'ntau mountains
in question (Iy; rarraoe among other things in 1966, 29following 97; nevertheless, fairly in 1982, 154), this it would be by scientific ones
To confirm investigations.
e0 in the settlement of Karkaraly II, with rich tracks of metallurgischer activity (moulds, raw bronze, copper ores),
were also found to rock crystal (Mapry, melt 1,979,215following fig. 168,8-9.12-13), Verwendungjedoch
it is unknown.
el detailed in addition E. Pernicka undJ. Lutz in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II (in preparation).
e2 stones with a polished surface (tourz, Ra) whose use is not surely determinable (2nd B. Colour,
perhaps Schmelzzlsätze), are also known from other bronze-temporal connections: Kpunqoealpanoea
In 1948, 144 fig. 65. (Alekseevka); Mapry, taH in 1979, fig. 121,17-30 (Atasu).
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Öangali 67
(Fig. 52.5). With a preserved core stone
(Fig. 54.1) was not the blow platform
nevertheless been preserved, this is on him
To blow surface leftovers of other reductions to
recognise (fig. 53.14; 54.8). I {lingen or
Reductions, in the production in the core
, got stuck" are (Ru weak
Blow) (fig. 53,4.30; 54, come
seldom before, but also excessively crooked ones
Copies (too strong blow) (fig. 54,7.8)
are hardly represented or were evident
intends, around, got stuck"
To remove reductions (fig. 54.8). Tips
on a heat treatment did not become
observes. All together it concerns
around an apparently well developed blow technology,
above all on the production
from blades was aimed. The relatively frequent one
Occurence of reductions with natural crust
(Fig. 53,12.18; 53,19.25.30; 54,6.7.9)
points to the fact, that the raw material only in
of the settlement works on and not already in
of his spring it was debarked.
All together 93 Silices were found,
for a statistical treatment not
are sufficient. It concerns by the majority
around blades or microblades, partially
with retouchings (31 pieces). Then follow
small reductions (26 pieces), amorphous ones
Fragments (24 pieces) as well as bigger reductions
(9 pieces). Only three objects are able
when clearly accessible devices are valid, to those
but the other pieces with retouchings
are to be added. With these three determinable ones
To copies it concerns
around easily trapezoids, middle blade segment
with slightly sloping and precipitous ones
to dorsal final retouchings (trapezoider Mikrolith
or blade application) e" 1fig. 52.11,
around a serrate blade with on both sides ones
Retouchings in the teeth and a fine one
Dorsal retouching in the other Längskante
(Fig. 52.2) ea as well as around roughly conical ones,
small Kernsteine5 with straight,
raw blow platform (fig. 54.1).
In particular blades and microblades
e3 comparable Mikrolithen were published above all from neolithischen connections. Trapezoids with final retouchings
come etlva in all layers of Dam-Dam-Öe5me (Masson in 1996, fig. 2), lower and
to mirtleren layers of DZebel (Masson in 1996, fig. 4), in DZeitun (MaccoH 1971, 32 Taf. 19) or in the material
of the site of the discovery Kavat 7 of the Kel'teminar culture before (BuHorpaaoe 1968, 65following fig. 44; 45; Kopo6roea 1969,
106following; fairly in 1982, 101 following Taf.45), in several cases together with different edge-retouched
Blades. In the third (last) phase of the Kel'teminar culture a trapezoid hears retouched blade from
DZingel'dy 6 (BuHorpa4oe 1968, 119 Abb.55,23; fairly in 1982, 135 Taf. 38.18), in the size to our copy
nähersteht. In the lower Zeravlan valley the site of the discovery Ljuchöa is to be called, of a local variation of her
Kel'teminar culture belongs (Fairly in 1982, 228following Taf.63,8.9), and further to the east, a little to the west of Samarkand,
if trapezoids from Sazagan 2 are known ({xypary "r, on/Xo, tMaroe 1,991.58 Abb.22,29), where they in Spätmeso-
until early Neolithic period are dated (possibly also later). Also retouched blades are here
very often. Trapezoids Mikrolithen with notch point to an early time position in Sazagan 2 in the shorter ones
Längsseite - sucked, horned trapezoids" - ({; xypaxy" toe/Xo, \ilaaroe in 1991, fig. 22.30; cf. possibly Uöa5öi I31 - Masson
In 1996, 96following Abb.5,22-26) or aspnmetrische triangles (fixyparcy "toe / Xoal\4aroe 199 I, fig. '22'22-25).
The Sazagan culture (sucked, however, mountain Neolithic period") all together lasts at least till late Kel'teminar-
Zeitbzw. till 3. Jt.v. Chr. in, how this by Ähtrlichkeiten of the ceramics with late Kel'teminar findings
it is indicated ({xypary, toe/Xo, tuaroe in 1991, B0ff.). Also in Sazagan 2 are numerous edge-retouched
Sound represented.
nn Sol.h. to serrate blades are known possibly from sites of the discovery of the southern Kyzylkum and the lower Zeravlan valley,
the local variations of the Kel'teminar culture are added, like Pajkent, that around the Tuzkan lake
and Kyzyl Kyn (Iy; rxr.ron among other things in 1966, fig. 30; 35.9; Kopo6xoea 1969, 120 following; fairly in 1982, 146 following Taf in '61'30.31.51;
62,39-41). However, just the serrate blades seem to be absent in the central area of the Kel'teminar culture. They
come further in the settlement of Zamanbaba (ly.narr.roe among other things in 1966, Taf. lB, 1-5.8-12) and in the stations
Of Bol' 5oj Tuzkan 5, GudZajli-different stations, Pajkent l and 4before (Acnapoe in 1964, fig. 1,9.10; Iy, tarraoe
among other things in 1966, T^f.34,41.44). It might probably concern a chronologically late T1p, at the earliest since
it seems to the Aneolithikum and as a sickle application served. To Kyryl Kl" (Kacurr.roe in 1962; fairly 1,982,229following
Taf. 62) would be marked itself, that the date of this surface finding place in the Neolithic period exclusively
on the Silices supports and neolithische ceramics are absent striking-wise. The found ceramics are, more recently"
and small, bronze pieces" maybe point out to the fact, that it themselves around one, to at least partly bronze-temporal
Finding place could trade how they are known from the surroundings ($zylkyr 11) (Acrapoe in 1962,
Fig. 1,1.-2; Acxapoe in 1965, 59 fig. 2; ly.tar'aoe among other things in 1966, Taf' 306; of 37 nu' L.2)' Such. Core stones exist in almost all neolithischen cultures of Central Asia (cf. Brluorpa4oe 1968;
Kopo6rcoea 1969; Maccon in 1971; fairly in 1982) and come till the developed Bronzezeitvor (Mapry "tan
In 1979, fig. 1'72.8; Illupuuoe in 1979, fig. 1.13; lllupuHoe in 1986, 8following 36following priest 2'10)'
68 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
(approx. 2 to 6 cm long) often point Kanrenretuschen
on. In variations are represented:
dorsal on the right below precipitously (the blow point
stands here always on top) (fig. 52.3), unilaterally
precipitously dorsal to the right of (fig. 52,11-13) or on the left
(Abb.52,9.17-20), ventral on the right precipitously (fig.
52,6), dorsal on the right precipitously with ventral on the left
level (fig. 52.4), dorsal on the top left precipitously to me
on the right below put (fig. 52.5) e6 and dorsaljeweils
partial right and left precipitously
(Fig. 52,10.16). Only in a case also lay
still a partial final retouching before
(Fig. 52.16), and it to itself perhaps around one
Kerbrest could act. With most
of these retouched blades, also with him
to serrate and perhaps even with the trapezoids
, Mikrolithen", it would be allowed to do itself around applications
from harvest knives or sickles traded
habenet. From the reductions are only
two retouched, and one copy,
possibly the bottom of a blade,
a level Ventralretusche on the right ones
Side carries (fig. 53.10), while the other
Piece, also probably a Klineenende,
a sloping, precipitous final retouching owns, in such a way
the fact that a point originates (fig. 53.11).
, With the reductions and small devices
from quartz is to be followed, that the grey one
and dark grey quartz also as a tin ore,
are valid kannee. Hence, it is possible, that at least
a part of the reductions to the comminution
of the ore it was used. There, however
unambiguously determinable devices and core stones
from quartz vorliegenroo, this served
Material obviously also as a substitute with Silex,
as a raw material not in the immediate ones
Surroundings stood in a queue. A cylindrical one
Core stone became for microblades
used, which one very regularly beaten
had, without, however, the blow platform
was pretreated (fig. 54.13).
Another core stone, beaten by the blade
might have become, resembles in
his form strongly to a prismatic Silexkern
(Fig. 55.5). Two next in, tortoise's form"
(Fig. 55,3.4) remind almost
in paläolithische Forment0l, however, would be allowed
it to itself, besides, probably rather around negligent ones
Contact trade with a material,
richly was available. Two core devices
from long form with level-oval
Cross section and a sharp end
(Fig. 55,1.2) are able as amorphous core stones
or - more probably - as preliminary works
to core hatchets are looked,
perhaps still polished werd.en solltenlo2. In
to other devices let themselves trapezoider
Blade segment (fig. 54.14) 103, abge-
Variation 81 him, cross retouching legal-in heat" after Fairly in 1982, 28 Taf. 25.81. See for the Bronze Age also
lllzpnnoe in 1979, fig. 1.29; Illupuuoe in 1986, 7following 36following fig. 2.13a. The situation of the retouchings in different ones
Blades of the Andronovo stations of Pajkent is not recognizable from the pictures with Askarov (Acxapoe
In 1964, fig. 1,1.8.r1.12).
See to Erntegerä en possibly En6axoe lg62; Lechevallier in 1980; Korobkova in 1981; Quintero among other things 1997in each case with
other literature. Ahnliche edge-retouched blades also seem in Sapallitepa still (lllzpnuon
In 1979, fig. I,; 5,1-5.8; lllvpzwoe in 1986, 7following 36following fig. 2,1-5.13a.20.2I).
Different retrrschierte reductions from bronze-temporal stations around Pajkent are with Acnapon (in 1964,
Fig. 1,3-7.13-14) publishes.
Se of detailed in addition E. Pernicka undJ. Lutz in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II (in preparation).
100 A quartzite industry (after the quality of the illustrated objects quartz is probably meant rather) has to go for them
sucked. Be Sujargan culture qpisch (To, rcroe / I4ru:aa 1960, 16; To, rcroe 1,962.44following), without this, nevertheless, more thoroughly
it is discussed. To the problems of the Sujargan culture see also 3a4Henponcxzü in 1966, 214 following and parzinger
1997B as well as n. 124. Isolates, but not in the extent like in Karnab-Siökonöi, become different ones
Quartzite kinds uses already earlier, possibly in KavatT (Fairly in 1982, 102). Also from Kyzylbr (cf.
- - N. 94) is mentioned quartzite (Fairly 7,582,230, not with KacuMoe 1962 and Kopo6xoea 1969, 120 following).
101, Schildk.ötenförmige" core stones also seem in stations around the Ljavljakan lake (Br.ruorpa4on/
Maue4oe 1975, Abb.52,56). Ahnliche copies from Silex come in the Zeravöan valley still from Sazagan2
(flxypaxy, toe/Xo, rMaroe in 1991, fig. 16,1-4) and DZangal (lxypary, r.oe/XoaNraroe 1991, Abb.3l, 34).In
Sazagan 2 are found further, mousterienartige reductions" (firxypar 102 polished or partially polished hatchets from different rocks come since the Neolithic period
(Pauoe in 1966; fairly in 1982, Taf. 46,31-35; 56,48-50) and at least till the Bronze Age before (lllupnuoe
In 1986, 45 Abb.15). Some neolithische half products correspond to the copies from Karnab (2.8. Panor
In 1966, fig. 1,6; fairly in 1982, Taf. 64.85; 65.20; 66,23-25). Some oval core devices from are able to do it here also
of the Andronovo settlement are called by Alekseevka (KpNnrlona-fparoBa 1948, 120 following fig. 44,2.3).
tn3 Seeing. on top n. 93.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali 69
brochene point of a drill
(Fig. 54.11) 10a and a Stichelluu u.r, qualitäwollem
to white quartz (Abb.54,12) call.
There still there come some blades
(Fig. 54.15) and reductions (fig. 54,16-25;
55,6-17), from which to itself single again
allowed to compose (fig. 55.6a-c) and
thereby a processing directly in that
Settlement book.
Although with it the Silex and quartz industry
strongly reminds of the Neolithic period,
if she was allowed, nevertheless, clearly in the Bronze Age to date
be. Neither stratigraphisch nor in
other finding repertoire are signs
for a prebronze-temporal settlement this
To recognise of place.
With some objects of stone
if several intended purposes are conceivable.
Moreover belong some round discs.
Two of it exist of fine-grained
Quartzite (Abb.55,18.19), the third one against it
from sandstone (Abb.55,20). A copy
it was simply slammed from a level record
(Fig. 55.18), another to him
Edges and partially on the sides polished
(Fig. 55.19), during with him
Copy from sandstone the surface in such a way
strongly had weathered, that no tracks of his
Setting-up were preserved more. Comparable ones
Stone discs from different ones
Time periods werd.en as a Kratzerlo6, Klingen107,
Reibsteinet08 or anvil stones
(with blow tracks) roe appealed or
in connection with the Erzverarbeitungllo
seen od.er simply as objects,
unknown Verwend.rtrg "llt b.-
strives. With the copies from Karnab
if a use was as a small grater or.
Whetstones or in connection with
the arch processing conceivably. Easy unpunched ones
Whetstones, in Karnab-
Siökonöi from limestone (fig. 63.13) or
Sandstone (fig. 63.17), appear to too different ones
Times so often, that to itself
an enumeration puts aside.
When objects of unknown function are valid
egg-shaped limestone objects (fig. 71.3),
from their two ready pieces (fig. 63,11.12)
and an incomplete copy (fig. 63.10) seemed.
The both ersteren were careful
and completely polished, and also
a small stand area aufiueist, during
the other at both ends sharp runs up.
The incomplete piece remained in a coarse one
Treatment stage with still visible ones
Pickspuren. Objects of this kind seem
in the middle and late Bronze Age
Of Central Asia been spread to
seinll2, however, step still in früheisenzeitlichen
Jaz to I contexts aufi13. To call
is in this connection also klei
one, smooth limestone ball (fig. 63.16) 114.
104 analogies are possibly from the settlement DZanbas I I (Fairly in 1982, Taf. 37.57) of the late Kel'teminar culture
publishes. For former copies in the Zerav5an valley see the site of the discovery Sazagan 2 which dates neolithisch
becomes (lxypaxy "toe/Xo" tuaroe in 1991, Äbb.24,20; 25.8). Smaller drills from him are also to be mentioned
Site of the discovery Bedbulak in the southern Kyzylkum, where also shards of the Aneolithikums and the Bronze Age as well as
Copper slags were found (Fairly 1,982,232following Taf.66,72-74). Ahnliche drill are in him
Stations around the Ljavljakan lake very much häufrg (2.8. BrzHorpa4oe / MaNae4os 1975, Abb.27,22-25.34-39;
29,14-30;33,7-1.2.76-;36,32-41) and are able with piercing of stone pearls
(in particular turquoise) are brought in connection (Fairly and the following 982, 236 following).
Gouges are still from stations of the late Kel'teminar culture like DZanbas 1 l (Fairly in 1982, Taf.37,63.64),
Kuraly (Fairly in 1982, 138), Mamur 3 (Fairly in 1982, Taf. 50.57) and Mamur 4 (Fairly 1,982,137 Taf. 50.67)
publishes. They are also rather frequent in Sazagan 2 ({xypany, toe/Xo, rlraroe in 1991, Abb.24,7-12. L9.22).
Neolithisch and from the Okunev time, partially from reductions made: Kopo6roea 1969, 163 Abb.42, l;
Buuorpa4on / MaMeÄoB 197 5, 52 fig. 1 9, 1 0; Gotlib I 999, 59 fig. 24.10; 25,3.11.
Neolithische copies from Nordostchina: Li Gongdu in 1986, fig. see. 507.8.
Okunev time: Nailmaker in 1999, 25 fig. 14,9.10.
Yunnan sheng bowuguan wenwu gongzuodui in 1977, fig. see. 177.
Besides, the more exact use is not given: Mapry, rough in 1979, I77 following 184 fig. 127,17.22.24; 134,18.19.
Kel'teminar culture: Szynczak,/Gretchkina in 1996, 122 Abb.22, l. - To the stone discs in the Urals area: Ce
pnroe in 1977.
tt2 Eu4otc "roe in 1975, Abb.6,6 (Alekseevka); Mapry.taH 1979, fig. 159,2.11 (Sortandy-Bulak); lllzpzuoe in 1986,
Abb.77,7 (Sapallitepa); 22.7 (Dal'verzin). With a Längsrillung also Ibnaj (Yepunxos in 1960, Taf.74,17).
Another copy became found in Pinge 6,/1 C of the mining of Karnab. of tt' Mu. or, in 1959, 38 T^f.32,1-3.6.
t 14 Arrs to bronze-temporal connection possibly in the settlement of Truinikovo: Yepnnxoe in 1960, 'faf. 47, 24.25.
70 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Two stone chopping, one from lime star
(Fig. 63.19; 72, la, b) and one from Aplit
(Abb.63,18), point in the reaping edges
in each case wear tracks (fig. 72.1b).
Such heels, mostly, however, with very clearly
of distinctive shoulder, come in China
already since the Neolithic period before and
would be allowed with horticulture or agriculture zusammenhängenlr5.
From findings Andronovo-
Culture, in particular in connection
with metallurgy and mining, lie
comparable pieces from Kazachstan and
further to more western and more southern areas
vor116. In Karnab also interprets itself
such a use in, because similar ones
Devices also in the area of the mining discovers
An important place within lithischen
Good to finding from the Siökonöi settlement
if take the hammers and their fragments
one. They exist mainly of him
fossil-leading limestone (Abb.56,1 B;
57,1.2; 59,3-6; 50-62; 72.2), approx. 2 km
northwesterly from Karnab stands in a queue. More seldom
if Aplit (fig. 57,3-5 appear; 63,2-9),
Quartz or quartzite (fig. 57.7; 5B), granite
(Fig. 59.1) as well as other rocks foreign to place
(Amphibolit, dark, thick lode rocks)
(Abb.59,2; 63.1). The length of the hammers
if she lies between 10 and 25 cm and
by the majority are 12-18 cm long. As a rule
if they weigh 1-2 kg, however, are able also
be more difficult. The entire, well worked
Copy from dark quartz from
7.5-cm length is able as a miniature hammer appealed
become (fig. 57.7), however, would be allowed,
to judge by the wear tracks,
have had not only symbolic value,
but also for the practical application come
be. Usually they owned
Hammers a long form with more level
Underside and arched top. On that
Notches or one are able to do top at the side
be right to a, vei running around grooves,
to allow a more stable Umschnürung.
This became by specific reductions
(with notches) or careful pecking (with
Grooves) reaches. Most hammers point
at the thicker end clear blow tracks
or breakaways of the use
on (fig. 55,1-7; 57,1.2.5-7; 58,3-5.7.8), more seldom
if both ends were also used
(Fig. 57.4; 58,1.2.6). In a case left
itself two fragments from the slices 19
and compose 23 to a hammer
(Abb.57,5). The same types and materials
how in the mining of Karnab meet
also in the Siökonöi settlement.
the wear tracks as well as the fragments
if these book a use
Hammers in the Niederlassutrgttt.
Reductions from limestone and Aplit belonged
certainly to hammering, because no one else
Devices from these materials made
became. Ahnliche fragments also came
in the area of the mining numerously to
Prelight and are able by breakaway
at the work explains werdenrle. From that
1r5 so-called, Manghuai adze": Yunnan sheng bowuguan wenwu gongzuodui in 1977, fig. 2,1-5; Tzehuey Chiou-
Bang in 1998, 287 following fig. Cl-5; to sum up, for the spreading in Südwestchina: WangJinlin 1992. Li Gongdu
(In 1936, fig. 15,9.10) published comparable copies also from Nordostchina, where they in the lower Xiajiadian
(Date early Bronze Age to medium Bronze Age). Also as agricultural devices become copies of that
Isthmus Valentin appealed (Cerraeuoe in 1969, 5 fig. 1), and of the Atrtor, however, also the use such
Devices in the mining holds for possible (CeneHoe 1969, 6).
ttu gepnHxo* in 1960, Taf. 26.3 (settlement of Ust '-Nar).rn); 49,1-4 (settlement of Tru5nikovo); 74,6-8,75,9 (mountain constructions
from Kara-Su, Mynöunkur and Saja-Su); Mapry, tan in 1979, fig. 173. (Settlement of Tagibaj-Bulak); llftlpzuoe
In 1986, Abb.25,10 (Öust); llprxr.tr in 1996, Abb.48,1.5 (workshop settlement of Mosolovka); Txa'ree among other things
In 1996, 114 Abb.9,4 (copper mine of Suldak). - To similar findings from Afghanistan cf. Shaffer in 1971,
98 fig. 30. as well as Shaffer in 1978, 154; 158 following fig. 3.47.
Of 117 detailed in addition G. Weisgerber undJ. Cierny in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II (in preparation).
118 comparable hammer forms are also from other bronze-temporal mining areas and from settlements
with metallurgischer activity famously: gepnznoe in 1960, Taf. 15,6.7; 76,7.2 (settlement of Kanaj); 27.10 (settlement
from Ust '-Nar1'rn); 5 l, L.2; 52, and the following (settlement of Tru5nikovo)); 75,1-6 (mountain constructions of Öerndojak, Kyzyl-Öilik,
M1, nöunkur and Saja-Su); flprxuu/Carairaax 1,975, fig. 8,6-9; flpxxag in 1996, fig. 48; 49 53-55 (workshop
from Mosolovka); Txavee.r. and tggO, fig. 7-11 (mountain constructions of Aktogaj, Iikininsk, Kurkuduk, Myskazgan, 5ochyr,
Suldak and Sptybaj). See in addition also G. Weisgerber and J. Cierny in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia
II (in preparation).
l1e detailed in addition G. Weisgerber and J. Cierny in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II (in preparation).
Settlement-archaeological researches in
Settlement lie very big and coarse ones
(Fig. 59,4-6) as well as smaller and specific
beaten pieces before (fig. 60).
Several reductions are, from the blow point
from seen, rather broadly as long (fig. 59,4.5;
62,2-4), so that they probably from the Längskanten
and not from the schmaleren working ends
of the hammers come. In two cases
if reductions again conformistly were able
become (fig. 52,1.2) and even more clearly
became, that they of the Längsseiten of her
Hammers had broken off. There
if the fact, that none of the reductions comes
Tracks of utilisation or Pickung in
to the ends or on the dorsal side carries,
Natural crust against it not seldom receive
is. They do not belong therefore to old, damaged
Hammering, which one again anew prepared
had, but to the first production,
with the raw material first
- still with natural crust - roughly prepared,
then more finely slammed and at last if necessary
was finished by Pickung.
Ahnliches would be allowed for few reductions
from Aplit (fig. 63.2-B) or other
Are valid for rocks (fig. 63.1). In the comparison
to the gigantic amounts from hammering
to the mining is her ZaIl in the settlement
relatively slightly, what, nevertheless, not to
surprise needs, because her need in
Mining around a multiple was higher, and
they in the establishment at most with that
Arch processing have been used
would be able.
Of the arch processing different ones would be allowed
Meal devices have served. To call
if are concave excavated meal tubs of granite
(Fig. 64,1.2.7; 65,1.2), Aplit (fig. 64.3),
more seldom also gneiss (fig. 64.4), I {alc. stone
(Fig. 64.6) or conglomerate (fig. 64.5;
65,1). Their use to the arch meal
it is indicated by clear scratches
(Fig. 54,1-4), not with the grain meal
can have originated. Moreover would be allowed
also runners with convex Schliffläche belong,
partial scratches also strongly
were (fig. 65,3-7; 66.1). As a Klopfsteine
to the coarse comminution of ore are valid
such stones, with which by longer use
bowl-like deepening originated
Sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali 7r
were (fig. 66,2-7; 67; 68; 72.3). They are
as for the rest in connection with mining
and metallurgy bekannrr20. Some dävon
became obvious from spent or broken ones
To meal stones slammed, how
smooth surfaces with deep scratches point
(Fig. 66,2-5; 72.3). The setting-up occurred
apparently intentionally and sometimes very much
carefully (fig. 66.2; 67.1). The basic material
of these devices is quartz or quartzite,
Granite or Aplit, however, in no case
Limestone. Finally, still let themselves easy ones
Klopfsteine call, around to ovally
are (fig. 69,7-10; 70.1-B) or a long one,
oval hammer form own (fig.
70,9.10) or simply exist of river pebbles,
at the ends or aufden sides
Blow tracks show (fig. 69,1-6). Ns
Rock for this came mainly quartz or.
Quartzite in question, rare Aplit, granite,
Limestone or sound slate. With the copies
from limestone it would be allowed to do itself in one
Case around a hammer fragment trade
(Fig. 70.1), during another possibly
geschäftet was, because a burr,
one of the broadsides ran, carefully to one
Groove was pecked (fig. 70.3).
CunoNor, ocrr
For the relative-chronological and cultural ones
Classification of this establishment is
the ceramics decisively. Besides, isr, however, to
note that undecorated, fragmented
Settlement product of other places this
Time up to now hardly been published isr,
and at most a very much restricted choice
from primarily more considerable pieces
for the publication reached. On this
Nevertheless, manner let themselves neither the quantitative proportion
from decorated to undecorated ones
To vessels still the entire form repertoire
open. Also the question, to what extent
chronological arrangements, on account of
were compiled by grave findings,
on the settlement material are transferred
are able, is still unsettled. The settlement
from Karnab-Siökonöi alone this becomes
Problems cannot solve, comes, however
120 See, e.g., llpxxzn in 1996 (Werkstattvon Mosolovka); Merideth in 1998, drawing 12 (mining in Spain).
72 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
you at least in this respect a pioneering role
to, when they currently to few bronze-temporal
Establishments hears, completely
is dug out and finding property
completely is given.
By the discussion of the single vascular forms,
Edge profiles and ornamental manners
(see. supra) already became all available ones
and appreciable comparisons cited.
From it can be concluded, that the ceramics
from Karnab-Siökonöi mainly in Andronovo-
TazabagJabKultur analogies finds.
Though some elements also point in
other areas (Zarnanbaba, AbaSevo),
however, are less unequivocal. With the forms,
the parallels in Zamanbaba find,
if it concerns, e.g., relatively easy forms
how bowls and bowls as well as vessels
with spherical body and sharply set off one
Cylinder or funnel neck. Open ones
Vessels, as for example bowls and bowls,
are in the form repertoire Andronovo-
Of circle, almost exclusively by grave findings
it is characterised, strongly unterrepresented,
so that the absence of comparative findings
here probably rather on the Forschungsbzw
Publication state is due.
To pots with sharp layout lie
Parallels from Zamartbaba before, however, come
these forms also in Andronovo connections
before, so that no Zr, vingender
Reason is given, they chronologically or culturally
to connect exclusively rr'it Zarnanbaba.
Those elements, in Aba5evo-
Culture show (inside gekehlte or taken off ones
Edges, narrow, groove-like Kanneluren),
concentrate in the area
from hut 3, namely in his second
Phase of utilisation 3-2 (all gekehlten edges
and 56 Vo of all fragments with narrow ones
Kanneluren). A taken off edge and
three fragments with narrow Kanneluren
come from the third phase of dwelling
2 (2-Z), while the remaining shards
with narrow Kannelurverzierung in
to different cuts appeared.
Possibly were Aba3evo-
Influence only in quite determined
Phase efficiently. Chronologically wrirde to itself
this without contradiction in the given one
Frames insert, because the AbaSevo culture
after newer radiocirque voucher data possibly in
the time of 1900-1600 B.C. gehörtr2l
and with it in her later phases of her
Settlement of Karnab-Siökonöi corresponds.
Still must be stressed, that ours
Knowledge of the bronze-temporal settlement ceramics
from the gigantic area between
to the Zeravian valley in the south and the West-Siberian
Forest steppe in the north still
is so low, that we in spite of certain more formally
Ubereinstimmungen between vascular leftovers
from Sogdien and the Südural cautiously
should interpret.
Spring situation is not sufficient, in any case, around
from a direct effect Aba5evo-
Culture for the middle Bronze Age in Zerav-
To be able to speak 5an-valley. One becomes that
to called common characteristics for the time being only
can state.
Several times looked, that they
Decoration of the vascular drag, particularly
with grave ceramics, a rather early characteristic feature
darstelltl22, nevertheless, in the material
from Karnab fehltl23. Without this fact
to want to overrate, seems at least
certainly, that this settlement within Andronovo-
Culture and related groups
early does not date. Tlpische Amirabad elements,
they date more recently, as for example cruciform ones
Indentations, cross shading tapes
or bulges in the cervical beginning, already
spätbronzezeitlich are, come to Karnab
also not vorr2a. In Karnab proved ones
Knubben-and Leistenzier,
r21 TpnqoHon 1997.
122 par wrestlers 1997B; anabaptist in 1999. The temporal arrangement of the graveyard of Koköa 3 with a development
from central and southeast to the northern and northwest TeiI (Parzinger 1997B, l32ff.) finds
her confirmation in some graves which were dug out later in the northwest edge. Here was found in grave
I24 a vessel with cruciform notches (Llruua l986), how they are for Amirabad rypisch (Parzinger 1997B,
of t2' L.diglich in two cases is a Rauhung (no decoration in the real sense) of the vascular drag
available (fig. 12.9; 37.10).
t2n Di.r. Elements are for the Amirabad culture qpisch as a consideration of the findings points with Itina (l4ru:ua
1977). The characteristic features and also the possibilities for a finer arrangement became very clear
Settlement-archaeological researches in
in general rather late is attached, is able
be already older as the analogies point.
Therefore the establishment of Karnab is able
certainly of the Andron ovo TazabagJab culture
are assigned, what further to the north
the Fedorovka step of the Andronovo culture
corresponds, in the south against it to outgoing one
Namazga Y and above all Namazga
VI. A more detailed temporal classification
is not possible currently, because up to now for none
internal chronology of the TazabagJab culture
it exists.
The absolute date of the place is based
on four lac-Datenr25, from d.en findings
2-1 (2a), 3and the following, 4B and 37 come.
They date with it the dwellings 2, 3
and 4, with Belund 37 handeh it to itself around one
Fireplace beyond the buildings.
Analysis proved fur findings 37 highest ages
(In 3476 + 32, cals. BC 1890-1690, 2 o). On it
if the huts 4 (findings 4B follow:
3280 t 40, cals. BC 1650-1450,2 o), 2 (findings
2-I or 2a: In 3770 + 50, cals. BC
In 1525-7375, 2 o) and 3 (findings 3and the following:
3130 t 44, cals. BC 1520-1260, 2 o). The population main focus
from Karnab-Siökonöi
is able with it in the time of 17. up to
l4. Cent. v-Chr. is expelled.
Scnrussnr, lrERKUNGEN
The settlement of Karnab-Siökonöi left
so only causes tracks of firm building of a house.
Rests of four huts were able established
become, there probably still comes
the half pit house 53. Small-scale stratigraphische
Sequences of fireplaces
and pits as well as within the huts
indicate rather at the multiple, brief
and presumably seasonal visiting
Sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali IJ
of the place there and seem less for one
continuous, longer-durable settlement
to speak. It is to be supposed further,
the fact that the fireplaces mark places, where
Tents or light, jurtenartige constructions
none had stood, archaeologically
tangible farmer's Estonian or other tracks
more hinterließentzu. Remarkably
is, that fireplaces of different phases
always at certain places concentrate
(2.8. Findings 20 and 30-34, 43-47
or 28-29 and 48: Abb.4), the tents or
Jurten would be allowed over and over again possibly in
have been put up the same place.
Dwellings 1-4 (and presumably 53),
also repeatedly were used, point
also on it there, that certain facilities
within the settlement one
firm place had, so that a stable internal one
Whole organisation of the establishment
is to be supposed.
The constructions l-4 further let themselves on top
on the basis of Analogienl2T as pits or
Half pit houses respond. Besides, became
already on some differences towards
to the up to now known pit houses
of the Andronovo circle pointed out.
These consist in it primarily, that
there other plans are booked and
Stone versions are absent, in addition, are
the huts of Karnab-Siökonöi comparatively
In the dwellings of Karnab were
in each case several fireplaces at the same time in
Company. Besides, let itself for more complicated
invested stove 2a a metallurgist's broad
Function (tin salary) prove; probably
if he served for smelting from
Zinnerzr2s. For the and.eren stoves same
Construction (findings 2B, 2and the following, 3a and 4C
from the houses 2, 3 and 4) one is able eivon
Parzinger (1997b) worked out. Moreover, he could point, that the existence of a so-called. Sujargan culture
(To, tcroe 1948=Tolstow 1953; To, rcroell4rulaa in 1960; To, rclon in 1962) really is problematic,
because the earlier published Sujargan material was published later than Amirabad culture. Therefore, denied
already 3agHeupoecxuü (in 1966, 214following) after short discussion the existence of a Sujargan culture.
t2u Si.h. the contribution vonJ. Village Görs in this tape.
126 Alike could be the situation also in Kirova where with rescue excavations two layers were observed,
chronologically briefly on each other should follow. Though there were found fireplaces, however, no houses: AnreuHcrrü/
Co." \osbes 197 2, 42. ttt Cf. n. 22 and 24.
Of 128 detailed in addition E. Pernicka and J. Lutz in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Mittelasie N II (in preparation). With
of the smelting of relatively pure Kassiterit it can be that hardly slag originates (Tylecote
In 1987, l4l; Merideth in 1998, 19), so that their absence does not exclude the processing of the ore in Karnab.
74 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
nen similar purpose suppose. By construction 2
if it was allowed to do itself therefore probably around one with that
Tin production in connection standing ones
Workshop have traded, what alike
also for the huts 3 and 4 and with it for
the whole establishment is to be supposed.
The mappings of the rock kinds
(Fig. 73) as well as the meal devices, stone hammers
and metal findings (fig. 74) carries other ones
Aspects to the understanding of the settlement organisation
with. The distribution of the Silices and
of various rocks (fig. 73, A-B) scatters
the whole excavation surface, the corresponding
is valid for easy meal balls and blow stones
(Fig. 74.8). The situation of the metal findings
(Ingots, metal fragment, downpour drop) in
and to the north of hut 2 (fig. 74, A) confirms
against it their connection with the metallurgy.
Further one hit in this arrangement
numerous meal stones (fig. 74, C). Also them
strong concentration of quartz fragments
to the north of this construction (more than 50 pieces in
Cut 16) (fig. 73, E) points in this direction,
because one can at least go out from the fact, that
a bigger part of it than tin ore
in the settlement was brought. An other one
remarkably big quartz concentration lies
in the southwest of hut 3 (fig. 73, E), a:uch
several blow stones are found} lrier (fig.
74, D), so that a more intensive arch comminution
in the area around construction 3 accepted
may become. Besides, concentrate in
this place most reductions and
Hammers from limestone (Abb.73, D; 74.8), which is why
one here the production and/or use
of the hammers can suppose. This
speaks furthermore for the fact, that the groove hammers
not only in the mining, but also in
were used to the arch processing. Meal stones
zlur arch comminution were found
also especially numerously in and around
Hut 3 as well as in the slices 7 and 27
(Fig. 74, C). The accumulation in the slices 7
and would be able to do 27 in the south edge of the settlement
with pit house 53, with stove 36 or with one
other not more preserved arrangement
in connection stand.
The settlement in the Siökonöi-Saj with Karnab
stood certainly with the exploitation
the tin bed and the processing
of the won ore in connection.
This becomes by the limestone hammers of the same kind
in settlement and mining, the production
from such hammers and him
Proof of ores in the settlement,
Comminution and meal device, the analytic one
Identification of tin in at least
to one of the stoves and the tracks metallurgischer
Activity under use
from arsenic copper and tin bronze conclusively
proved. The situation of the establishment possibly
1 km to the west of the mining would be allowed through
the water supply about Siökonöi-
Sait2e causes g "*" r".r be. Water became
to the life as well as to the arch processing
needs. The settlement was, compared
with the magnitude of the mining, rather
small; it are sure in the closer like other ones
Surroundings other such places
to suppose of the same time position. Possibly
if they all became, like they
Station in the Siökonöi-Saj, only seasonally genulzL
There, in any case, is on account of the described ones
Connections with arch processing
and to accept metallurgy,
that it to itself at the houses 1-4 and probably
also with 53 rather around workshops
when acts around dwelling houses. It would be conceivable,
that the lying open fireplaces of the surroundings
the residential places or camp sites pretend.
To what extent the arch yield and arch processing
should cover only the personal use
or, in addition, served as a commodity,
is not to be ascertained certainly. It is
however, on imports, the contacts after the south
till the baktrischen space book
(Sound shard, stone vessel fragment), pointed out
and also mentions, that the necessary ones
Means of transportation (horse, camel) r30 in
Animal bone material of Karnab-Siökonöi
are proved.
(N.B.und H. P.)
12see in this Saj the most important springs water-leading all year round, in the surface also lie even today
130 see the contribution of N. Benecke in this tape. In the settlement became in spite of the very bad preservation
of the osseous material domesticated animals as well as game proved. Botanical rests have
do not keep.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali 75
rJ, I jJ,
Abb.25. Karnab, Siökonöi settlement. Ceramics. 1-2.6-9 cultural layers. 3 findings 8. 4.11-12 findings 4. 5.10 Befund3-
2. M1:2.
'/ t) tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
r {--------


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