Tuesday, January 04, 2011

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Site of the discovery
Object type
GPS co-ordinates date picture
T001 Mu5iston, on the terrace, Matöa". Shard dispersion.
A Sondage (Sl) proved none
to archaeological tracks
39'18.41 7', 68'00.175 ', MA / NZ Abb.12,7-8
T002 Muiiston, above the miner's camp.
A Sondage (S2) proved no archaeological ones
Lay a track
39'18.657 ', 67'58.607 ',)
T003 Mu5iston, above the miner's camp.
A Sondage (S3) proved no archaeological ones
Lay a track
39'18.729 ', 67'58.589 ',
T004 Mu5iston, above the miner's camp.
A Sondage (S4) proved no archaeological ones
Lay a track
39 "18.729', 67" 58.302'?
T005 Mu5iston, saddle in the mining. Shard dispersion.
A Sondage (S5) proved no archaeological ones
Lay a track
39'18.625 ', 67'58.033 ', fig. FMA 12.9
T006 Mu5iston, cave below the farmland, sari
Chauz" (S6-6a)
39 "20.021 68'00.404 ', FMA
(6.-7 cent.)
Cf. report
T007 Mu5iston, sari Chauz" (S7) 39" 19.982', 6B '00.334', Financial Accounting, trA.
(6.-7 cent.)
Cf. report
T008 the Muiiston east, Silexklinge 39'l 8.50? ', 6B '00.798', prehistory fig. 12.6
T009 MuSiston, Kani Nukra" in the Negnob valley.
Shard dispersion
39'18.226 ', 67" 56.323', FMA/MA
T0l0 Muiiston, Sarez", talabwärts from Kani Nukra.
Slag findings
Of 39 "t9.417', 67" 57.77",)
T0l l Mu5iston, NegnobTal, below T010.
Slag findings
39 "19,380', 67" 57.159'?
T012 Muiiston, Negnob valley, below T011
Slag findings
39'19.496 ', 67'57.t66',)
T013 Mu5iston, Negnob valley, below T013.
Slag findings
39 "20.41 1 67" 57.798',
T014 Muiiston, Kaznok valley, below the miner's camp.
Slags and ceramics findings
39 "20.747', 67'59.702', MA / NZ
T0l5 Mu5iston, compared with the miner's camp.
, height sanctum".
39 "18.546', 67" 59.132', prehistory Cf. report
T016 Muiiston, compared with the miner's camp
, Kenotaph".
39'18.749 ', 67" 58,870', N, trA.
T0l 7 Cukurak. Silexfunde 39'23.1 56', 67" 52.895', prehistory
TOlB Cukurak., Saj Sawon". Silexfunde 39" 23.303', 67'53.288', prehistory Abb.12, lL
T019 Öukurak, Novie cathedral". Fire layers in
2-m depth (Sal profile), ceramics
39'23.288 ', 67" 52.r42', NZ
T020 Uöko valley, above the village RodZ. Numerous ones
Slags and ceramics
39 "34.018', 67'42.749', FMA
(5.-8 cent.)
Abb.12, r1-
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of MuSiston and Takfon 235
Tab. 1st List of the prospektierten archaeological sites in the sphere of the tin beds of Mu5iston and Takfon
(FMA - early Middle Ages, MA = Middle Ages, NZ = modern times).
Site of the discovery
Object type
GPS co-ordinates date picture
T021 Verchnij Pagna, Ka $, r Kala", below
Sari Chauz,/Kuch i Cur, shard dispersion
39'19.809 ', 68'01. l4l FMA
(5.-8 cent.)
15; 12,1-5
8001 Takfon-Kala Zilöu5, fortress with stone walls 39'12.640 ', 68.37.798', FN {4.
(6.-7. Ih.)
Cf. report
8002 Takfon-Kala Ztliavian, fortress with stone walls
39 "12.193', 68" 37.334', FMA/MA
(5.-8. and
10.-l1 cent.)
8003 Takfon-Kabriston Muftijom, graveyard 39'l 1.989', 68'37.869', MA / NZ
(12.-20 cent.)
8004 Takfon, shard dispersion on high-level terrace 39 "12.51@, 68" 36,830', FMA
(5.-8 cent.)
8005 Takfon, oval stone heap (2.5 x 3 m), Kurgan
or border mark of shepherds
39 "12.984', 6B '37.069',)
236 tins d, he Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Tab. l. (End)
In the surroundings of Musiston (fig. 1) left
itself an archaeological site with Silexabschlag
(T008), seven next with shard dispersions
(T001, T005-T007, T009, T0l4 and
T021) as well as ftinf slag aggregations
(T010-T014) and five remarkable ground changes
or super day visible ones
Monuments (T002-T004, T015, T016) register.
As surely old historical is allowed of the Silexabschlag
are valid (fig. 12.6), on one
Rock nose without other Beifunde or findings
appeared. A little more recently, but
also old historically this dates, height sanctum"
T015 (see below) the finding points
T005 (fig. 12.9), T006-T007, T009 and
T027 (fig. 11,9-15; 12,1-5) let themselves him
early Middle Ages (5.-8 cent.) assign. One
Sondage with T005 proved no findings,
while the investigations in T006-
T007 (settlement sari Chauz and grotto below
of it) extensive layer depositions
of this time produced (see below) Possibly
I km to the east below the bed from
MuSiston we bumped in the Kaznok valley into several
plump stone settlements, from those
one was exposed. She existed from
To 10-50-cm-long limestone blocks, in theirs
North side there lay an apparently tipped over one
Stele of 1.10-m height. Under the Steinpakkung
if the grown ground appeared directly.
Besides, it would be able to do itself either
around a Kenotaph or around an old road mark
act. Ahnüch is unsafe
the date: There are early-medieval
Beispielez, is, however, a substantially later one
Not to exclude beginning also.
Shard dispersions of the finding points T001
and T014 belong against it certainly in this
spirits Middle Ages or in the modern times (fig.
12,7-8). A Sondage produced with T001
no other findings and findings.
Slag aggregations T010-T014 lie
primarily talabwärts of the silver of lead beds
around Kani Nukra, would be allowed with them
hang together and are with it
most probably in the Middle Ages
or to date the modern times. Sondagen in
to the remarkable not of course seeming ones
Ground changes in T002-T004
if no other clues proved.
See in general to early-medieval graves in Central Asia: Aurezucnnä in 7972; lop6yuona in 1981; LiMnskij
In 1986; O6e, rs.reHxo in 1992; to alttürkischen grave forms see also TpuQoHoe 1975; Docimbaeva in 1995, everybody
with other literature.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the Umf'eld of Muiiston and Takfon 237
.A.bb. 1st surroundings of Muiiston, i.rrgc-'schichtliche (1-2) and friihmittelaltcrliche archaeological sites (3-5). I bronze-temporal
, Hirhenheiligtum". 2 old historical Silcxfunde. 3 Friihrnittelalterliche castle. 4 Frü1'rmittelalterliche
Shard findings. 5 Frührnittelalterliche to mittelalterlichc slag places. 6, l\lter" mining.
BeiTakfon (fig. 2) became diebeidenJrühmittelolterli
to chen fez activities to Ihla Zilöu5 (B00 1) and
Ibla ZilZavian (8002) measure, in the Kala
Zilöu5 found, in addition, test excavations
instead of to clear the population beginning
(see. t.). While the Ihla Zilöui on this
6.-7 cent. festgeleet can become, was the Ihla
ZilZavian on a mountain spur above Takfon
(Fig. 1l) settles apparently longer. Within
the fortress and in the slopes picked up ones
Ceramics correspond on the one hand to that
the Kala Zilöui (5./6.-7./8. Cent.), on the other hand
if fragments from him were also found
10.-1 1. cent. and modern material. Without excavations
must stay open, in which time
the wall trains visible still there today belong
(Fig. 13.4). An other shard aggregation
of the early Middle Ages (8004)
was found to the west of the Kala Zilöu5, a stone heap,
possibly a grave or one
\{eg pretends (8005), further northwesterly
of it. An Islamic cemetery came with Kabriston
Muftijom (dead person's town of the Mufti"), possibly
I km to the east of Takfon, to the prelight
(8003) The. Rückenstrecker rested in stone boxes
with wooden cover and stone cover. The ascertained one
North south adjustment of the dead people is
in this time absolutely of iiblich'. The next
Parallels are from Krrl'tepa (12. 13 Jh). 4
and the Nestorianskaja Mogila in the Cu valley
(13.-15 cent.) 5 known, where the burial chambers
however, from clay bricks konstnriert'r, r, 'urden.
3 Si.h. beispielsl.eise llo, rrroe in 1972; llo, urcoe in 1977; IpuqraHa/YcuaHoea 1992 in each case mitrvcitcrcr Litcratur.
a fpuquua / YcNr:rHoea 1992.
" Ecprrurarl in 1950, 157 Taf. 95.20.
238 tins cler Rronzezeit in Nlittclasieri I
Fig. 2. Urngcbung of Takfon, frirhrnittel:rlterliche archaeological sites. I Friihrnittelalterliche castle. 2 Friihmittelalter
licher Scherbenfr-rnd.
On a small one. but markarlten terrace
compared with the ehernaligen miner's camp
from Muiiston of \\' Lrrde ulährend of the celebrations
a roughly rectangular one
Stone settlement discovers (T015), first
a grave arrangement let assume, which is why rvir
at an entire exposure aimed
(Fig. 3). The terrace (height 2B8l m) lies
lveni g below \Alasserscheide zrvischen
Kaznok-uncl to the Pagna valley, close in
a rnodernen street from the time of her
Mining activities. Certainly this would be allowed
Street, nevertheless, ar.rf an older \\' eg zurtickgehen,
here over the mountains führte6.
The stone settlement (fig. 3,8; 4, Ä) passed
from a northern one and südlicl'ren
Längsreihe (ever approx. 5 m long) from up to 1 m
to long limestone blocks. \A / estseite
closed with 4.50 m laneen, geraclen
Stone row from, in Nlitte grol3er, stele crazy tiger
Limestone block of I, 20 x 1.00 m
GröI3e and 0.90-m height raised \, var.
On the eastern side two stone rows formed
a sharp corner, in the middle axis
the Anlase still 2 m iiber the end of her
The north and Siidseite went out. Within
of the final corner there lay a limestone record
rnit to an engraved Syrnbol in
'H ' form. From the big rvestlichen limestone block
from a 1.50-m-wide stretched,
roughly rectangular, teihveise disturbed ones
Steinpackuns in the inside to etr'r'a in the middle
the arrangement. Under this stone packet
applied clünne Hurnusschicht,
the ceramic fragments contained. Under him
eastern end of cler stone packet, only in theirs
\\'estrand a little from stones overlaid,
if one found itself under the humus
6 still today rvird with Fufln'rärschen the resident N Ber'ölkerung ehel \[eg iiber cliese \\rasserscheidc sellomrnerr.
as drrrclr to you T; of ilcr'.
Siedhmgsarcl-räolocische researches irn UrrrJeld from \'Iuiiston uncl Taklcrrr 239
Ti -
. t. i., '.-,
:-.; 4e, a-; 4; r {'.;'ts *,"
f$s.r;;;; C
Relgbau with Schlrtthalcle uncl chemaligern Bcrgarbciterlrqer in the Fulle. B look of the east arLl clic Steinsctzung.
24t) tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
*m $
ffi,' (bo
6l&,wP, r.\
&:9) wn
t |, o
, ftf
10 cm
Abb.4. Muiiston, height sanctum" (T015). A excavation plan (1 charcoal dispersion with humus mixed,
2 Grr "rbe with charcoal). B findings (1-4 ceramics, 5 stones).
rult year of construction U4
*N *"
ffiH. a
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Muöiston and Takfon 24r
0.30 m in the grown ground eingetiefte
Pit of 0.60 m of diameter,
up to the edge with charcoal fullly war7.
In the pit a drilled one was found
Whetstone from hard, dark rock
(Fig. 4.85). The ceramics from the pit and
of the layer of earth about that is tan to deep brown,
hand-made and with white little stones
got thin. It concerns fragments
from vessels with easy, ausbiegenden
To edges (Abb.4,81.3) and easily
inwards to thickened edge lips (fig.
4,82). A wall shard shows a horizontal one,
scratched herringbone tape on (fig. 4.84).
These shards, in particular with herringbone ornamental art
decorated piece, are for them
mittelbronzezeitliche Andronovo culture charakteristischt,
ähnli.h. Ceramic leftovers came
also in the mining of MuSiston (tunnel 3,
Crosscut 3) to the prelight.
Parallels to the arrangement are not up to now
famously. Emphasised and isolated
Situation of the stone settlement in a passport way as well as
Details of the construction (stele at the west end,
marked stone record in the Ostend) leave
think of a small, height sanctum",
with it to itself on account of the numerous ones
Charcoal leftovers, in particular in that
Pit, apparently also around a sort of fire victim place
could have acted. The fact,
that the ceramic findings certainly in them
Bronze Age are to be dated, the lac analysis
against it late-medieval to the modern
Date proves, can be thereby explained,
that this place because of his special ones
topographic situation for long periods
away over and over again visited
became, as in this Anlase vorbeifuhrende
Away about the passport would be allowed to all
Times have been used. Is present
not to clear any more, which parts, height sanctum"
bronze-timewise and which
could be younger. Stone settlements are
basically during the Bronze Age, partially
already before it very familiar, in particular
by grave arrangements. Here, however
admittedly merkwrirdige
Form with a to the east pointing point
nevertheless, is unusual for so early time.
The put up stele on the west side reminds
to early-medieval or Old-Turkish
Graves. From all is able to do itself, regrettably
no sure date and cultural one
Allocation prove. Would be also conceivable,
that an older, bronze-temporal arrangement, to
he the remained shards and maybe
Parts of the stone settlement belonged, with the establishment
of a sacrificial place later
completely or at least partially it was destroyed.
To this later arrangement belonged aufjeden
Occur the pit with charcoal,
suitable late lac Dat.r proved.
About 3 km to the north of the tin bed from
Mu5iston rises a rock massif (Kuch-i
Öur) (H 2,450m), about a long-put
Saddle (sari Chauz) with the mountains
to the south of it is connected (fig. 5, A).
The fortification was on this saddle
Sari Chauz (T007). In the southeast slope below
of the crag we bumped into one
Grotto (T006). In the southern and southeast one
Foot of the massif Kuch-i Öur and on
to the saddle sari Chauz are super day rests
from dry stone masonry obviously. It han-
delt to itself, besides, around a zyklopisch seeming one
Connection wall, in a gentle one
Bent the southern and southeast foot
of the Kuch-i Cur surrounds and at three places
outwardly jumping out quadrangle towers (approx.
2 x 3 m) aufiueist. In addition, let themselves
on the saddle to the south of the fortress arrangement
rectangular wall trains pursue. On that
Surface of the southeast slope and
on the saddle a lot of ceramics were found.
The whole slope to the south and to the east
Of saddle points in the sloping light square field
Two Cla analyses proved a calibrated date of 1430-1950 A.D.
Exact analogies to product, forms and decoration from Mudiston come from the Andronovo graveyard with
Da5ti Kozi (tr4caxoe / llorerranrana in 1989, Abb.4,14-15; BocroHryxap 1998, 66following Abb.20-47), from Tepai Kamar
(I {canoe in 1983, 356-362 fig. 5,2.6) or from Bustan 6 (Avanessova in 1997, fig. 77,7-3). See also Avanessova
In 1996 with other literature.
c), 1!) tin cier Bronzezcit in \Iittelasien I
&S?:-:" Ru.fr; 1.1:::.r:.::: iir!!; l;; 11;! 1;:rai::::::::::-;.:r _4
. "; + _
a: '-.b:
*.1&5 'i:ttl:.-
:! At"
: € *
Abb.5. - \{rLiiston. Sari (lliauz (1007). A look:mf riic Iiir} rrnittclaltcllichc Fcstung Sar-i (lhauz/Iiur:h-i (crazily rrrrr
Siiclen. B ßlick arif clie Feldflulen unterllalb from Sali Clhauz lon the east.
', *.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Mu5iston and Takfon 243
] L
Fig. 6. Muiiston, sari Chauz (T007), cut 7. A Profrl. B Planum 2nd C Planum 1. The figures call them
Findings numbers.
to halls (fig. 5,8) whose date stay open
have to go, however, seems a connection
with the mountain fortress obviously.
On the northwest side of the saddle n'urde
in the wall area a Sondageschnitt
(Cut 7) e from 4,70x2,00-m size crosswise
invested to the slope, around the date of her
Wall leftovers and the stratigraphische situation
to clear in this part of the castle. In
Northwest end of the cut was able along
the Terrassenkante a wall till one
Depth of 2.60 m are exposed (ÄÖÖ.
* S.hnitt I was on the terrace, Matöa" (T001), the cuts 2-4 lay entlans the Serpentinen between
Miner's camp and bed (T002-T004), cut 5 was put on in the saddle before the mineral deposit
(T005). They proved no archaeological findings. The slice 6 and 6 a served for the investigation of the grotto
below sari Chauz (T006).
244 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Sondage 6
Sondage 6a
r r, oon A
Fig. 7. Muöiston, grotto below sari Chauz (T006). A plan de r cave nit situation of the Sondagen 6 and 6a. B Nordrvestprofil
from Sondage 6th C west profile of Sondase 6a. The Ziflern call Befünd-bzrv. Layer numbers.
6, A7. C7). Their Fundamentierung became
however, no more grasped, would be allowed, to the area
to judge after, considerably deeper selegen
have. The wall exists of unhewn ones,
with loam to \rerkitteten boulders
from up to 0.60-m length and would probably be allowed
for the connection of the Terrassenkante served
have. Approx. I, 40 m to the west of it and on
to the saddle plateau we put under 0.50 m
the today's surface a NNO-SSW
straightened and at an angle to the Terrassienrngsmauer
running stone settlement freely
(Fig. 6.42. C2), from a situation of limestone blocks
(up to 0,40x0,50m size)
existed; about that came single verstürzte
Clay brick to the prelight (fig. 6, A1). Besides
if it was allowed to do itself around the stone Furrdament
a clay brick wall traded
have. Immediately under this foundation
if a layer of red-burnt followed
Of loam of 3-4 cm of thickness (fig. 6.43). In one
Depth of 1,00-1,10 m became in one
smaller cutting in the southeast corner
Of cut the beginning of an other stone row
established (fig. 6, A5.85). She ran in parallel
to the Terrassierungsmauer, to itself
2.40 m farther northwesterly considered. In between
if other isolated clay bricks lay
without connection (fig. 6, A6). Up to one
We pushed open depth of 1,70-1,80 m
no other findings more, the grown one
Nevertheless, ground was not reached.
The cut produced very little finding material.
Some are merely to be called
Animal bone fragments and four shards.
With the latter it concerns fragments
a hand-made bulbous bowl
with ausbiegendem edge, come there
a ground fragment of the same design as well as
the wall shard of a big disc-rotated
Of vessel with light-red colour stripes.
Because the ceramics of this cut
with that of the surface and from that
Grotto below sari Chauz (T006)
extensively agrees, below she becomes
in greater detail discussed.
Below the fortress on the saddle sari
Chauz is in a limestone projection
a grotto (T006) with two entrances,
by a rock pillar of each other
are separated. She reaches up to 5 m
in the rock and is in her passable one
Part still 1,50-1,70 m high. Around to
check, whether at this protected place
in close vicinity of the fortress Population tracks
are received, r'l'urde in everybody
of the input areas a Sondage invested
(Sondagen 6 and 6a) (fig. 7).
The southwest Sondage (cut 6) proved
no construction findings, let themselves, however
three celebration horizons make a distinction:
At the top a 30-cm-situation was found
from sharp edged limestone lumps, and
it might concern Deckenversturz
(Fig. 7.81), under it followed red-burnt
Loam with a fireplace and charcoal
(Fig. 7,82-3), directly on 22 cn
strong layer from brown, gravelly earth
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Mu5iston and Takfon 243
] L
Fig. 6. Muiiston, sari Chauz (T007), cut 7. A Profrl. B Planum 2nd C Planum 1. The figures call them
Findings numbers.
to halls (fig. 5,8) whose date stay open
have to go, however, seems a connection
with the mountain fortress obviously.
On the northwest side of the saddle n'urde
in the wall area a Sondageschnitt
(Cut 7) e from 4,70x2,00-m size crosswise
invested to the slope, around the date of her
Wall leftovers and the stratigraphische situation
to clear in this part of the castle. In
Northwest end of the cut was able along
the Terrassenkante a wall till one
Depth of 2.60 m are exposed (ÄÖÖ.
* S.hnitt I was on the terrace, Matöa" (T001), the cuts 2-4 lay entlans the Serpentinen between
Miner's camp and bed (T002-T004), cut 5 was put on in the saddle before the mineral deposit
(T005). They proved no archaeological findings. The slice 6 and 6 a served for the investigation of the grotto
below sari Chauz (T006).
244 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Sondage 6
Sondage 6a
r r, oon A
Fig. 7. Muöiston, grotto below sari Chauz (T006). A plan de r cave nit situation of the Sondagen 6 and 6a. B Nordrvestprofil
from Sondage 6th C west profile of Sondase 6a. The Ziflern call Befünd-bzrv. Layer numbers.
6, A7. C7). Their Fundamentierung became
however, no more grasped, would be allowed, to the area
to judge after, considerably deeper selegen
have. The wall exists of unhewn ones,
with loam to \rerkitteten boulders
from up to 0.60-m length and would probably be allowed
for the connection of the Terrassenkante served
have. Approx. I, 40 m to the west of it and on
to the saddle plateau we put under 0.50 m
the today's surface a NNO-SSW
straightened and at an angle to the Terrassienrngsmauer
running stone settlement freely
(Fig. 6.42. C2), from a situation of limestone blocks
(up to 0,40x0,50m size)
existed; about that came single verstürzte
Clay brick to the prelight (fig. 6, A1). Besides
if it was allowed to do itself around the stone Furrdament
a clay brick wall traded
have. Immediately under this foundation
if a layer of red-burnt followed
Of loam of 3-4 cm of thickness (fig. 6.43). In one
Depth of 1,00-1,10 m became in one
smaller cutting in the southeast corner
Of cut the beginning of an other stone row
established (fig. 6, A5.85). She ran in parallel
to the Terrassierungsmauer, to itself
2.40 m farther northwesterly considered. In between
if other isolated clay bricks lay
without connection (fig. 6, A6). Up to one
We pushed open depth of 1,70-1,80 m
no other findings more, the grown one
Nevertheless, ground was not reached.
The cut produced very little finding material.
Some are merely to be called
Animal bone fragments and four shards.
With the latter it concerns fragments
a hand-made bulbous bowl
with ausbiegendem edge, come there
a ground fragment of the same design as well as
the wall shard of a big disc-rotated
Of vessel with light-red colour stripes.
Because the ceramics of this cut
with that of the surface and from that
Grotto below sari Chauz (T006)
extensively agrees, below she becomes
in greater detail discussed.
Below the fortress on the saddle sari
Chauz is in a limestone projection
a grotto (T006) with two entrances,
by a rock pillar of each other
are separated. She reaches up to 5 m
in the rock and is in her passable one
Part still 1,50-1,70 m high. Around to
check, whether at this protected place
in close vicinity of the fortress Population tracks
are received, r'l'urde in everybody
of the input areas a Sondage invested
(Sondagen 6 and 6a) (fig. 7).
The southwest Sondage (cut 6) proved
no construction findings, let themselves, however
three celebration horizons make a distinction:
At the top a 30-cm-situation was found
from sharp edged limestone lumps, and
it might concern Deckenversturz
(Fig. 7.81), under it followed red-burnt
Loam with a fireplace and charcoal
(Fig. 7,82-3), directly on 22 cn
strong layer from brown, gravelly earth
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of MuSiston and Takfon 245
there lay (fig. 7.84), from that a hand-made
Shard with sloping notches came; under it
if 2-Z cm of thin tape from followed
To limestones (fig. 7.85), a B cm of thick situation
aschiger earth with a lot of charcoal in those
Underside (fig. 7.86), another, alike
thin tape from limestones (fig. 7.87), one
Layer of brown, gravelly earth with two
to reddish burn marks (fig. 7, BB-10),
also produced four hand-made wall shards,
10 cm of mighty grey, aschige
Layer of earth (fig. 7,811) as well as at the bottom
finally, still a 40-cm-yellow-whitish
Mucky layer with polished bigger ones
To stones (decomposition layer or
grown ground) (fig. 7,812).
Also came to the eastern Sondage 6a
no construction findings to the prelight, however, left
to themselves two celebration horizons recognise.
The uppermost layer (fig. 7, Ckt) produced
also here Deckenversturz from
sharp edged limestone lump (to 10 cm
Thickness). Under it followed a 20-cm-thick
brown layer of earth with stones (fig. 7, C2a),
a 10-cm-situation from sharp edged ones
To limestones (fig. 7, C3a), grey-brown earth
(Fig. 7, C4a), 8 cm thin Schotterstratulm
(Fig. 7, C5a) as well as 30 cm of mighty ones
Gravel layer with grey, aschiger earth
(Fig. 7, C6a.9a), in a lens embedded
was, on top from cinder (fig. 7, C7a)
and below from loam (fig. 7, CBa) existed,
the partial red-burnt was. The Straten
6a-9a proved, particularly in the eastern, niche-like
Way (fig. 7, A), a lot of ceramics
and animal bone. Under it followed
a 12-cm-dark grey Aschestratum
with few stones (fig. 7, C10a), one
Stone layer (fig. 7, C11a), a compact one
Aschenlage (fig. 7, Cl2a) with two embedded ones
to dark lenses (fig. 7, C13a), merely
an osseous comb and several
Animal bones produced, as well as at the bottom
the grown ground from hard, yellow one
Loam with a lot of stones (fig. 7, C14a).
The ceramic finding material of that
Surface as well as from the slices 7 as well as
6 and 6a of sari Chauz looks very uniform
and, hence, would be allowed to one and the same
Population stage belong. Qualifying
however, is to be stressed, that incomparably more
Shards of the surface and from that
Grotto below sari Chauz (particularly
Straten 6a-Qa) come, while few
Fragments from cut 7 rather atlpisch
are. All together dominates hand-made
dark grey or reddish-brown ceramics,
often with slate has got thin,
on site stands in a queue (fig. B; 10,1-7; 11,1-3). More seldom
if fine light clayey disc product meets
(Fig. 9; 11.4). To the hand-made
Forms belong bulbous, wide pots with
to more or less set off, ausbiegendem
Edge (fig. 8,1-6; 10,3.5; 11.13) and
to small, edge-constant tape handle or
häufi of ger horseshoe-shaped Griffl eisten (Äö0.
8,4.6) or Griffknubb en (fig. 10.5110, pots
with spherical-bulbous body, narrow one
Neck and ausbiegendem edge (fig. 10.7) \r,
Pots with cylindrical upper top (fig. 10.6)
as well as jugs with narrow neck, ausbiegendem
Edge and edge-constant handle (fig.
10,2). As a decoration meet small strips,
also with Kerbung, as well as Knubben
(Abb.8,2.5-6). As rypische forms of her
disc-rotated product are valid weitmundige
Pots with short neck and thickened
(4bb.9,3.5.10) or outwardly to hanging over ones
To edges (fig. 11.4), now and then
an edge-constant handle show
(Fig. 9.10) and with red colour spots, scratched ones
Wavy lines or notches be decorated
are able (fig. 9,4.10; 11.6), pots with spherical
to bulbous body, narrow, roughly
to cylindrical neck and ausbiegendem,
vertically to wiped off edge (fig. 9,1-
2.6.9), with red (fig. 9,1.6) or black
Engobe (fig. 9,2) as well as sculptural strips
(Fig. 9,9) can be provided, as well as
weitmundige vessels with ausbiegendem, outside
vertically to wiped off edge, edge-constant
Handle and lateral sink spout
(Fig. 9,8).Zu to an open vessel would be allowed
a fragment have only heard, from
the ring ground with stamp brand and one
small part of the wall with scratched wavy line
is received (fig. 9,7).
1 l
This form becomes on account of the wide mouth and the counterconstant clutch strips in the Russian literature
often calls kettle, cf. possibly flxy6oe in 1979, fig. 40-41 (Par-even, 7.-B.Jh. A.D.).
Very good analogies of the 3.-5 cent. A.D. are found in the graves of Borkorbaz: CopoxzH 1961.
246 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Fig. B. Mu5iston, sari Chauz (T00GT007). Ceramics
10 cm
Settlement-archaeological Forschuneen in the sphere of Muiiston and Takfon 247
w [-7 \-9' i u6
Abb.9. Muiiston, sari Chauz (T006-T007). Ceramics
10 cm
248 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Fig. 10. Mu5iston, sari Chauz (T006-T007). 1-7 ceramics; B bone.
5 cm {8)
10 cm (1-7)
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Mu5iston and Takfon 249
T----tr\7 ^ / truS \V (r1)) \.! - 'y10
ffi l \& a lt l&l, t),
/-\-r-'-\I "\I.l
V [-l see
o-::? tt (5)
0 10 cm (1-4,6-15)
l ______ ______!,
\, - 1€ of l i@i ij,
?, 14 / 15
250 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
10 cm
, € ffi, {$-M
of ö6'
6wffi \8
K, ffifr tLt B
-/-) 14
Fig. 12. Umgebungvon Muiiston, Prospektionsfunde. 1-5 Mu5iston, I (a $ "rIfula (T021).6 Muiiston east (T008).
7-8 Muiiston, Matöa (T001). 9 Muiiston, saddle in the mining (T005). 10 Pagna valleys. 11-13 RodZ. 14-15 Öukurak, Saj
Savron. 1-5.7-9.11-13 ceramics; 6.14-15 Silex; 10 iron.
ö 15
Siedlunssarchäologische researches in the sphere of Muiiston and Takfbn 251
Tadlikistan in 1998
Kala ZilZavian
VerEesürg: G" Stcfretrs, L, Sv*ökov 8/94
Kartsgtephkcls Csdbdgr C. Sbtreus 8/94
:. 'r:;:i-*
**...4.:9e*5#; "*
Fig. 13. Takfon, Kala ZilZar '3in (8002). A topographic plan. B look from \{, 'e sten on the Fe lssporn with him
Festungsl'esten, at the foot of the place Takfon.
969 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
The bulbous pots are far circulators
and besizen parallels in Duianbetz, Kr, rganöa
(Fergana valley) 13, PendZikentra, Rasulbajkultepalu,
5i5i.ho.ra16 as well as in Kaunöi-
Area (steps II-III) 17 and are able in
the late 4.-B.Jh. are dated. Also them
to horseshoe-shaped grounds find in
this time Analogienls. The spherical pots
with narrow neck are from PendZikentle
and the lower layers of Rasulbajkultepa2O
famously, where they to the 4.-5 cent.
can be assigned. Edge forms,
how they in here occupied weitmundigen
To pots of the disc product seem, are
again in the Kaunöi area (steps II-III)
nachgewiesen2l. Spherical-bulbous turntable pots
become in Ajtugldy-Tep.22 in dut
5.-7 cent. sedate. Spout pots, also with
Eneobe, let themselves in PendZikent23 in this
5.-8 cent. puts.
Our excavations lay the conclusion
the close, that it to itself in sari Chauz around
a fortress with connected one more openly
Settlement from the 6.-7 cent. acts, with it
in the time of the population period VI
from Karnab dates. Possibly belonged
also the field halls in the slope in this
Time and served the care of the inhabitants
the fortress arrangement.
The fortress Kala Zilöu5 (8001) considers
itself at the north end of the today's place Takfon,
where one brook coming from the west
flows into the Remon. She lies on one
precipitous rock spur (fig. 15, A), point
rises about 100 m about the Remon
(approx. 2010-m height). The spur erstreckr
in north south direction and is in the north
about a deep saddle with the arch-leading
Mountain massif linked. Zallreiche
stone wall leftovers are already super day
obviously (fig. 14; 15, A). In the north
if a tower, them stood originally probably
Arrangement to the saddle concluded. From the northern one
Foot of the highest Felsspize from runs
a wide wall to the north. Southeast
of this crag wall parts are received,
probably of a terrace connection
served. Further to the south two other ones are found
Terraces, also by randliche
Wall trains supported, from which the southern one
with a round construction on the southwest corner
and a roughly rectangular one
Bastion in the middle is connected. To the east
of it there run several Terrassierungsmauern
in north south direction. After
The south shuts there the biggest terrace
in, in the west by a longer wall
it is supported, in the south edge finds itself
a bastion and in the southwest corner
does a round construction (tower stand?). In
The east only few wall parts were preserved,
other ones have presumably fallen. In
of the surface there came ceramic shards
(Fig. 17,3-4.6) to the prelight, an entire one
Vessel with curled edge, four
Ey6uoea 1991, fig. 4.25 (Irühmittelalter").
Approx. \roecxar in 1991, 43 fig. 2,1-2 (6.-8 cent.).
Eenroeu.r in 1953, 133-135 Taf. B (7.-8 cent.); tr4caroe 1977,122-l44Abb. 46; 49 (5.-8 cent.).
flapgaee in 1992, Abb.2,2 (upper layer); 4tbb.2,14; 3,8.14.20 (lower layer). The lower Schichtwird in this
4.-5 cent., middle the 6.-7 cent. and upper in the 7.-B.Jh. dates (flapaaee in 1992, 113).
Araxanoe in 1991, 291 fig. 5,1-5 (5.-8 cent.).
ÄeerHa 1971, Abb.59,137-148.305 (step Kaunöi II=4.-5. Cent., step Kaunöi III=6.-8. Cent.); Eypar Fig. 8,10-12 (step Kaunöi II = 2. Cent. B.C. to 4. Cent. A.D., step Kaunöi III = 4.-6 cent.).
Ajtugldy-Tepe: Ka6auoe 7972,82-83 fig. 5,11-12; Du5anbe: Ey6Hoea 1991, fig. 4,25-26; PendZikent: Eeuroez'r
In 1953, 'laf.8,2 5.7 1.2t l4car In 1992, fig. 3.17; Siöichona: Araxanoe in 1991, fig. 5,2.4.
1e tr4caxor in 1977, 722-l44Abb. 46; 49.
2and [aptaee in 1992, fig. 3,3.13.
In 1971, fig. 59,185,187,319,320 (step Kaunöi II = 4.-5 cent., step Kaunöi III = 6.-8 cent.); Eypaxon in 1982,
Fig. 8,2-4 (4.-6 cent.).
22 Ku6uttou 1972, fig. 4,5 (5.-7 cent.).
2o tr4carcou in 1977, 122-1 44fig. 37,5.8.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Mu5iston and Takfon 253
Fig. 14. Takfon, Ikla Zilöui (8001). Topographic plan. I rocks. 2 wall trains.
small Knubben on the inside of the ground
and red painting (fig. 17.2) tlrt;:rde
from one of the villagers keeps.
The about north south straightened ones
Excavation cut (3 x 4 m) placed with his
southern narrow side in the outside facade
of the south wall in and grasped with it them
gar'ze width of the south wall and, on those
Inside, a part of the south terrace (Äö0.
16). We chose this place for stratigraphische
Sondage from, because here in bigger one
Extent to expect undisturbed layers
were, a purification of the population sequence
would permit. About that
TadZikistan 1998
KaIa Zilöuö
G. Steffens, L. Sverökov 8/98
: R-Boroülo 1/00
M1 szzz2
€ "/, - t)
254 Zirtn of the Blonzczeit crazily Mittelasicn I
The north 0Saint
fig.;; * + *:s
0*: =.-= J00.
Fig. 15. Takfon, I (ala Zilöui (8001). A look from \{Estonians on clie fortress leftovers on the Fclsmassir. R the north and
East profile (irabungsschnittes. The ZifTern call clie to Befunclnummern.
i;; gU
*:l, l. rt., 'r
l: i.ili of::'-::: I:, I, l
']' l fllr. i "'-:-P1
out a part of the inside cultivation had to go
erfäßt and the excavation surface if necessary
are extended. The cut reached
2.50-m depth.
PnRroon KLlt ZIröuS 1
The oldest cultivation of the earliest population period
Kala Zilöui | (Fig. 16, C) grundet
directly on the grown rock
(Schief'er) (fig. 15,831) and on an erosion layer
from loose Schieferbrr.rchstiikken
(Fig. 15.1330). It concerns one
1.30-m-wide stone wall from slate records
and blocks with mucky connection in the south
(Fig. 15.88; l6, CB), apparently not
was plastered. Along her north side stood
a 0.60-m-wide stage from clay bricks
(43x22x8-9 cm) (fig. 15,829; 16, C29):un254
Zirrrt of the Bronzcze it in Mittelasicn I
The north 0Saint
abbi; * + *:s
0 1.00 m
, \bb. 15. Takfbn, Ibla Zilöui (8001). A look from \4lesten on clie fortress leftovers on the Fclsmassir'. B the north uncl
East profile () rabungsschnittes. The ZifTern call clie to Befunclnummern.
g of €:: r!:i-i::: 9.
Lb "r-Dr.
out a part of the inside cultivation had to go
grasps and the excavation surface if necessary
erlveitert become. The cut reached
2.50-m depth.
PnRroon Ktr., A' ZIröuS 1
The oldest cultivation of the earliest population period
Kala Zilöui | (Fig. 16, C) grundet
directly on the grown rock
(Schief'er) (fig. 15,831) and on an erosion layer
from loose Schieferbrr.rchstiikken
(Fig. 15.1330). It concerns one
1.30-m-wide stone wall from slate records
and blocks with mucky connection in the south
(Fig. 15.88; l6, CB), apparently not
was plastered. Along her north side stood
a 0.60-m-wide stage from clay bricks
(43x22x8-9 cm) (fig. 15,829; 16, C291:unSiedlungsarchäologische
Researches in the sphere of Muöiston and Takfon 255
I iKc
Fig. 16. Takfbn, I (alaZilöui (in 8001) .APlanderPeriode3.BPlanderPeriode2.CPlanderPeriodel.DieZiffern
if the findings numbers call.
i, o i
256 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
10 cm {1-9)
50 cm (10)
Fig. 17. Takfon, Kala Zilöui (B001). Fr.rnde. 1-B ceramics; 9-10 wood
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Mu5iston and Takfon 257
ter in the western part a small hollow
with cinder was observed. To the stage
if a mucky screed (floor) submitted
in (fig. 15,823.28; 16, C23.28).Im north-east part
of the excavation surface became this floor
from an other wall from slate records
and blocks with mucky connection
(B 0.83 m) limits (fig. 15,86-6a; 16, C6-
6a). Possibly in the middle of the excavation surface,
approx. 1.90 m to the west of the east profile, snapped
this wall at right angles to the north from
and ran in a width of 0.85 cm till
the north profile. To the west of the corner one rested
Row of stones and Lehmzieseln in
East west direction on the floor,
a threshold formed. Under the floor
of this oldest cultivation lay
Shards of a big hand-made
Of pot with horseshoe-shaped grounds
(Fig. 17.1), few animal bones, Pfirsichund
Plum stones. On and about this
the oldest floor some ceramic fragments were found
(Fig. 17.7-B), a fitted one
Wooden wedge (fig. 17.9), animal bone among other things.
About that followed a 10-cm-layer of earth
(Fig. 15,827), a 8-cm-thick situation
of grey-brown material with many wood shavings
(Fig. 15,826), an other grey-brown
Layer of similar strength (fig. 15,825) sovie
a Stratum of thick slate grit with
some loam (fig. 15,822.24).
Prnronn Kela Zrröu5 2
This oldest Schichtpacket became by
the mucky screed of the next population period
Kala Zilöuö 2 concluded (Ä0ö.
15,816-17.21; 16,816-17.21). The wall trains
remained unchanged (fig. 15,86-
6a.8), merely in the west part are changes
cwt notes, because there none
Threshold more existed. On and
above this second floor were able a little
hand-made ceramics (atypical ones
Wall shards), numerous animal bones,
Peach stones and plum stones as well as walnut bowls
are rescued. In the north profile
drew itself in the west facade of the corner wall
a small cinder accumulation from, in
The east of the wall and in the west by
the rests of a vertically lying board
it was limited (fig. 15,821). The north-east corner
of the cut was able below
of the second floor from shortage of space not
further are examined. In the northwest one
Part of the surface lay about this
Floor a 26-cm-thick layer of earth with
To slate fragments (fig. 15,820). About that
if 20-28 cm of srarkes level with followed
Slate break, to stones, clay brick fragments
and burnt Lehrr:rputz (fig.
15,819), on again 20-30 cm
thick layer of slate grit with a little
Earth rested (fig. 15,818).In of the north-east corner
of the cut was found about him
Floor a 10-20-cm-situation to grey-brown
Marerials (fig. 15,815), about that
Grit with few clay brick fragments
(Fig. 15,814), an other layer of earth
(Fig. 15,813), a renewed grit situation
(Fig. 15,812) as well as a clayey layer
(Fig. 15,811). In the southern hall followed
on the second floor 30-40 cm
mighty deposition from earth, clay brick fragments,
To wood shavings and, particularly
to the south wall, grit (fig. 15,815a).
This Stratum went to the north in
the second layer of earth of the north-east corner
and became, just as this, from grit
overlays (fig. 15.81 2).
Pnnronn cirques Zrröu5 3
This second layer package became from
Mucky screed of the following and latest ones
Population period Kala Zilöu5 3 (fig.
15,89-10; 15, A9-10) sealed, to one
a little bit other room layout belonged.
massive southern stone wall existed furthermore
(Fig. 15.8 B; nevertheless, 16, A8), was in
Ostend (southeast corner of the excavation) broken through
become. Besides, remained in the south facade
some stones in such a way stand, that they slightly
in the resulted passageway
reached in. The inside of the passageway
became with a thick mucky layer
smoothed and plastered. This plaster
showed partial traces of a fire. The third one
Floor reached till the southeast one
Passageway in. From the wall corner in
The north became only the north south straightened ones
Part further used, indeed, easily
at an angle, there by the demolition of the east west to running ones
Of wall piece also the eastern one
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Side of the north south segment partially damages
became (fig. 15.86; 16, A6). Lelzterer
became to the south by level
lying one and a vertically standing one
Clay brick width extends. Plaster was able
by these walls no more ascertained
become. In this southern lengthening of her
North wall and in a broken out niche
of the south wall were the ends one
wooden door threshold eingelassen2a. This
lower plug hole of the threshold lay in the south
and the door opened to Westerr.
At the north end and at the south end it had
Threshold (fig. 17, L0) in each case rectangular holes
(L 11 cm, B 3.5 cm, T 3 cm) for them
to vertical boards of the rising door frame,
from those in the north one
small rest had received. In the east was
the threshold by a stone row in
Mucky connection strengthens. The door width amounted
approx. 0.70 m. Ostlich of the north wall found
itself a passageway of 0.85-m width,
in the east profile by a clay brick wall
(Fig. 15.87; 16, A7) was limited.
This was based on the last grit layer
under the latest floor and
existed of clay bricks (50 x 24 x 9-
10 cm), alternately along and crosswise
were connected with loam. She followed possibly
the escape of the running ones formerly here
Stone wall, however, further after the south moves.
On the north side was this clay brick wall
plasters, and the plaster in him
Floor went over. The northeast one
as well as the southeast floor and
the mucky plaster of the clay brick wall were
burntly. On the floor in the western one
Space there lay the rests of a wooden beam
in north south direction. About that followed
a thick layer of earth (fig. 15.83), followed
from loose humus material with a little
Grit (fig. 15.82). In the northeast one
Space was found one of north-east more sunken
Rubble cone from different situations
of finer and coarser material (earth,
Gravel) with burnt Äot "tt and Balken2s
in the middle area (fig. 15.84; 16, A).
Besides, probably it concerned around
collapsed roof parts. About that lay verstürzte
Clay brick, stones, loose earth
with gravel and humus (fig. 15,81-2).Im to southeast ones
We pushed space into some pulled the leg ones
Äte and beam, insbesond.ere in
southern passageway. They would be able
to a door construction as well as to
Roof have heard. This area and
the whole southern passageway were otherwise
with stones and verstürzten Lehrnziegeln
fills (fig. 15.85), about which one
Layer of earth and humus followed (fig.
15,81). On and above the third floor
if few ceramics (fig. 17.5), some came
undeterminable iron leftovers, animal bones,
Peach stones among other things to the prelight. In
of the southwest corner there lay brushwood on the floor.
The scanty finding property from all three periods
Kala Zilöu5 1-3 as well as from that
Surface gathered ones looks very uniform.
The ceramics are almost exclusive
hand-made and only roughly passed by,
the form spectrum remains restricted. It meet
Pot forms (fig. 17,1.3.5-8), how
they also from sari Chauz with Mu5iston known
are, therefore, here also in
the 6.-7 cent. can be dated. There
if fragments of a pot with one come
horseshoe-shaped, kerbverzierten grounds
under the edge (fig. 17.1) and one
small, hand-made vessel with curled one
Edge, outside completely with more red
Colour is covered, while inside on
to the ground four small Knubben sit
(Fig. 17.2). Dished plates with corrugated edge,
often as lamps interprets, are valid in
PendZikent as tJpisch for 7.-8. Jh.26.
With the fortress Kala Zilöu5 it would be allowed to do itself
around an early-medieval height settlement
trade, the sari as Chauz
close Mu5iston possibly in 6.-7. 1H. dates.
2a The material of the threshold became from R. Neef, Eurasia department of the German archaeological institute, as
Wood of pomes besrimmt.
2and Tu Unt.rruchung of a test of these wooden leftovers by R. Neef proved juniper as a basic material.
26 Eer, tou"" in 1953, 140-141 Abb.9,1 (Hand-made with coloured cover); Mapnrax in 1961, 185following-faf.7,4 (type
III). Cf. also a copy from the town arrangement Kul'tepe: fpnquua in 1992, 51following No. 41 fig. 10.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Muöiston and Takfon 259
The area researches in the sphere of the meaning ones
Tin occurence in the northwest
TadZikistans proved, to sum up, looked
only few old historical finding points.
, "A, ntike" Plälze, in the settlement chamber
from Karnab really numerously,
are absent even completely. In the area
from Muiiston became the immediate nearness
the tin bed at the latest since the Bronze Age
(, height sanctum" T0l5) committed.
The arrangement of a small sanctum speaks
even for a longer continuing settlement
or, at least nevertheless, for the repeated
Visit of the terraces and slopes in
to this important passport way. Pre and frühseschichtliche
Settlement tracks provided that
generally one day available - would be allowed to do themselves
indeed, just because of the area state
only hard have received:
The precipitous slopes were almost caused
for strong erosion activity. Moreover, are able
these extremely highly situated, inhospitable ones
and hardly accessible valleys - differently
as the settlement chamber of Karnab
- hardly when particularly siedlunssgünstig are valid.
Here sits down only, who either
before external menace protection looks for which
possibly the early-medieval
Castles an expression are, or who from economic ones
To reasons on certain advantages
of this high mountain region depends
(Transhumanz or just mining). That
one already in the middle Bronze Age in
this area penetrated, at least around tin
To diminish copper ore, is allowed thanks to here
to introduced results of the research as sure
are valid. Then follows a longer lasting one
Uberlieferungslücke. Only in the 5./6 cent.
if it seems again to a gradual Aufsiedlung
of these mountain valleys come to
be, besides, however, apparently intensive as one day
before. This is valid for the region around Mu-
Siston like around Takfon. Also for that time
can only speculate about the causes:
Außere menace would be conceivable, however
also the exploitation is able in this
Area located copper tin and before
to all silver of lead occurence moved in addition
From Hermann Parzinger
The archaeological investigation Sogdiens
soon began after the Russian conquest
in the later 19. Cent., concentrated
however, from the outset on the already historical ones
Time periods, the meaning one
Monuments left. Belonged to these
Afrasiab or Samarkand, where one the Maracanda
Of Alexander of the tallness looked.
Away one found decades there the way
to systematic settlement excavations,
on the one hand the layer result and the chronology
as well as, on the other hand, the topographic one
and urbanistic development of this central one
Of place help to clear solltenz. These works
presently still continue.
From the same research beginning
if one widened the excavation activity later
on other important sogdische towns from:
In addition belong, e.g., PendZikent further östlich3,
Bukhara and Varach5a in the west d, it
Zeravlan-Talesa and Erkurgan in to the south
neighbouring Ka3kadarja-Gebiet5. Land surveys
or on single small regions
if it concentrated lJntersuchungen,
Remains of all periods equally documented,
found either not at all
or merely on the occasion of the establishment from
Reservoirs (2nd B. Kattakurgan) statt6, and
the results widely unpublished one
The investigation of old historical legacies
in the ZeravSan valley became
Myxaue4xanoe 1978, 19 following
B.qrKHH 1927; Iparopsee 1940a; flxy6oncnufi in 1940; TepeHoa llft.luxvna in 1974.
Eenroellq in 1953; Mapuran l96l; Zcanoe in 1977.
.flny6oecxuü in 1940; Hntr, cen in 1959; lllzurxnn in 1956; IIIzuxuH 1963; Cy "reänaHon/Jr'paxoe 1977; Ypaxoe in 1982;
Myxane4xcaHoB among other things in 1982; in 1988.
Ka6anoe 1957; Ka6anoe 1959; Ka6anoe 1977; Ka6anon 1981; I4cauu44*ruov1978; Acar, rug*1uHoe 1979; I {cauvnnuuov
/ Cy.refinauon in 1984.
Llluurxnn in 1969, I15ff.
Main features of the pre and Fruhgeschichte
The settlement and montanarchäologischen
Researches in the sphere in the centre
of the project standing tin beds with
Karnab, Lapas and Cangali (Uzbekistan) on the one hand
as well as with Muiiston and Takfon
On the other hand (TadZikistan) produced important ones
Knowledge and finding materials more different
Periods, which it now in the bigger one
cultural-historical connection to
look is valid. The tin ore deposits lie
in the closer like other catchment area
of the ZeravSan valley. The Zeravian
takes in the mountain region near of the today's ones
tadZikisch Kirghiz border between
Alaiskij and Zeravlanskij Chrebet his
Afterwards exit and flows in roughly
direction western to east. Southwest
from Bukhara he ends in a Versickerungsdelta
25 km before achievement Amu-
DarJar, in which he apparently long before Seßhaftwerdung
of the person once flowed
was. This Zeravlan valley forms about that
out a central part of the old Sogdien
or the Sogdiana, to further in the south
still the KaSkadarJa area around Karii
strongly neglects in which to itself till this day
has changed not a lot. Completely in the west
of the Zeravian valley, in the oasis of Bukhara,
if one began at the beginning the fifties one
Years with above all on the old historical ones
Periods concentrated area works.
The so-called gave the impulse in addition.
Chorezm expedition, they her activities
from Lake Aral drrrch the Kyzylkum desert
In the direction of southeast expanded'. In the early one
to the sixties was further an archaeological one
Expedition of the Uzbekischen
Academy of the sciences under that
Management from Yes. G. Guljamov in this area
actively and one numerous neolithische
to bronze-temporal finding places of her
Kel'teminar-, Zamanbaba-and Andronovo-
Culture registered and partly the also examined,
a promising beginning, later
but found no more continuation. As
one few devoted itself in him
sixties and early seventies years
SUPRA V. Obel'öenko of the investigation of her
countless Kurgane of the Zeravian valley,
predominantly in later l Jt.vChr. as well as
in the first.fahrhunderte A.D. datiertene.
The finding gap between mittelbronzezeitlichen
Andronovo culture and
of the bright nesting broads and younger time were capable
in this Kurganen to secure ones
To close materials, however, hardly,
rather they are valid as remains of a nomad's population,
in parallel with those
to established groups it existed in the ZeravSan valley,
in local-engaged villages on settlement hills
While the investigation of the early periods
in the lower course and middle reaches Zerav-
5in in seventies to acb, tziger years
any more was not continued, discovered
one at the same time for the prehistory
important sites of the discovery in already in the today's one
TadZikistan situated upper reaches of this river.
As a most important one is valid certainly Sat.
7 Buno.pu4os t98lb.
8 ly, ^rro* among other things in 1966.
N O6e, nouerrr.o in 1962; O6e, tr, qeuxo in 1966; OdearveHxo
In 1973; O6earveuxo 1981; O6earqenrco 1992.
to Zcatrou in 1991; Lyons net in 1996. ll Avanessova in 1996.
t2 6ocron.y*ap in 1998.
13 Acxapou in 1970.
lu Eoctorr.y*ap in 1998.
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 261
razm, an establishment with a complicated one
Population history, material one
Culture confines relations to Südturkmenistan
allows to recognise (Namazga II-[D to. G.-
ringfügig more recently had to do that only to some extent
examined settlement of Tugaill further
be western. As bronze-chronologically seldom further
with Zardöa Chalifalz and Muminabad-
Urgutl3 appeared graves
as well as the necropolis of Da5ti Kozi, one
of the most eastern prehistoric finding points
in the Zerav5an valley, about 50 km to the east of
PenclZikentla. However, with it would be the most important ones
Places of this region already called.
On account of this fragmentary research state
is the prehistorical and early-historical
Settlement and Kulturenrwicklung
Sogdiens up to now only in attempts
famously. In particular concerning the prebright nesting broads
Periods still there gape considerable ones
Gaps, to itself presently
close hardly and only about the comparison
with neighbouring regions with steadier river
of the springs at least in her temporal ones
Erstreckung allow to mark out. For here
being in the foreground project put
itself specifically the question, which cultures
generally are to be expected. If it reaches
from the Lake Aral area till the oasis of Bukhara
widespread Kel'teminar culture possibly
during the neo and Aneolithikums also
further to the east till the area of Samarkand
and even further? If it concerns
with the Zamanbaba culture only around a regional group
in the lower ZeravSan or
if one hits in completely Sogdien on this or
comparable cultural phenomena? Clear
was, in the end, only, that Andronovo findings from
were announced to the whole ZeravSan valley.
However, they represent alone the middle Bronze Age
of this space or existed
they there at the same time beside other, established one
Do trench to rather more southern coinage?
What occurred itself during the late bronze
In 1967; O6e, uueHxo in 1969; O6e, u.reHxo in 1972; O6e, uuenro
262 7jnn of the Rronzezeit in Central Asia I
and early Iron Age, since when there seeped rider-nomadic
Associations with skythisch-sakisch
stamped material culture to this area one?
And on which population and cultural relations
if the Persians, when they met this
Country between Oxus undJaxartes as 16. Satrapie
integrated into her empire? The row
of the open questions can be continued easily,
we called here merely some
of the most central ones. KIar is, that the archaeological one
Investigation Sodgiens in more preChristian
Time still at the beginning stands. Only
from the bright nesting broads and the KuSan time
if the springs flow more richly.
If we in the following the early cultural development
in Sogdien with the help of few
to reconstruct to available findings
try, around in the area of the tin beds
to achieved results in one
to bigger, but, nevertheless, still regional
to see engaged connection,
thus we make a distinction within Sogdiens
five regions, from which four in Uzbekistan
lie. Completely in the west it concerns
around the areas in the lower Zeravian with
the oasis of Bukhara as a centre (1).
The district forms an other core space
Samarkand further to the east of (3). In between,
to the south of Navoi, lies one of our scopes of work
with Karnab, Lapas and Cangali
with the important tin beds (2). Already
on tadZikischem territory considers
itself the region in the upper Zeravlan
with PendZikent as a centre (4); to this eastern one
They also let themselves part Sogdiens
from us to examined tin ore deposits
from Muiiston and Takfon zuweiserr.
To the south of these on the Zeravlan to referring ones
Finally, part regions still lies
the Ka3kadar'ja area around Kar5i (5).
Neolithische legacies from Sogdien
are up to now preponderant from the more western ones
To areas in the lower Zeravlan
and his - today predominantly to dried out ones
- Influxes known. The finding stations
concentrated in the lakes spot; j
and Bol' 5oj Tuzkan, which is why one sucked them as.
Tuzkan culture summarised, as regional ones
Variation of the Kel'teminar culture understood
and their early phase assigned wurde15.
Because today all rivers and lakes in this
Region have dried up and the surfaces
from settlement places of the wind erosion
were put out or by Sandanwehungen
were covered, were able only seldom
undisturbed cultural layers are ascertained.
The layer contents were basic
of the stations Darbazakyr I (= BT 26) and
DarbazakF II (=BT29), they the basic scaffolding
a relative chronology in this
Area delivered, and to those one finding aggregations
other r places assigned.
. In the research exists from that point of view
Ubereinstimmung, that oldest neotu
ly, narou among other things in 1966, 2 l following
to B" *ro.pa4oe 1981B, 65 fig. 20-28.
17 BzHorpa4on 1981B, fig. 19; 21; 26.
18 BuuorpaÄoe 1981a; Bzuorpa4oe 1981B; Kopo6noea
to lithischen stations of Central Asia outside
Of Turkmenistan from the sphere of the lower one
Zerav5an or the southern Kyzylkum
come, namely from the washbasin, in the meantime
longest dried out DarJasaj.
Uöa5öi belong to the best known places
l3l, Ajakagitma, Chodl.agumbzz 5 and 6
among other things; from the materials some reached
Pieces to the Veröffentlichunglo. The stone device inventory
besides, of these stations is still
strongly mesolithisch stamped, how the big one
ZaIl in trapezoid blades and other Mikrolithen
verdeutlichtlT. These Tlpen seem
here still clearly dominant as in him
to the earliest neolithischen establishments
from Chorezm, as for example DLanbas 4 or Stojanka
Tolstova, which is why one the places
of the DarJasaj washbasin for older hieltl8. Also
the ceramics differ from DZanbas
To 4 and simultaneous places: Several vessels
are totally undecorated, in addition
if pricks and notches rule, to
to horizontal lines or tapes arranged
become. Though steps for the horizon
In 1996, r07.
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens
DZanbas 4 in Chorezm so marking ones
Scratch ornamental art also already on, seems
but clearly rare to the use come
to seinle. It speaks in that
Action something for the fact, that in the area of the lower one
Zeravlan or the southern Kyzylkum,
so completely in the north-east Sogdiens, an earliest one
Phase of the Kel'teminar culture to urrrschreiben
is, further to the north in Chorezm
and in the other regions in
Sphere of Lake Aral yet does not discover
became or there did not exist.
For the further development is above all
the station Darbazakyr I (also BT 26) in
northwest shore of the Bol' of 5oj Tuzkan lake
decisively, because there three layers separate
could at least become, finding property
in extracts vorliegt20. The lowest one
Layer Darbazakyr I/III produced ceramics,
predominantly with carved wavy lines
and grid shading surfaces is decorated;
there step to horizontal rows of arranged ones
Pricks and notches. This material
clearly differs from the product
from the early stations of the Darjasaj-Bekkens
(Uöa5öi 131 among other things) and allows one
Synchronisation with the oldest ones up to now
to neolithischen findings from Chorezm, so
with DZanbas 4, Sto-janka Tolstova etc. this
Scratch decoration still meets in that
the following layer Darbazakyr I/ll, indeed
quite substantially more seldom, against which to
to horizontal ornamental tapes arranged long ones
Notches or incisions bit by bit increase,
what to a correlation with chorezmischen
Stations like Kuvat 7 and Kuvat 5
from a developed segment Kel'teminar-
Culture allows to think. In the latest ones
Layer Darbazakp I/I is almost only more they
represent at last called ornamental manner; this
Period sollt.e late Kel'teminar correspond
and would already be able to the Aneolithikum
further to the north belong, a period,
to itself neither in the sphere of Lake Aral
still in Sogdien allows to circumscribe clearly. Äteste
Copper findings kommefi zwvr completely isolates
in Kel'teminar connections before,
however, closer tips dazt are absent. Zuminte
Brrrro.pa4, Re l981b, fig. 20; 27.
? o ly, no*ou among other things in 1966, fig. 5-12.
21 R.dli.h in 1982, 1bl following Taf. b5.
22 Buuorpa4oe / Mauegoe in 1975, fig. 3; fairly in 1982, Taf
dest could mean this, that the latest one
Stamping of this culture äneolithische cultural relations
had reached, before with him
Beginning of the Bronze Age also culturally one
absolutely new time began. A really persuading one
Solution of this question bleibtjedoch
leave to future research.
A more or less load-bearing absolute chronology
of the Neolithic period in the lower Zerav5an
or in the most southern Kyzylkum it exists
up to now not. Ahnlich like in Chorezm
if there are not enough useful series more dependably
tnc-Dut.tr. The beginning frühestneolithischen
Darjasaj step in the looking 7.
to late 6. / early 5 |t. B.C. orientates itself
more in the relations in südturkmenischen
DZejtun area as in own
raC dates. The distribution aei ubrigen,
to younger steps of the Kel'teminar culture
(2. B. verteten by Darbazakyr I/I-ilI)
on them follow on de time till the 3rd mill. B.C.
in is still absolutely open meanwhile.
About the settlements in lower Zerav-
San is known itself practically nothing, because it
with most archaeological sites only around Oberflächenaufsammlungen,
now and then complements
by sounding out, acted. Systematic ones
Excavations found instead of this
hardly instead of, still less is about their results
famously. Only one house plan is
generally published, he comes from
Layer III of Darbazaky I. Besides, discovered
one numerous post pits, two
into each other sedately active rectangles proved.
Besides, the internal post settlement would have
to the additional support of the roof served,
external marked the wall course;
between both a distance exists
from 0.5 m. The house surface amounts to 7 x
11.6 m and is an east west ausgerichtet2l. This
Plan gives way by his rectangular one
Form out from round to oval ones
Chorezm from. From Darbazakyr II became
though nac} i' end of the excavations made ones
Findings plans publishes,
however, no house plans proved, but
merely pits, cooker places and
the finding distribution markierten2z. One becomes
264 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
hence, must go out from the fact, that they originally
available to former dwellings
were built so easily, that theirs
Tracks have not been preserved.
To economic manner and grave cult during
of the Neolithic period in the lower Zerav'
5in lies no usable information
before, although one from in Chorezm to ruling ones
To relations will be allowed to go out.
In the Kyzylkum there are at least sporadic ones
Tips to mining. The striking one
Frequency of turquoise occurence in
to the archaeological sites around the Ljavljakan lake
already speaks for the fact, that this raw material
have been diminished in the Neolithic Age
have to go, although systematic exploitation
only from the Middle Ages proved
be soll23. Besides succeeded in sechzieer
To years the proof neolithischen Silexbergbaus
in the Kyzylkum. Particularly
interesting insights into the mining technology
besides, excavations delivered to this time
with Kavobi. In addition became first possibly
5-m-deep funnel-shaped shafts dug up;
after achievement of the better, to
Nodules or layers mineralisierten Silex
if one hived this then by arrangement
of lateral chambers from. As tools
if long stone and big Geweihstücke2a served.
Important observations
if one made further in Kyzylalma and GyStsaj,
nevertheless, regrettably, only insufficiently
were published. There
if one bumped because on a dismantling shaft
as well as on several blow places,
where the Silexknollen process further
became, as well as on located ones nearby,
but obviously in the connection
with it standing Siedlungsstellen25.
Places of this kind would offer almost
ideal conditions in addition, the single ones
Stages of the way from the production
the Silexknolle in the dismantling shaft to
to reconstruct there to the single device in the settlement,
what by big one more cultural-historically
Meaning would be. Up to now they became
2and R.dlich 1,982,226following
2a Redli.h 1,982,240following
25 R.dlich 1,982.239following
26 Br.ruorpa4oe / Mar '.re4oe in 1975.
27 Or, naÄttt roe in 1958; Pauoe in 1982; Panoe in 1985.
28 Kopo6rona / Pauoe in 1968; Kopo6xoea 1,996,113'
qg possibilities, nevertheless, not used.
Uber an exploitation of the Kupferzvorkommen
this region by the end Kel'terninar-
Time can speculate only, because
clear clues for it are absent.
Finding points neo to äneolithischen
Kel'teminar culture became up to now only
in the north-east Sogdiens known. Though
if they scattered to the north of the Zeravian valley in
the Kyzylkum desert even further after
Osten26 and southeast from Bukhara became
in the area of Pajkent also the most western ones
Runner of the KaSkadarja area
achievedly, however, neither the middle reaches and upper reaches
of the ZeravSan still the core area
of the KaikadarJa region produced up to now
Settlement places of the Kel'teminar culture, go
we from the published up to now.
This puts necessarily the question, which
Cultures there were spread.
In the mountain regions to the east of Sogdien
if groups existed at that time
sucked. Bergneolithihums. In particular from him
Fergana washbasins and today in SüdtadZikistan
situated Nordbaktrien are
numerous documents this, mountain Neolithic period"
famously, in TadZikistan under
to the upper concept Giss Are of culture summarised
became. Their finding continuance enclosed
excluding stone devices, against which sound vessels
apparently not yet in use wa-
. n27. The stone device continuance enclosed polished ones
Rock hatchets as well as blades,
Trapezoids, gouges, scrapers and other types
from Silex, partially very much, archaically"
work and mesolithisch like neolithisch seeming ones
Forms unite. The internal one
Chronology as well as the absolute date
considerable ones throw to the Gissar culture
Problems on, presently still far
are removed from a load-bearing solution,
although the research an arrangement
in three steps for defensible hä1t28 and they
Whole duration of this culture on account of united.
t lac-Duten of the outgoing 7. / to beginning ones
6. till 3. Jt.v. Chr. in anGrundzüge
the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 265
nimmt2e. This early beginning for the beginning
of the Gissar culture seems absolutely conceivable,
if one moves countless still mesolithisch
seeming Silexgpen and this
entire absence of any ceramics in consideration.
If it corresponded, nevertheless, to the facts,
that Gissar till the 3rd mill. B.C.
has continued, this meant, that to
a time, as in wide parts of Eurasia
long ago Kermikherstellung, metal use,
Cattle breeding and the even quite first beginnings
were spread by agriculture, in
to the mountain regions to the east of Sogdien
still - how already seitJahrtausenden
before it mesolithische cultural relations
ruled. This seems on the one hand
hardly conceivable, on the other hand, however, speaks
presently nothing against this view.
The central parts Sodgiens lay with it
between the area of the Kel'teminar culture
in the west and the Gissar culture as well as other one
Groups, mountain Neolithic period" in
The east. The space lying in between, in particular
the area in mittlerert Zerav-
5in, long time seemed finding-empty; neither
Kel'teminar ceramics still Gissar-Steingerätrypen,
were announced from there. However
already in the late sixties years discovered
one with Sazagan, approx. 27 km southwest
from Samarkand, several archaeological sites
with mesolithisch-neolithisch active Silexgeräten
and few ceramics, which one in
the future also by smaller excavations
examined. From at remote place
to published short reports abgesehen30,
if it came, however, only imJahre in 1991 to one
comprising publication of these important ones
Materialien3l, from now on as legacies
one in the middle ZeravSan spread
See aza gan-culture were valid this N shared
M.D.DZurakulov and Ch. AND Cholmatov in
three steps: Sazagan 1 from the late Mesolithikum
(8.-7. Mill. B.C.), Sazagan 2 of
Ubergang Spätmeolithikum/early Neolithic period
(7.-5. Jt.v. Chr.) as well as DZangal I and
Tepakül 2 from the entwickelteren Neolithic period
(4.-3. Mill. B.C.). All together looked
the authors the Sazagan culture rather
to the widespread further to the east, mountain Neolithic period"
as in the west booked Kel'teminar-
Culture accompanying what surprises,
because to itself in the Sazagan stations absolutely
decorated sound shards find, ornamental art
Kel'teminar ceramics not unlikely
ist32. On the other hand, those are absent for him
Kel'teminar area and, actually, the whole one
western Central Asia to there in the southwest one
Siberia so typical one
Kerbspitzen; only isolated devices from
certain relations leave to the Sazagan area
to this form erkenn.nuu. The large part
of the remaining Silextypen, scrapers, Ikat: el
Gouge etc., works against it, indeed, very much
, archaically" and finds comparisons in, mountain Neolithic period"
and in the Gissar culture
TadZikistans. From DZurakulov and Cholmatov
from above all on the stone device forms
referring typologischen Uberlegungen
out suggested trisection of her
Sazagan culture seems against it highly
in question. The statistical confrontations
the Silextlpenspektren archaeological site
shows because hardly divergences, at least
not with the chronologically more relevant ones
Formen3*. Fe.tret trit_t in Sazagan 2,
from the authors in the Ubergang from Meso-
to the early Neolithic period is put,
not only developed ceramics auf35, in
of so early time surprises, but also
a stone device of unknown function with
level underside and arched top, and
latter with across grooves and Kerbverzierung
provide ist36. Such pieces are valid
geradezu_ as a Le i tryp kazachisch-we stsibirischen
Aneolithikums and are from Boborykino,
Botaj, Ust '-Naryn and several others
To places known, to the late 4.
and the first half of 3.] t. B.C. to train
2e Kopo6rora 1,996,113.
to {xyput Y, noe/Xo; trocxzn
4xypaxy, noe / Xo.\Maroe
32 {txy pu*y non/Xoalaaroe
ou 4N ypary, noe / Xo.\N {aroe
flxypr*y, noe/Xo, \Naaroe
4*ypatty, noe / Xo.\Naaroe
'6 4xypu*y, noe/Xo, ^N {aroe
In 1976;. {xypany, toe in 1983.
In 1991, fig. 27, r-6; 34.
In 1991, fig. 20.11.
In 1991, tab. l2-17.
In 1991, fig. 27,1.-6.
In 1991, fig. 21.21.
266 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
pointed can become; so far in the south
if they were booked up to now. So that is
clearly, that the finding materials from Sazagan
2 either mixed rests more differently
Periods contain or the whole one
Continuance substantially more recently dates.
The meaning of this Sazagan culture
lies, primarily, in the fact, that to itself them
during the neo and Aneolithikums passing ones
Finding gap in the middle reaches Zerav-
5in starts to fill bit by bit. She had to go
widely at the same time to the Kel'teminar Ku1
tur further to the west and to the Gissar culture
and the other finding groups, mountain Neolithic period"
in the east have existed.
The question of her internal arrangement have to do
we leave open instead of this for the time being. Although
the findings mentioned on top from that
Station Sazagan 2 at least partially with
Security still the Äneolithikum reached,
if there are no tips to earliest ones
Copper use. Besides lie from Sazagar'
2, nevertheless, beside bone of wild animals
supposedly also documents for cattle breeding
before, and in particular sheep / goat and -
already clearly less numerously - cattle
and horse have played an important role
sollen37. Also this speaks rather for one
äneolithischen Zeitansaa, provided that here
not remains still of quite different periods
were added, woftir, however, to nobody
Clue seems to give.
Completely in the east Sogdiens lets itself merely
Sarazmwestlich of PendZikent in this
Time expel. Besides, it concerns one
still in every respect unique ones
Establishment. The vast settlement area
lay on a terrace on the south shore
of the Zeravian and was made up in
several smaller elevations from at most
3-m height. Therefore, from Tell education is able
only the speech causes be. A. Isakov opened
there at several places surfaces, not
only noteworthy farmer's Estonian and materials
delivered, but also important stratigraphische
Findings. As notable is valid
with the fact, that Sarazm already from oldest Pe-
37 4*yput Y, noe/Xo, \N. {aroe in 1991, 102following
38 I, Icaroe in 1991.
3see tr4caxoe in 1991.
ao Lyons net in 1996.
41 tr {.u*., and in 1991. 133following tab. 16-18.
riode I by clay brick architecture South-Turkmen
Coinage is characterised
and also knows suitable construction forms;
both is from the areas to the north
Kopet of Dag foothills and the TedZen delta
up to now still unknown, although one
can hardly fancy, that Sarazm one
Isolated case should have been. Absolutely becomes
one one day between Südturkmenistan
and the area around PendZikent still
other similar places can discover.
The layer sequences of the single excavation areas
connecting one proved itself
Arrangement of the population sequence of Sarazrn
in four periods (Sarazm I-IV) 38. One
detailed analysis of the ceramics published
B. Lyons net, in them - against one
a little bit divergent view of the excavator
Isakov3e - persuasive prove
was able to do, that Sarazm I during a late one
Of segment of Namazga II have begun
had to go. Sarazm II and III would be allowed in them
Zeitvon Namazga III belong against which they
Final phase Sarazm IV already the threshold to
Namazga fV have crossed dürfte4O.
According to South-Turkmen terminology
if Namazga II and III are valid as äneolithisch,
Namazga fV becomes against it as frühbronzezeitlich
calls. Importantly for them
the earliest metallurgy Sogdiens is the fact,
that all four population periods from
Sarazm metal tools produced,
- after identity card of the analyses - predominantly
existed of copper. The shares of tin
and other trace elements remain
very slightly; merely arsenic reaches now and then
a little higher values (1,8-2,7Vo),
however, they still clearly remain unterhalbjener
Grertze, from which we from more alloyed
Arsenic bronze speak könntenat. With
to the metal objects it concerned
as a rule around easy and long-lasting
Forms, like awls, awls, needles, hooks
among other things also daggers already appear in
In the beginning Sarazm I, are still very small, however,
while from it in denjüngeren phases SarazmIII
and above all [V then bigger and
entwickeltere T)? en originate, with those
the blade already clearly longer than they
Clutch hinge ista2.
Uber Sarazm lets itself a linking
from Namazga IV with the areas northward
from Südturkmenistan provide. So
were found in the uppermost, Namazga fVzeitlichen
Layer IV of Sarazm unites
Shards, after form and ornamental manner
work strange and clear relations
to recognise to the north gebena3: High ones,
spitzbodige vessels with vertical upper top
or forms with slightly bending inwards one
Edge, ornamental art from fine prick rows
exists, in horizontal arrangement
below the edge run;
there there come carved wavy lines and
tremolo-like arranged Kammabdrückeaa.
Ceramics of this kind point in the late one
Kel'teminar culture as well as in the Siberian one
Äneolithikum (reminiscences to Afanas'evo vessels),
without these few shards, nevertheless
a more exact correlation admitted.
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 267
Therefore, the sequence of Sarazm would be allowed
with developed to late Kel'teminar-
Culture in the lower one as well as with parts Sazagan-
Culture in the middle ZeravSan in parallel
be run.
lac data from Sarazm expel the there one
Period I - and with it also (late) Namazga
II - in the early 4. Jt.v. Chr., Sarazm
II and III, to the end of Namazga II
and Namazga III correspond, in the second one
Half of 4. and in the early 3rd mill. V. Chr.a5,
while the Namazga connecting to it
fV at least up to the middle of the 3rd mill. B.C.
continues, possibly still slightly
more recently his kann46. For the correlation
with the Near East is important, that Narr'azga
II are tied together with Sialk III
is able, in the second third
4. Mill. B.C. seems to end, while Namazga
III with Sialk IV1-2 to slmchronisieren
is, so possibly in the time of late one
Uruk up to the beginning of the early-dynastic
Perjode in Mesopotamia gehörta7.
In the area of the Versickerungsdeltas of the lower one
ZeravSan to the west of the city of Bukhara
already became in the early fifties years
a bronze-temporal culture known,
one after the necropolis discovered in 1950
from Zamanbaba named. The intensive ones
Area researches in this area
between 1950 and 1953 as well as in 1961 and
In 1964 produced a row of archaeological sites
this culture, graveyards like settlement places
8. S.it of the middle of the sixties ones
Years this Gebietjedoch lies fallow, and
the so successfully begun investigation
of the bronze-temporal cultures of this space
if no appreciable continuation found
n2 l4ca*ou in 1991, tab. t.
a3 Parzitrger 1997B, 128.
44 l4canou in 1991, fig. 4,9.70; 26.20.
no Kohl 1,992.19B.
nu Kohl in 1992, 195 tab. 1; Lyons net in 1996, Tab.9.
a7 Voigt,/Dyson in 1992.
no ly, narou among other things in 1966, 117.
Most Zamanbaba-finding places came
in the area of the MachandarJa to the prelight,
of a tributary of the ZeravSan.
The places lay there on the shores
of the lakes Zamanbaba dried out in the meantime,
Malf Tuzkan and Bol'Soj Tuzkan.
In these bank edges one bumped into establishments
Kel'teminar-as well as Zamanbaba-
and Andronovo culture. Because it incredibly
was, that the bearers completely
of different cultures side by side
could have settled, without it in
Finding property to mutual influencings
would have come, one concluded quite early,
that those Zamanbaba places neither kel'teminar-
still andronovozeitlich could be
and if she put chronologically between this
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
to both cultures. Some Andronovo-
Shards from the settlement Zamanbabaas
do not mean in this connection
a lot, because not from a real closed one
Finding can be gone out,
the simultaneousness of both cultures book
would be able. While to itself the discoverer
the Zarnanbaba culture, Yes. G. Guljamov, concerning
a date of Zarnanbaba
hid, V saw. M. Masson connections
to Namazga IVund Zamanbaba referred
consequently to the end of 3. and to the beginning
of 2. Jt.v. Chr.5o. Several years spärer
took care A. A. Askarov around an Umdatierung
before' Zarnanbaba, while he on supposed ones
Parallels in Namazga V and before
pointed out to all VI, what spätbronzezeitlichen
Beginning for Zarnanbaba ergäbe5l; persuasive
if his argumentation was, nevertheless
not, because the form comparisons, in the end, very much
general remained. rac data, they this question
could help to clear, are absent till this day.
The ceramics of the Zarnanbaba culture, from
Necropolises like from settlements, reminds
from the tone in goods, how they from Südturkmenistan
are known. The outbalancing one
Part of the vessels is a hand-made, possibly l0Vo
nevertheless, became supposedly already on that
Turntable made. The ceramics are in
of the rule undecorated, only now and then come
Stripe painting, scratch or Abdruckzier
before. With the vascular forms dominate
egg-shaped with top ground and issued one
Edge, quite obviously in older
Tradition stand, double-conical sharp ground vessels,
bulbous and Page-shaped put a tread
Pots as well as bottle-like vessels, they
everybody also with ausgebogenem or clearly
to set off, issued funnel edge.
There calottes or crease wall bowls step,
Foot vessels as well as mugs and
Bowls with square mouth, the latter
mostly with an inside arrangement in the style
from Räucherschalensz. This form treasure
scoops from in three ways springs: The older ones
Traditions come from the preliminary one
Kel'teminar, besides becomes in production technology
how styling for the first time one
strong influence from Südturkmenistan obviously,
we soonest with the step Nafirazga
V see linked, and at last would be
still on certain vessels like smoked bowls
to refer etc., the reminiscences in frühbronzezeitliche
Cultures west and Südsibiriens
(Okunev) reveal. Decisively
for the origin Zamanbaba-
Nevertheless, culture would be allowed to do the radiation of her
to südturkmenischen cultures on the areas
have been in the lower Zeravöan, to
a change of the home basis
had led.
Under the small findings are in particular
flatly retouched Silexpfeilspitzen with
sharp, circular and straight base as well as
To emphasise club heads from rock,
quite alike in connections
the Petrovka culture of the southeast Urals
Of foothills and Nordkazachstans meet,
although we them also in Südturkmenistan
and Baktrien are not probably found and they
certainly fix to one single time horizon
leave, although the Namazga V-temporal
Layers of the Altyn-depe the best ones
To offer comparative malice scheinen53. After
The countless ones also show the south mostly
to multicolored stone pearls as well as clay figurines,
further to the north absolutely strange
are. Objects of copper or bronze
are known, indeed, not in much too big one
Number. It concerns mirror, awls,
Spatulae and fragments other Kleingera-.
The problems around the time position of her
Zarnanbaba culture are not adequate yet
relaxedly, although of our view
after mostly for an allocation
in the early Bronze Age (after kazachischwestsibirischer
Terminology, corresponds
the südturkmenischen middle Bronze Age)
speaks. Clearly wirdjedoch, that this culture
a crucial role by the linking
Of Central Asia and Westsibiriens
ae ly, narou among other things in 1966, 'l^f,37.3.
uo Muc.on in 1957; Maccon in 1966, 20Bff.
51 Acxapou 1,981.99following
52 ly, rxvoe among other things in 1966, Trt.7-75; Maccon in 1966, fig. 48.
53 [I "prrrror in 1986, 56 fig. 9.
un ly, narou among other things in 1966, Taf. 16-21; Maccon in 1966, fig. 48; Illupuuoe in 1986, 75 following
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 269
plays, which is why her other investigation one
urgent Desiderat explains. If we hold
in a linking with Namazga V on the one hand
and the frühbronzezeitlichen cultures
West and Südsibiriens (Petrovka, Okunev
etc.) on the other hand firmly, so arises
from it a time beginning in the later 3. and
beginning 2.lt.v. Chr., we lay for
Namazga V like for Petrovka and Okunev
zvr possession to standing radiocoach voucher data
. Still would be from Zarnanbaba-
To finding complexes directly won ones
1ac-dates of great importance for
a purification of her absolute time position.
From the settlements lie only from Zamanbaba
even further information before.
The establishment, in the southeast apparently
protected by a ditch, was not
very largely and enclosed only some
Huts, although they not completely
it was exposed. At the houses acts
it to itself around Poluzemljanki and Zemljanki,
differently deeply in the grown one
Ground were dug and after form
and soaked off size of each other. Beside
to sharp-oval plans also came roughly
rectangular before. The biggest construction measured
supposedly more than 23-m length and 9-m width,
what is considerable, indeed. Inside became
Cooker places and stock pits, in
Wall area post holes established; rubbish pits
came further beyond the buildings
to the Vorscheinss. Beyond her
Houses was able also birnenförmiser
Potter stove are also exposed,
reminds of South-Turkmen models and
hardly from local precursors of her
Kel'teminar time can have originated; he
existed from Feuerunss-and Brennkammea56.
Concerning the economic manner know
we only gar'z in general, that domestic animals
(Sheep / goat, cattle) dominate and wild animals
(Deer, wild boar etc.) merely
15Vo reach. Besides one walks away
from, that the bearers of the Zamanbaba culture
also did agriculture. More exact documents
are not delivered for it though, merely
55 ly, trnon among other things in 1966, 729following Abb.42-44.
56 ly.nxrou among other things in 1966, 138following fig. 45. Taf.22.
u7 Mu. or, in 1966, 2l0ff.
58 ly.nxrou among other things in 1966, 1 19 following fig. 39-41 Taf. 4-20.
on impressions of grain punches on
To sound vessels becomes. verwier.n57. If we go, nevertheless
of it from, that the origin of her
Zatnanbaba culture a result of the radiation
of South-Turkmen cultures on them
Areas in the lower Zeravlan was, it is
more than probably, that on this
Ways also one or other Kulturpfl
anze eingeftihrt became.
From the graveyards Zamanbaba-
Culture is renewed only epon; "'rnen
Of site of the discovery publishes completely. All together
became there on two each other to subtending ones
Hills as well as in between
46 funerals exposed. The deads
rested as left or argues
Stool with the head to the east, north-east
and the north. In the grave construction are easy
To distinguish pits and catacombs.
Besides, falls aui that latter to itself
apparently in a separated area
of the graveyard, namely on the northwest ones
Hill concentrate, while they
to easy pit graves from there after
Southeast strews, where they a clear one
Massierung form. If we look, nevertheless
the finding material of these funerals, in such a way
let themselves neither chronological lJnterschiede
put out still one becomes this
Grave forms with different social ones
Groups can associate,
too uniformly - and at the same time also meagerly
- if is the equipment. To tJpischen
Additions belong in each case one to several
Sound vessels, a Bronzespatula, several
Silexpfeilspitzen and stone pearls, and
itself in the combinations of these objects
together no control-like nationalisation
draw: Silexpfeilspitzen
come, e.g., also with Bronzespatulae
as well as with stone bead chains
nationalises vor58. In this respect they leave
Grave inventories neither a chronological one
still sex-specific one more
social differentiation to.
Finding places of the Zamanbaba culture became
up to now only in the lower ZeravSan to the west
from Bukhara discovers. Further in the east
Sogdiens, the Zerav5an flußaufi, värts, came
no comparable materials to
Prelight. The early Bronze Age is there in such a way
well as this does book, a judgement
Region, hence, not possibly, although
newer researches some noteworthy ones
Findings to the daylight brought
have. From Sarazm was already the speech
(see above); the latest population phase there
Ansazpunkte offers IV for a linking
with Namazga fV on the one hand as well as late one
Kel'teminar and Afanas'evo, on the other hand.
Sarazm still ended with it in
Äneolithikum (to Siberian terminology).
Geringfugig is more recently against it the station
Tügai, where N. A. Avanessova in 1986 a small one
Excavation could carry out. The place
lies away not too far from Sarazm,
but already on territory uzbekischem today,
possibly on half a way between Samarkand
and PendZikent. There Avanessova bumped
on an eingetiefte rectangle hut
as well as two pit-shaped copper furnaces.
As other reports more metal-processing
Two Gußtiegelse are valid activity.
The ceramics offer on the one hand monochrome ones
Forms (calotte bowls and easy ones
Move pots) of South-Turkmen design
(NamazgaV), still a certain connection
at the population end of Sarazm
produce, as well as, on the other hand, a substantial one
Amount from early Andronovo vessels,
after forms and ornaments
soonest of the Petrovka culture of the southeast one
Of Urals foothills as well as the north and Zentralkazachstans
are assigned kön-
, r.r.60. While Avanessova Tugai as
at the same time with the latest phase of Sarazm
consideration gate, we hold Tugai for
immediately on Sarazm IV after. The monochrome ones
Forms are too long-lasting, around
a more exact correlation book with Sarazm
to be able. In Sarazm is absent further Petrovka-
To expect ceramics, nevertheless
should be, Sarazm would still have experienced this time,
since, at least, come from there
several Thousand shards, from which none
the only relations to Petrovka bz", t. to earliest one
Andronovo reveals. Particularly
un Arrun.rsouu in 1996, 117following fig. 39; 40; 42
60 Auun.rroua in 1996, 117following Abb.41; 43-45
ot Auurl.rsovu in 1996, l20ff.
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
unexpectedly in Tugai istjedoch the fact,
that bearer of the Petrovka culture already
as far as had penetrated after the south.
Tugai is relevant up to now the only one
Finding point, would be allowed to do, however, this one question
be of the research state. Up to now was
one always of the opinion, that the bearers
the Andronovo culture only clearly late
the south of Central Asia had reached; this
Picture shall be revised slowly.
The research state in the Zerav5an valley is
so by no means yet adequate, however
offering Zamanbaba in the west as
also Tugai in the east Ansa9punkte for one
Linking Siberian nordkazachischen
Early Bronze Age (Petrovka, Samus', Krotovo,
Okunev) with the step NamazgaY in Südturkmenistan,
what to itself also with the newer ones,
calibrated tnc-Dut.r, covers. Zamanbaba
like Tugai confirm further, that
Sogdien during the early Bronze Age, so
in the late 3. and early 2. Jt.v. Chr., under
to southern influence stood and from Südturkmenistan
from the home basis
it was transformed, a process, we before
merely in Sarazm could observe.
Nevertheless, concerning Sarazm has to go emphasised
become, that there nothing of bar
more was received and consequently
indeed, from a settlement of newcomers
it can be spoken.
However, this is valid neither for Zamanbaba
still for Tugai. Except these zulelzt to called ones
if no other ones are unequivocal, nevertheless
to frühbronzezeitlichen finding places
known from Sogdien.
For an essential change
Then of finding picture it comes in the next one
Period, which one in correspondence
with the relations in that
Steppe and forest steppe further to the north as
mittelbronzezeitlich can call, because
Finding points developed to late Andronovo-
Culture lie from almost all parts
Sogdiens before. We know them of the bug round trains
the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 271
chara oasis in the west to NordwesttadZikistan
in the east, merely KaikadarJa-
Region around KarSi nothing still seems
To have produced the comparable, what, nevertheless
certainly it is research-conditioned, there
Findings of the Andronovo culture also further
to the south to Südturkmenistan scatter. In this
Now time date also within the scope of
of this project dug out tin mines
from Karnab, Lapas, Cangali and Mu-
3iston62 as well as the mountain working-class estate from
Karnab-Siökonöi, already in greater detail
it was discussed. The finding property, this
to mittelbronzezeitlichen places of Bukhara
in the west to Daiti-Kozi in the east produced,
shows extensive correspondence
and leaves with the present research state
no regional special developments within
Sogdiens observe, how this
still in the preliminary early Bronze Age
with Zamanbaba and Tugai the case was.
traditional ceramics point after forms
and ornamental manners the narrowest common characteristics
with the Tazabag'jal> culture in Chorezm, how
at the example of the settlement from Karnab-
Siökonöi in greater detail are shown
was able. Nevertheless, it must be stressed, that
from most finding places of this time in
Sogdien only very little material known
it was made. It is most detailed
here presented settlement from Karnab-
Siökonöi publishes, during from others
Establishments of this period only unites
few shards for the publication reached,
they hardly allow to judge, which
Forms and ornamental manners really represent
are present and which as particularly repräsen_
tativ may be valid.
Ahnlich like for the preliminary periods
if those were also for the middle Bronze Age
in the area of the Versickerungsdeltas
lower Zeravlan in the sphere of Bukhara
while the fifties and early sixties ones
Years to carried out expeditions
from meaning, because they beside archaeological sites
Kel'teminar-and Zamanbaba culture
also such of the Andronov o-TazabagJ from I {tr'ltur
erbrachten63. Thus one discovered with GudZajli
five graves as well as twelve settlement places.
Other finding places became
with the lakes mA $ Tuzkan and Bol' 5oj Tuzkan,
with Kaptarnikumi, Kyzylkp II, Machankul'
as well as close Paikent in the most northwest ones
Periphery of the Ka5kadarJa area
taken up. In most cases acted
it to itself merely around Scherbenaufsammlungen,
every now and then with small Sondagen
linkedly. Already in the analysis
of the material presented in 1966 they came
Authors completely rightly to the conclusion,
that the common characteristics with Tazabag'jab-
Culture of the Andronovo circle in
Chorezm really are narrow and one
Separation of the sites of the discovery in the lower Zerav5an
not really are carried out
könne6 "4-, an appraisal, to itself
also with ours in Karnab-Siökonöi achieved
To results in essential interests
covers. With the ceramics dominate fur
the whole Andronovo area so typical one
to slightly curved pot forms
with wide level ground, circular one
Belly, short, bending inwards shoulder,
to also short cylinder or cone neck
as well as at last mostly again ausbiegendem
and differently to thickened edge. This
Vascular form meets in countless variants,
the basic form, however, only slightly
variieren6s. About other, with these
they report nationalised vessels
Publications a little. The ornamental motives
are not so varied as in the area of her
r.rrit Tazabag'jab concurrent Fedorovka-
Group of the Andronovo culture in further
in the north to situated steppes and forest steppe region
Kazachstans and Westsibiriens.
Thus appear Mäandermotive and
other more complicated ornaments, there
really seem numerously, in
Sogdien just as in Chorezm rather seldom.
Belong to the most complicated patterns
instead of this across-hatched scratch tapes,
to triangles, zigzag motives and every now and then
also to mäandroiden ornaments in
Weisgerber/Cierny 1999. - See
Asia II (in preparation).
Acnapoe in 1962, 28 following; ly, t.auron among other things.
ly, rxuoe among other things in 1966, 196following
learner G. Weisgerber and J. Cierny in: The tin of the Bronze Age in means
Iy, tar'aoe among other things in 1966, 'laf.24-32; 34; 36-38.
272 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
regularly werden66. With the remaining ceramics
if rows dominate at an angle more hatched
Triangles, preferential in the neck, as well as mehrlinige
Zigzag tapes from carved lines
and impressions of combing or other
to mehrzinkigen devices, as a rule
the areas of the shoulder to scarcely
above the ground adorn, now and then
but also in the neck seem. With these
To patterns are used closely alike generated
and suitable vascular parts adorning ones
Fischgrätmotiveo7. The other finding property of her
Andronovo of-Tazabag' jab stations in the lower one
Zeravlan encloses polished stone devices,
randlich and flatly retouched Silexpfeilspizen,
itself only some of him
To Zamanbaba temporal ones make a distinction, as well as
I fragments some and very easy
Metal devices (awls, small chisels)
Better preserved metal findings offer against it
the graves of GudZajli, in those apparently
in pairs carried ribbed arm rings
and lock rings, presumably from
Bronze, appeared. There step
Chains with stone as well as bronze one
Perlen6e. The graves themselves were
badly receive. The deads rested
in left stool situation and with the head in
The west in roughly rectangular, strictly
The west east to straightened grave pits. Certainly
if these funerals belong to one
numerous neighbouring Andronovo-
Of Tazabag' jab-SiedlungsstellenbeiGudZajliTo.
Further to the east the Zeravian flußaufi.värts
follow as monuments of this time in
Frame of this project examined tin mines
from Karnab, Lapas and ÖangaliTl
as well as the mountain working-class estate from Karnab-
Siökonöi; the latter already became further
introduced, what, therefore, here not
more needs to be repeated. Karnab-
Besides, Siökonöi forms the only one completely
dug and completely veröffent-
66 ly, narou among other things in 1966, 'taf.33.
u7 ly, naror among other things in 1966, Taf.24-32; 36-38.
68 ly, ulroe among other things in 1966, Taf.34-35.
uo ly, naro* among other things in 1966, Taf.23.
7N ly, naroau.a. In 1966, 188following
7r Weisgerber, and Cierny in 1999.
72 ly, truo" among other things in 1966, 217 fig. 55.
7' Acrapou in 1970, 64following fig. 3.
bright establishment of the Andronovo TazabagJab
Culture Sogdiens. The finding property
of this place corresponds, apart from
for the mining and the subsequent treatment
of the ore to necessary tools,
totally to the finding property of the stations
from GudZajli in the lower Zeravian. Graves
of this period were able against it in
Space of Navoi-Karnab are not ascertained.
If we judge on account of up to now confessed
Materials, so there is also in eastern
adjoining area around Samarkand only
sp ärli C H e in dro N ovo-T azab of ag' jab-Hi N Te rl assenschaften,
what surely research-partly
is and not to the actual population picture
corresponds. With Naukatepe, some
Kilometre to the west of Samarkand, became
In 1960 the edge fragment Andronovo-
Of Tazabag'jab vessel entdecktT2. Ahnlich
as in Naukatepe it would also be allowed elsewhere
smaller mittelbronzezeitliche establishments
have given. In the late sixties one
To years became in Muminabad-Urgut,
southeast from Samarkand direction tadZikischer
Border, seven graves Andronovo-
Tazabag jab culture exposed. AhnHch
how with the funerals from GudZajli were
the dead people argues here, however, as
Stool with the head to the west laid;
the roughly rectangular grave pits,
in those the skeletons lay, were
also the west east straightened. To the inventories
to heard national costume components from
Bronze: Earring with a trumpet-shaped
End, in pairs carried sentences from
five bracelets with level-triangular
until to roof-shaped cross section, bead chains
among other things m. A fragmentarily preserved one
Vessel with standing, at an angle hatched
An other one puts to triangles on the shoulder
Connection with the Andronovo TazabagJab
To findings from the western Sogdien
dar73. Further still became clrei Andronovo-
TazabagJab graves in 1975 on the edge
the city of Samarkand with Öakka dug out,
however, closer tips are absent there
. r7n. Weit.re findings and findings of this period
from the area Samarkand are
up to now not known.
In the upper Zerav (in the investigation began
from mittelbronzezeitlichen monuments
only in 1975, alsJa. Ju. Jakubov near the village
Corbog a suitable grave opened,
compare itself well to Muminabad-Urgut
left and from the excavator Andronovo-
Tazabag' jab culture assigned wurde75.
The up to now last discoveries from this
They put period in NordwesttadZikistan
within the scope of this project Carried out ones
Works, in Muliston mittelbronzezeitliches
and one, height sanctum" Andronovo-
Tazabag'jab culture already exposed,
in greater detail it was discussed.
The most important and most enclosing ones
Finding place of the Andronovo-TazabagjatrKultur
became against it in the eighties
in DaSti Kozi, approx. 45 km to the east of
PendZikent direction Aini, under the management
from A. I. Isakov and T. M. Potemkina
investigates, about which S. Bobomulloev in 1998 one
entire publication vorlegteTT. There
if a total of 27 funerals as well as some came
ritual pits to the prelight. In
to 27 graves 39 deads lay, of it
two children: Beside 27 singles and 4
To double graves were still found one
Arrangement with three (grave 12) and with seven
Dead people (grave 25). In all cases acted
it to itself around level graves, only partial
with stones and once by a regular one
Stone heaps (grave 25) super day
were marked. Oval to long-rectangular
and not to very deep grave pits
if mostly left stools, what with included
GudZajli agrees, meet, however -
more seldom - also right stools. The adjustment
of the deads was not unity
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 273
lich, although west east orientation (with
to the head dominate in the west) zrt
seems. Concerning her equipment makes a distinction
Bobomulloev poor graves almost
without inventory (4.10, 11, 12, 18, 20 and 26),
those with only one pot and other one
Little things (1, 2, 5-9, 19 and 21-24) as well as
rich funerals (3, 15, 25-1). Typical ones
Additions are bronze national costume components:
Bracelets with roof-shaped
Cross section, always Pa r-or even
phrase by phrase carried, earring with one
trumpet-shaped end, small discs
with Rückenöse, bead chains, temple rings
., r*.7t. Identical objects came in
to the graves from GudZajli and Muminabad-
Urgut to the prelight and indicate for widens
Parts of the ZeravSan valley on extensively
correspondent national costume during
the middle Bronze Age there, as far as they
about these few findings reconstruct
leaves. Also the ceramics point in this direction,
if she finds, nevertheless, theirs concerning form
and ornamental manner to the best comparisons in
GudZajli, Karnab or Muminabad. Besides
meet not only for Andronovo-
Tazzbag'jab ceramics thus t'? broads Ritzungen
and comb impressions, at an angle schraffi
erte triangles, mehrlinige zigzag tapes,
Herringbone and corner patterns form, but
there are also found horizontal Kanrreluren,
particularly in the shoulder, how they
e.g., from Karnab-Siökonöi vorlieg.nTe. Irrrgesamt
looked the finding property this works
Necropolis really uniformly and
offers no points of departure for an internal one
Chronology of the graveyard.
Beside these places, to itself without contradiction
in steppe-related Andronovo-
TazabagJab culture allow to integrate
and almost tlpisch for the middle Bronze Age
Sogdiens are, there are still complexes,
the oasis cultures widespread more to the south
are obliged. Belongs to these
in 1986 to the west of PendZikent, only I km
74 Eoct.rrr.y*ap in 1998, 11.
75. flry6oe 1,975,169following; Eocrouryxap 1,998.11.
76 Weisgerber/Cierny in 1999. - See also G. Weisgerber undJ. Cierny in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II
(in preparation).
77 Llcaxor, lfloreMrüHa 1989, 145 following; Eocrouryxap in 1998, 66 following
7 t Eocto".y*ap in 1998, fig. 23-49.
7e Eoctorr.y*ap in 1998, fig. 23-48.
274 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
to the east of the settlement of Sarazm discovered
Inventory of Zardfa Chalifa. The dead person was
there apparently in an earth grave laid down
become, southeast from the pit edge
if some stone accumulations were found, perhaps.
Rests of a grave construction or a Grababdeckung8o.
It concerned one
right stool with the head in the northwest.
Three belonged to the additions passed away
big, wide-bulbous pots with narrow one
The neck which existed of pink-coloured tone
and rotated with disc were. There
if three bronze vessels (an Ausgußbekken came
and two next, fragmented), one
Bronze needle with a horse representation
as a head, temple ring, pearl and miniature dished plate
of gold, other bronze objects
(Messeq dagger, set of teeth poles, fasteners,
Rivets etc.) as well as stone,
phallic-like pestle and disc toggle
from Knoche.t8l. Off.trbar became here one
Quarrel carriage driver (disc toggle as pars
per tote) buried, on account of all his one
Beifunde only from the neighbouring to the south
Nordbaktrien could have come.
The ceramics find the best comparisons in that
DZarkutan step of Sapalli-Tepe and from
Graveyard DZarkutan. The sink vessel
knows parallels in Tepe Hissar IIIC, also
the remaining findings submit very well in
this Zeithorizonts2. About Korrelationerr
with Iran (Tureng Tepe IIICl / 2, Tepe Hissar
IIIC, Shah TepeIIal / 2) as well as about laC data
of concurrent places with identical one
Finding material speaks this inventory
Zardöa Chalifa in the time possibly between
In 2100 and 1700 B.C. put, what to latest one
Namazga V, above all, however, Namazga \4 corresponds.
Of the buried here it was indubitable
Member of the upper class. How this
Grave here is to be explained, nevertheless, remains for the time being
openly, too meagerly it are currently still
the findings and findings, around the cultural relations
in Sogdien during the first ones
Half of the 2nd mill. B.C. judge more thoroughly
to be able. Certainly ist.jedenfalls, that this
Grave in the possibly time of the necropolis from
DaSti Kozi corresponds, with it two
totally different cultures and also sections of the population
in this area it exists
must have, Beziehunsen
to each other in future researches enlightened
must become. That it contacts
between them at varied level given
must have, the findings lay further
from Karnab-Siökonöi near, where in the Bergarb
e i Te rsi e d lun g de r in dro N ovo-T azab of ag' jab-
To to have been also culture - thus poorly them
seems - a disc-rotated vascular fragment
appeared, certainly
comes from Baktrien or the Margiana.
Whether, however, the tin occurence Sogdiens,
their dismantling in the big style thanks to ours
to common research strains
for the middle Bronze Age clearly proved
is, for the contacts between
to steppe-related groups of the north
and protourbanen oasis cultures of the south
are responsible, about that lets itself
only speculate.
While the preceding period
the Andron ovo TazabagJab culture, which we
in support of the cultural relations further
in the north as mittelbronzezeitlich called
(after South-Turkmen and
baktrischer terminology, nevertheless, already
spätbronzezeitlich), in almost all parts Sogdiens,
at least in the area Zeravian-
Of valley is well booked, findings of the following ones are absent
Period almost completely. Though
if became in 1966 some materials of the lower one
ZeravSan as, spätbronzezeitlich" declared,
however, the motives remain for it
extremely unclearly because isolated it to themselves with these
To shard findings from Kyzylklr I, from
Shore of the Bol'Soj Tuzkan and from Zarnanbaba
concerns, actually, pieces,
not from Andronovo - Iazabag' jab ceramics
unterscheiden83. A date in this
10.-B.Jh. B.C. and a Slmchronisierung
with the cultures widespread further to the north
from Amirabad, Begazy-Dandybaj or
80 Eocto ".y" ap in 1998, 56 following fig. tt Eoctotr.y "ap in 1998, 56following fig.
82 Bobomulloev in 1997, 121following
acts |y, lnrou among other things in 1966, 244following Taf.
l5-18; Bobomulloev in 1997, 121 following
l5-18; Bobomulloev in 1997, 121 following
Main features of the pre and
Karasuksa is absolutely by nothing to
found and, therefore, has to go clearly rejected
Absolutely in this period belong
.jedoch some shard findings
with red painting from the lowest depositions
from Erkurgan in südsogdischen
KaSkadarja area, there an oldest, indeed
still hardly known population stage
Erhurgan 1 (He I) represent,
itself with cultures like Jaz I in the south as well as
Öust in the Fergana and Burguljuk in that
Taikent oasis compare and correlate
lässt85; the excavators of Erkurgan date
this stage in the late 2. and beginning ones
t. Mill. V. Chr.86. Ahnliche pieces become
also from the deepest Straten of Afrasiab
(so-called period Afrasi, from 0) announced, are allerJings
still unveröffentlichtsT. Also them
Tin mines of Karnab produced some
few shards this tlpischenöemalien
Warä, there also with a tnc-Dutum
zusammeneehen, to the beginning
of the 1st mill. B.C. weist8s and therefore to the Datierungsansvtz
yor' M. Ch. Isamiddov and
R. Ch. Sulejmanov ftir Erkurgan I fits.
Nevertheless, with it all are not yet
Problems concerning the absolute chronology
this stage cleared. While we
the monuments of the Andronovo-Tazabag' 1ab-
Time on account of new lac dates the first one
Half of the 2nd mill. B.C. allow to take,
begins the Jaz I-, Cust-and Burguljuk period
soon after the middle of the same millennium.
How long she continues, is open, however
if she had to do the end of the 2nd mill. B.C. achievedly
have. Whether they, nevertheless, still the beginning
of l of mill. B.C. takes, seems doubtful.
Another problem concerns the period names.
Up to now followed the prehistoric one
Development Sogdiens rather
to the north as the south, which is why it right
appeared, also used here
To straighten terminology northwards.
Andronovo of-Tazabag' jab was valid therefore
as a middle Bronze Age, during in
Baktrien and in the Margiana at the same time
Early history Sogdiens 275
already from the late Bronze Age (Namazga \4)
the speech was. Now, however, the relations turn
around, provided that the wenigenJaz I shards
indeed, prestigiously for the cultural relations
of this space should be. Fact
is, in any case, that the second half
of 2. Jt.v. Chr. here by no one else
Findings is booked. However, had to do Sogdien to
Circle of the cultures with painted ceramics
from the TypusJaz I belong, if this period had to go
consistently not as a late Bronze Age
(after northern pattern), but as
Early Iron Age (according to the south)
are called. Because it hardly right
might be, with the description of the cultural development
of a space like Sogdien,
between two, worlds" lies, namely him
Steppe cultures in the north and him further
to developed oasis cultures in the south,
once begun terminology in one
certain point of the historical expiry
to change, what here specifically him
Failure one, late Bronze Age" would entail,
if it seems more sensible, both terminologies,
those of the south and those of the north,
in each case in parallel with use and we with
the arrangement this Ihpitel furthermore of her
follow northern ones after which we here with
one, late Bronze Age" deal,
by findings of the TypusJaz I, Öust and Burguljuk
then it is represented and on
only the real early Iron Age follows.
Probably becomes the number low currently
of such findings increase in future still,
however, it has the appearance, that they above all
therefore, remain up to now so scanty, because they
to the lowest layers him the whole one
achaimenidische, bright nesting broad and younger one
Time belong to existing Tellsiedlungen
and therefore from metre-high depositions
are covered, what a location considerably
more difficultly, if not partially
makes even almost impossibly. Also in Karnab
even this would be conceivable, because ours
Cuts SI and SII though the grown one
Ground reached, indeed, only in two
to peripheral places of the hill, nichtjedoch
8a ly, norou among other things in 1966, 226following
"and \1ca*r4*1 uoe/Cy, reünarroe in 1984, 25 fig. 14.
"6 tr4ca*.ggunoelCy.teüuaHoe 1984, 138.
87 Type6exoe 1979; llluurcuna among other things in 1985, 287; Llcawu4 +\auoe / Cy; teüuanoe in 1984, 139.
88 Cf. G. Weisgerber undJ. Cierny in: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II (in preparation).
276 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
in the centre, what to itself as unwearable out
would have proved. Though this speculation remains,
however, the thought crowds with it
on, whether the turning away from the life forms
of the steppes neighbouring to the north and
Forest steppe areas and the final one
Turning to oasis economy and more local-engaged
Life-style, they the Voraussetzutrg
to the origin of the big residential hills
formed, in Sogdien not in that period
of the later 2. and beginning one
l. Mill. B.C., occurred, which we in the north
(and here still in Sogdien) as spätbronzezeitlich
call, however, in Südturkmenistan
and in Baktrien as früheisenzeitlich
it is looked. In this period
would be able to do themselves now also in completely Sogdien
, southern" life forms have put through,
they the ground for later dependence
from the south (integration in this
Persian's empire etc.) created and for the whole one
, {ntike" of this space remained stamping.
So cultural-historical knowingly this
Period for Sogdien also
might be, with the present research state
if this lets itself not more exactly
work out. A lot becomes here to future ones
Investigations are left.
Fnürm Ersnrvznrr
The early segment of the Iron Age Sogdiens
is not less problematically as the late one
of the Bronze Age, to describe we on top
tried. Latter, to itself, actually
only in Erkurgan (He I) more or less certainly
stratigraphisch allows to touch engagedly, becomes
in Afrasiab as a stage Iron Age 1 (EZ l) betrachtetse,
and stays open, however, with which
Material it is to be filled; up to now stand
also here only that few already senannten
to painted shards from, $frasiab
0" zwr possession. The next time,
we here as real fully developed
Early Iron Age want to call, is also
only very weakly occupied, in the space of Samarkand
if it is named as an Iron Age (EZ) 2.
As the only clearly assignable finding places
if Lolazor 1 and Kurganöa Ie0 remain.
absolute date of this phase is still
widely openly; all together looks
if she already seems to the following step
closer achaimenidischer time position than her
to preliminary, woftir above all different ones
Forms with cylindrical vascular body
and very deeply, scarcely about the ground
to recumbent, square layout speak.
In particular in Erkursan this gets
to a comparison of the suitable population periods
Erkurgan 11 and Erhurgan
111 very well to the Ausdruckel. So that it puts
itself the question, whether He I and He II as well as, *Afrasiab
0" and Lolazor I really immediately
on each other folsten. An answer is able
on it presently are not given.
The corresponding is valid fur the absolute time position
this step. Generally she becomes
to the 7.-6 cent. B.C. zugewiesene2, d.och is
this books, in the end, by nothing. On account of
the fact, that after increased use
of new and calibrated radiocirque voucher data
in the meantime, has almost become clear, that
all absolute time attempts of the former Soviet ones
Research as too late looks
must become, certain ones would also be allowed here
Doubts exist, however, a solution remains
of this question of future research reserve.
In addition, becomes from a correlation
with JazII in the Margiana essowie Ky-
, ylIln ^ and the upper layers from
Kuöuktepesb a., rg.gutrgetre6.
8e ilIzurrczna among other things 1,985,285.
eo [Iurunrzna among other things in 1985, 285.
ot tr1ca-ngg.uoe / Cy, r.eiluarroe in 1984, 25following 139following fig. 15-16.
e2 ilIrruxuua among other things in 1985, 285; 287.
e3 Maccos in 1959.
ea Approx. 4y, N, naee in 1978, 12.
s5 Acr e6 ilIrruruna among other things in 1985, 287.
Though is a row of settlement places
this time from Sogdien known, however
if they were able predominantly in KalkadarJa-
Area and in the space of Samarkand localises
become against which from lJnterlauf Zerav-
5in, in particular from the area of Bukhara,
up to now hardly material of this time appeared.
The division into periods compiled for Bukhara
places only by the end of the following ones
Period one, for which, however, certainly
an unbalanced research state and
not the actual population history
of this space it might be responsible.
Which meaning of this period really
it comes up, not least also lets itself
therefore, hard estimate, because only some
of the known places with small Sondagen
were investigated and wide exposures
totally are absent. With Lolazor in the south edge
Samarkands one discovered Keramikund
Bronze casting workshops from this time,
about which, however, nothing became known the closer.
Supposedly one bumped there also into accompanying ones
Irrigation plant net.


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