Tuesday, January 04, 2011

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One of the Kurgane discovered in 1998 (A006)
still became during the same campaign
untersucht2uu. Tu excavation occurred in four
To cuts, the construction of the health resort goose r, l'urde
held on in a cruciform profile footbridge.
After the distance him strongly
ex-elevation they appeared
The north south to straightened foundations one
rectangular, formerly to surface ones
Grave crypt with an entrance in the northern ones
Narrow side. The chamber (inside mass
3,70x2,20 m) existed of massive ones
To stone blocks (to zLt 1-m length) (fig.
255following and, especially to the eastern Aralgebiet, the Reihc jxclsracapcrrar Ky^blypa (1, in 1983 - 8, in 1995) within
the row Ilusosr; r Cr, rp4apru B +, tpeBHocrr.r, Vol. 2-5. Particularly in latter occurred vollständigc material presentations
early-medieval Gräbcrfeldcr, to almost all Fundcn from dcn to frühmittelaltcrlichen graves
from I (arnab analogies deliver. t '*
^r.tu "rr.r.unr
In 1978; Liwinskij in 1986, 191following; Iop6l, uosa in 1998.
245 Litvinskij in 1986, 54-55; Matbabaev in 1998, 273following
246 Lin'insk1 1986, 54-55.
2a7 Lin'inskil in 1986, 126.
tno Si.h. z. B.3eseuroBa1972; 3eseHKoBa 1973; 3egenxoea 1974; Knlrnusa 1,971.7w Verbr-eitung and Intcrpretation
the cranial deformation to Central Europe see also \\rcrner 1956,5ff.96ff. Finding list I,
Taf.69 map 1; 73, map 9 and critically in addition at last Heinrich in 1990, 91 following (to mitl.eiterer literature); milking Koch
1999: Ncumarcr in 1999.
' a Äurrr "cxnü 7973B, 14following; Liwinskij in 1986, 86 fig. 51,11-21; Pacnonoea in 1980, 1l4fI.; I, Icanurl4uHoe / Raparoe
In 1990, 92 fig. 2,5-8.
^.tur.rr.r, uü
1973B, 64following; Litvinskü in 1986, 87 fig. 52,49-63.
251 l4can, 1,977,146 Abb.52; Pacnorrosa in 1980, 65following (PendZikent-5.-B.Jh.); Litvinskij in 1986, 74following Abb.41-46;
Nlocxa, reHno in 1983, 1I0 Abb.2,2.4-6 (Dulonunskoi4o Mogil'nika - 6.-8 cent.); Eoror'ro, roe / leH4e, rsnraH in 1990,
97 fig. 3,72-14 (I (anka - end 6.-Alfang 7. fh.).
252 Pu., r., ruu i980, 78 following fig. 49.1; Litvinskij in 1986, 84-85.
2! '3 Pac., osa in 1980, 63following fig. 40-41; Lininskij in 1986, 99 fig. 57.
25 '* with Litvinskij in 1986 are rveder Schlüsscl still tanks errvähnt. However, it would be able to do itself with different hook-shaped
To objects (Voruch, Kurgan I - Lininsklj in 1986, 135; Voruch, Kurgan 26 on the roof - Litvinsklj
In 1986, 136) around similar pieces (key?) rvie act here; uncertain iron objects (under it perhaps also
Records?) r'r.erden more often called. From the friihmittelalterlichen settlement of PendZikent are various ones
Key forms (Pacrronoea in 1980, 126following fig. 85) as well as armoured records of different Forrnen, also him
ours similar copies, known (latter than findings as well as on \\' andmalereien - Pactronoea
I980, 79following, A.bb. 50-51; 53-57; Äureuncnnü in 1995, 395Financial Accounting.). See also Kozhomberdiyel' / Khud.yakov in 1990.
255 A.t "," rc*cuü 797 3B, 1 06 following; Liwinskij in 1986, 93 following fig. 54, A.
256th of Tu. Cut management was incumbent upon K. Alimov and T. GüE1iitürk.
t. a s7
4, \if
210 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
tr-llr il:E:ücds%e
Fig. 138. Karnab, Kurgan in 4006. Plan (A) and profile (B). I Hr-rmus; of 2 hard, brown Lö13; 3 r, veicher, brown humoser
Loess; 4 fine sand with burnt loam, charcoal and Kerarnik; 5 grey-brown loess with lime streaks
(sterilely); 6 more finely yellow sand with Gipsausfällung (sterilely).
It \\
A.-h *, ix
! d
of/:z1'i')-t '/
ffi@ * r-962
r - 0. C
, __* $
138-139). In the profile the following appeared
Layers: at the top humus (approx. 0.30 m)
(Fig. 138.81), under it a layer from
to hard, brown loess (0,10-0,30 m)
(Then fig. 138.82), only in the pit followed
a layer from soft, brown humosem
Loess (fig. 138.8 3), the again brown-grey
Loess with lime streaks and isolated
Little stones (up to 0.60 m incredibly)
overlaid (fig. 138.85), and in the upper one
Part of this at last called deposition
a lens of sand with ceramics, burnt one
Hut loam and fine charcoal particles
embedded urar (fig. 138.84); in
a depth of 1.10 m under the surface
if the infertile ground of yellow sand followed
with strong Gipsausfällung (fig. 138.86).
The 0.70-m-wide entrance was on both sides
from vertical stone records flanks,
Rests of mucky plaster were not ascertained.
The crypt was fine already in the antiquity
extensively been cleared.
Only more some were found
Osseous splinter and isolated rests from
Additions: a disc-shaped glass bead
(Fig. 140.5), a pierced river pebble
(Fig. 140.6), a Silexabschlag (fig. 140.7),
a small, hand-made censer
with HenkeI (fig. 140.4), several calotte-shaped
Bowls with slightly bending inwards one
Edge, on the turntable made
$r.rrden and on the edge in each case a red one
Siccllur-rssarchäologische Forscliunsen inr field Urn. "'on Karnab, Lapas uncl Cangali 21 I
" v:#
* "pgwrf
#*wgEь {
. lffi. '. *, 'il-1., - ä;
, \hlr. 139th Ti; rr-nab. Kulgen in 4006. Look in dic Grabliammer (r'on Siiden)
or schu, arzen varnish stripe carry
(Ahb. 110,1-3), Asking; mente \ron also
to disc-rotated foot bowls with z, vlindrischer
Shoulder and horizontally ausbiegendem
Edge (Abh. 110,8-9), dercn foot now and then
be curved outwardly anch
kirnn (fig. 110.10), thus \\de shards \ron
To pots with very entering shoulder
rrncl to atrsgebogenem edge (Ä00. 110,12-11),
rotated with disc and outside isolates with
shh \to '-arzem varnish covered (abbot). 110.12)
or handgernacht with wiped off one
Edge, a prick row on the shoulder
uncl scratch sign under it (fig. 110.11).
Finally, is still frasmentarisches
Henkeltöpfth_en rnit konischern neck and
schrvarzern Uberzug zrt call (fig.
Again are bislane no exact ones
Anzrlogien to the grave form überlicf'erten here
famously made and, orders. In geir, isser
This Kr.rrgan reminds manner of the so-called.
Kurumen (or Mugchona) 2i ' 7 cles Fergana-
Of washbasin, with which it to itself lvohl also
around surface Grüfte gehanclelt have
the diirfte which existed, nevertheless, only of stone.
A connection rnit rveiter rvestlichen
to widespread graves r, ergleichbarer Konstmktiorr
is supposed zr.rletzt by S. Baratov
lvorclen?:'S. They are of tiber longer time r'vährend
of the Friihmittelalters in use ge-
2l-r9 of \\' csen
Because Kurgan A006 of Karnab already itn
Ntertum r'öllig robbed r'vorclen was, leave
itself no rveiteren information to the funeral rite
make. From the rests
Inr, entars is early-medieval the glass bead,
not to limit chronologically abcr closer.
The punched pebble stone
and the Silexabschlag are for the Datieruns
also insignificantly. \bn of the ceramics
crlauben r, or urllem clie Schzrlen with bending inwards one
Edge r.rnd varnish stripe, clas
small Räuchergefäss260 and dic Fußscha-
See allgurncin Litvinskij in 1986, I0f. (r'gl. also clie ältcrc Russian Ausgabc dieserA.rüeit:-\nrsuHcnnü in 1972).
ii:rparou in 1991. Siclic aullerclcttt still liap:rroe in 1996.
Lininskij in 1986.
DieR:iuchcrgefäf3e:u.rscleuTeilvonKarnabtr-:rg '.cnkeineHenkel. FürbessereAnalogiensiche:-\esnsa 197 I,
89, \bb.2ll, l, 1 ('lbk-Kala, 5.-7 cent.); Ka6anoe 1981, 33following,\bb.20,4-5 (DZangal'tcpa, 3.-6 cent.); 61.16 (Neguztepa,
li. Cent.); Ceson in 1987, Taf. 14.29 (Ak-tepe II, 1.-5 cent.).
212 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
@fl see
z---. - _ ___)
Fig. 140. Karnab, Kurgan A006. Findings. 1-4.8-14 ceramics; 5 glasses; 6 stones; 7 Silex. 1-4.8-14 M I:3; 5-7 M 2
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali 2t3
len261 a date the 4.-6 cent. A.D.
The remaining vessels also contradict him
not. The Kurgan belongs with it in them
Time of the period \|I of the Tells of Karnab
and would possibly be able a little more recently
as that of Abdurachman Kyr (A403)
be, what, however, no more certainly
allows to book.
KuncaN KanNes 4342a
On a small area spur lay to her
oval grave-mounds A342a. He measured approx. 5 m
Width and 7-m length, his very slurred one
Elevation existed of earth and
to few stones. The Kurgan became renewed
in four cuts of about 5 x 6 m in each case examines.
In the surface, possibly in that
Middle of the hill, shards were found one
Of jug from the 19.-20 cent. (fig.
The real construction of the health resort goose
could be observed in the north
(Fig. 141, A-B). Here lifted in the hill middle
a semicircular Verfärbuns (Dm approx.
3 m) from hard, yellowish-brown loam from
loose, grey-yellow humus and the yellow one
grown ground in the surroundings
from. Besides, probably it concerned him
Excavation of the grave pit. In the east west profile
(Fig. 141.8) this mucky excavation was up to
of a height of 0.40 m receive and touched
an oval stone packet one. The bigger ones
Stones beyond this mucky packet, particularly
in the north-east quadrant, lay in
Humus or on him and would be allowed with dei
Deprivation of the burial chamber been shifted
be. The oval stone packet (3.60 x
2.60 m) was found to the hill middle a little bit to the south.
In the north 2.00 m shut
long and 1.00-m-wide entrance from vertically
to standing stone records in. The entrance
to the real burial chamber was
by a vertical stone record closed.
The deprivation occurred obviously
from above, because in the north part the smaller ones
Deck stones were absent. The grave pit lay directly
under the stone verge, had one
oval plan (approx. 3,00x1,80m) and
was 0.80 m deep (fig. 141, C).
Isolated ceramic fragments and one
Glass bead (fig. 142, 8) were found in
North-east quadrants scatters. The shards
were able later to fragments from the grave pit
are added and, hence, would be allowed
with the deprivation in the undeveloped outskirt area reaches
be. From the inventory of the funeral
were still preserved: two bowls with
to black varnish (fig. 142,27-2B), at least
three pots, one of it with black one
Varnish (fig. 142,26.29), a smoothed one
Cup (fig. 142.21), an iron ring
(Fig. 142.6), another iron object (fig.
142,4-5), a bronze ring (fig. 142.2), one
bronze arm ring (fig. 142.1), a mussel fragment
(Fig. 142.7) and 15 glass beads
of different forms (fig. 142,9-23).
The Kurgan lets itself mainly about them
Ceramics in the early Middle Ages date. They
finds in Kurgan.4006 and in the Tell of Karnab
Analogies, they such a beginning
support. In particular the bowls with drawing one
Edge and varnish stripe, but
also the gefirnißte pot fragment are
from period \4 of the Tells known. Merely
the small shard of a polished cup
(Fig. 142.24) could be also older (Karnab,
Periods III-IV). As early-medieval
are allowed further the iron signet ring
and the glass beads are valid, alike in
Kurgan in 4403 from Karnab-Abdurachman Kyr
meet. Bronze arm rings with level ones,
it are to easily thickened ends in l.-7. Ih.
far verbreitet262. In spite of the deprivation äes
Of inventory a date would be allowed in this
Be most likely 4.-6 cent.
(K 4., N. B. and H. P.)
26 t Ledigli.h the foot bowls are absent in the Tell of Karnab. Similar types, indeed, with other edge creation
and low foot, seem till the Afrasiab in the 4.-7 cent.: Henrleea in 1969, fig. 7,3-4. A handle (with swell
and running around strip) seems with Ka6aHos 1972, fig. 5,7 (Ajtugdy-Tepe, 5.-6 cent.) shown, indeed
without reference in the text. See also Llluumuua among other things lg85, Taf. 135 on top, where a similar foot bowl from
RomiS \TI (5. Cent. and later) is illustrated. To a little older precursor with short foot see lllr.rru-
Kr.rHa among other things in 1985, Taf. 130 on top on the left.
^ "turrcrwfi
1973B, 11 following Taf. 2; Litvinskij in 1986, 86 fig. 51,3-9; Pacronoea in 1986, 114 Abb.74, ll; Llcanu1-
4zuoe / Eaparoe in 1990, 89 fig. 2.11.
2t4 tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
0^s w (fl4
o0 \
r - 0? 8
And the following? rl r ET:I 2
0 1.00 m
Fig. 141. Karnab, Kurgan A342a. Plan (A) and profiles (B) of the hill and the grave pit (C). 1 humus;
2 hard, yellowish-brown loam.
see "ü
I t.,
of ':l': i
sHI of öp-' \s.
.t", 1.a. t.,
, '-, P
it *'t. '.,'. a.".,
t.r, l &
B ^
* lmh I &i
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas uncl Öangali 21B
.A \\
- {=?' 2
Fr-ll l s_ '.-I *, 3
., - '_::)_//" o
Li \-l - l t - '"1 tvl illl zs
nll LJ
o\/-9\1 +
i. 1
J/t \' (ol
L\!) 12
, see
ffiW, 9
t ^
(-o'J 13
ooo (aeil 1see Oro @v
, ffiK, uH, ffi, nv HrJ "z^o
I/-. lT-\LJ
I (/-c\l \-/
/ _. TE
l\l _:/
I - _ \(
21\* "-)/22
f - r Tl
/1\I//\\__-\l Ti
Fig. 142. Karnab, Kurgan A342a. Findings. 1-3 bronze; 4-6 iron; 7 mussels; 8-23 GIas; 24-30 ceramics
1-23M2:3; 24-30M1:3.
216 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Fig. 143. I {.ernab, Siökonöi-Saj (.\271). Look on clel Fclsbilderuppen (XI) in the Trockenrrl.
About 700 m to the east bronzezeitlictren
Settlement of Karnab-Siökonöi (A276)
if the Siökonöi-Saj deeply cut itself in the granite
one. In particular in the collision slopes
if precipitous cliff faces rise, in which this
\{of asser numerous level cavities washed out
has. In this so'lvie on the smooth one
Rock surfaces are eingepickte Darstellrrngen
to recognise (\274). They sign
itself as a rule brightly towards him
darkly patinated granite from (fig. 113).
The pictures spread individually or in
Groups on a distance of approx. 2 km in
Siökonöi-Saj as well as in a bigger Sei*
tental (fig. 114). The petroglyph groups are,
from the east beginning, with I to XX\aI coded,
small letters call individual displays.
With the groups III, V and
X find Russian inscriptions,
are not patinated, still clear Pickspuren
aufiveisen and partially the older ones
Pictures disturb, what them as unequivocal jtinger
expels. All discovered Petroglyphen in
Siökonöi-Saj became zeichnerisch and photographically
Thematically the pictures let themselves in Tierr.
rnd images of man, combined person
Animal representations, other single signs
as well as arrange scenic pictures. With him
Animal representations dominates - after the form
to judge of the horns - the wild goat
(Ibex) (fig. 145, NIXa.c g; 146, W.o.s.v. VIIIb;
'o' B.i of cler admission helped R. Boroffta, K. Dietrich und.f. Schneerveiß, plans and Llmzeichnungen lmrden from
R. Boroffka made. - With these Petroglrphen Cs urn jenc from the surroundings of K does not concern; irnab,
those of G. Sackij undJa. Ser. publishes rvurden: Illauliuü i973, 30; 49following 54; 77; 705following fig. 6; 20-2I; 24;
33; 59-ti0; IIIep 1980, 87 Abb.22,1. Against it errr.ähnt Sirckij by clel discussion of cler camel representations Karnab
not (Lllaqrinä in 1973, 83following), although clearly pictures r, on Karnelen r.orhanden are (pictures Ic, Vcl-e, evt1.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali 2I7
I n.m., 1000 m
Fig. 144. Karnab, Siökonöi-Saj (M74). Kärtenskizze with the situation of the petroglyphs and the bronze-temporal settlement
1 4 7, Xa. e-g. XId. XIIa. c-d. XUa; 1 4 B, XWü {IXg H;
1 4 9, XXb C. XXI c) {XI I C. XXI I I c). D arüber there from
if deer (fig. 145, IXb meet; 146, Va.c;
14B, WIb. WIIIa; 149, XXIb), horses (fig.
146, V9.p.t) and camels (fig. 145.1 C;
146, Vd,-e) 26N. Ei.r. an other drawing is
to respond possibly as a Kaae
(Fig. 148, WII). With most other
To animals it concerns unhorned ones
Four-legged friend, from which single from him
Connection out perhaps as dogs interpreted
could become (fig. 149, XXId).
Other are probably to be appealed rather than hunting animals
(Fig. 145, IIj K).
The human representations let themselves in
Individuals and groups divide. Gender signs
are nowhere recognizable.
Now and then the figures carry one
Curves (fig. 145, IIm; l49, Wa.d-e). One
of the archers is unequivocal in one
Hunting scene integrated (fig. 145.11), during
another off a group from
People stands (fig. 14 B, We), from those
to themselves three hold in the hand (fig. 148, XVfl.
With the combined Mensch-Tier-Darstel
lungs rule rider on horses
(Fig. 145, IId. J:g; 146, W.l.n.u. VII; 147, Xla.f.i.
XI I B. e; 1 4 B, XVI i.e.; 1 4 9) {Xa. XXIf. XXVa. XXVI c).
In several cases are clearly Zigel to
recognise (fig. 146, Vu; 147, XIIb.e; l4B, XWh;
149, XXVa). Three times is directly before
to the rider a vertical line (post
or lance?) (fig. 145, Ild.fg). Twice ride
(?) the people on camels (fig.
146, Vf; 147, XIVc) and in a case becomes
an animal (horse?) in the rope controlled
(Fig. 149, XXIg).
From the other individual displays leaves
itself a circle with rays in group II
(Fig. 145.1il) in connection with one
Hunting scene probably as the sun interpret; with him
sinuous volume with lateral lines
(Fig. 145, IIi) would be able to do it to itself maybe around one
Stream course trade. All the other pictures
are hardly dependable to indicate. Belong to it
also to each other overlaying as well as incomplete ones
or incomplete drawings.
Several of the single figures seem zLr to scenic ones
DarstellungeTz joined. With
Group I (fig. 145.1a-d) is found a camel,
his very back leg at an angle put
is and indicates a movement; about that
if another four-legged friend appears. On the right
from the camel, this leant towards, answers
Person. On the left from the other animal holds
an other human figure the arms
high, and one of the legs like in the course of
to the back umgebiegt. The camel seems
before the person standing behind him
to run away, while the other figure with
264 to horses and camels see the also segment to combined human animal representations
218 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
blTa! Se
qAhh a hf\
__ C __ q_
i-.------t----l it^t'i
tht CD
0 1.00 m
17 tt I
{fk ft't
'*7 r"
le ll N
rr MILL. txh
Fig. 145. Karnab, Siökonöi-Saj (A274). Petroglyphs of the groups I-IV and IX.
{ß dH
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karna
B, Lapas and Cangali 219
- l
_v ____; V
I _tV
I - t
-. 1 V
#fi N Financial Accounting Ä (And the following
VK Vo t
1.00 m
(üu, and the following and, and N
vilr B
Fig. 146. Karnab, Siökonöi-Saj (M74). Petroglyphs of the groups V-\III.
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
xt j
Xl g
t' _ - _ -"
i-; i:
I #.i il i.r! N
___ q._. i
t '-
I _t x
4, N r a
____ B __
___! x Xh
I el
I _t
t (
l; * i----d-.
XIV a H! xt H
1.00 m
B see r|1p & see
r {
_ixll r-I XIV-c-d-e-.! xll
Fig. 147. Karnab, Siökonöi-Saj (A274). Petroglyphs of the groups X-X [V.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Öangali 22r
+, ö
And the following! fi
I xvt
0 1.00 m
-I XIX; d! ___ ___ l xtx r _ _.1 xvllt
I! '.tftt
Fig. l48. Karnab, Siökonöi-Saj (A274). Petroglyphs of the groups XV-XIX.
t, and the following
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
hi. l
n3". '-1-: - j I
___ rxxl
1.00 m _I XXI
I I a 9_ _t
I 'fTT*
) filll a
xxilt B
ib-l I
Rn r XXV B
See, r +
I lt q#l
) fiVl an I
Karnab, Siökonöi-Sai (A274). Petroglyphs of the groups XX-XX \,'L
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali
To scare away arm movements the upper animal
In group II two become obvious, stories"
returned. One (fig.
145, IIa-e) does not seem completely preserved
to be. In any case, there come two riders
(Fig. 145, IIb.d) and several animals (fig.
145, Ila.c.e) before. Remarkably it is more distant
a vertical line (post or lance?)
before one of the riders. This motive appears
in the second scene (fig. 145, IIf m)
in the lower left edge immediately twice.
Together with the remaining figures becomes
here probably a hunt returned, and
an archer zw foot to a four-legged friend
with young (fig. 145, Ilj-h.m) with
Sunshine (fig. 145.1n) in a Saj
(Fig. 145, IIi) seems to follow. One
other animal stands etlvas apart (fig.
145, IIh).
Also group V combines different ones
Combinations. On the one hand are found
several animals on a smooth cliff face
rightly, and it to itself about three camels,
one of it with a person, and one
Deer acts (fig. 145, Vc fa). Further
if two human figures, one appear
of it apparently with wide fas {osen, a rider
as well as a horse with a jagged object
(Saddle?) on the back
(Fig. 146, Vg-). The third scene sits down
from a rider, an other one following him
Horse as well as two wild goats together,
to those the rider follows (fig.
146, Vr-a). Other hunting scenes with riders
and wild goats meet in the groups
XI, XII, X\4 and XXI (fig. 147, XIa-e. XIIc-e;
1 4 B, WIa-i; I 4 g, XXId-fl.
Something else motive offers group
XV (fig. 14 B, Wc-z). From several people
if three keep to the hands. Wei
ter on the left stands a single figure with curve,
the second archer is in
left edge of the representation. There come
two four-legged friends. Different interpretations
are conceivable: a common one
Hunt, a group (family?)
with her animals on the peregrination or
a camp scene.
Srrr-uun Darrnnuuc
Stylistically let themselves different directions
make a distinction. The majority of the rock drawings
exists of narrow stripes,
so that the legs of the animals and person
as easy, just lines appear and
the bodies are hardly thicker. With those animals,
their legs just and vertically to
Bodies stand, the kind of the representation works
rather stiffly. Figures with crooked or
at an angle to the body give to standing legs
against it movement against (fig.
145.1a-d). The corresponding is valid fur images of man,
their head mostly by one
Sharp, the body by a vertical one
Line and the legs by two
Slashes are shown. The arms
can stand off waagrecht from the body,
be held down or upwards.
Merely in two cases (Ibex and deer)
if rectangular, inside empty frames form
the bodies (fig. 145, IXa-ö); both representations
look very stiff. Make a distinction from it
itself some pictures, with those
the animals a flatly satisfactory one
Bodies show (fig. 146, Vp). A horse
with at an angle forwards put legs
if head and seems in movement, also
Tail are explained here more naturalistic
(Fig. 146, Vg). Human figures become,
particularly what concerns the body, more corpulently
shown, and a figure even dresses
seems to be (fig. 145, Vi).
The described rock drawings leave
themselves hardly date from itself out.
It can be ascertained merely,
that the archers on nachmesolithische,
the riders on at the earliest
bronze-temporal date hinweisen265.
The baktrische camel (with two humps)
is provable since the copper time (Aneolithikum),
and there is further, although very much
uncertainly, single tips to the dromedary
(with a hump) of 266th modern weapons
(2. B. Sabers, guns) are absent, would be
with der.fagd, however, also not necessarily inevitably.
Hunting scenes are basic to
all time of the prehistory till this
265 so also lllep in 1980, 174following
zuu A, ll.hi.t 1,969,320; Kyssnuua in 1980; cabbage in 1984, 114. To dromedaries see also Kysr, urzHa in 1963 (everybody conext
Middle Ages one of the most popular subjects
in the Felsbildkunst2oT and, hence, no help
with the chronological regulation.
A date about analogies hits
similar difficulties, there also others
Rock drawings mostly only hardly timewise
are to be arranged. Comparable representations
become occasional as medieval
modern bestimmt268. Certain ones
Analogies concerning the style, the implementation
of single animals, the archers
and rider, the shown animal spectrum
(However, wild goats, horses, camels - it are absent
Deer) etc. are found, e.g., under
to the petroglyphs from the surroundings from
Mogoltau, NordtadZikistan, in this
16.-lB.Jh. are expelled. This means
however, on no account, that all Petroglyphen
this kind necessarily similarly late
must be dated. We shut
rather of the opinion of M. ChuZanazarov
kind, on clear Back one
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
way of human representations and animal representations
at the beginning of the islamization of these areas
hinweist26e. This could speak for it,
that the petroglyphs proved in Karnab
indeed, by the majority probably in the early Middle Ages
might have originated, although
also this view not unambiguously to
book is. A connection zwr to bronze-temporal
Settlement only 1 kilometre
though further to the west is not complete with it
to exclude, but a little probably.
Other rock drawings (A401 A402)
if they were found in a dry valley,
Steppe to the north of Lapas (about 12-14 km
to the east of Karnab) cut. They point
in more technical as stylistic regard
largest Ubereinstimmungen with
the Petrogllphen from the Siökonöi-Saj with
Karnab, which is why more alike chronologically
Beginning might be to be assumed.
(N.B.und H. P.)
The settlement-archaeological researches
in the sphere of the tin beds of Karnab,
Lapas and Öangali proved only a few
old historical finding points, although in all
to these places of bronze-temporal Zirrrrbergbau
it could be proved.
Even today detectable rests of establishments
or grave arrangements belonged at the earliest
in the achaimenidische time and were
also still meagerly. In the antiquity
(4. Jh.v. Chr.-4 cent. A.D.) takes the Aufsiedlung
this region clearly to,
nevertheless, prevailing number of the places dates
even more recently and is medieval to
modern, what within the scope of this project
any more more thoroughly it was not examined,
because the main focus on the prehistoric one
or to preislamic periods lay.
The discovery of the bronze-temporal
Settlement of Karnab-Siökonöi turned out
as a piece of luck. Besides, it concerned around
the only appreciable archaeological site this
early period beyond the Bersbaus.
The entire exposure of this place
confirmed the temporal and functional one
Connection with the nearby ones
267 see possibly XyxaHasapoe 1996.
268 llaHqrl, non l9B0 (Pangazsaj); llaHQrz "roe 1981 (Mogoltau); flauQv, roe 1,983.92following Abb.2. (Pangazsaj). See
moreover, in general Ko6ko among other things in 1997.
26e llauqz, toe in 1981. Also the animal representations of Pangazsaj (flaHQa, roe in 1980) are comparable mitjenen from Karnab.
The people become divergent there against it (with double line for the head, to ray-shaped
Lines for the fingers and clear feet) illustrated. They can be well dated, because scimitar
seem and an in Arabic written date of 1294 hegira (= lB77 A.D., to Tsybulsky
1979) is booked. Against it ChuZanazarovfür favours other similar petroglyphs on account of the schematic one
Of style a time position before the Arabian conquest and means, that with the islamization the rock drawings
become increasingly rarer (XyxaHaaapoe 1996, 16-17). In the Neolithic period one expelled stylistically comparable ones
Rock drawings with wild goats and people (without riders or the others in Karnab to available ones
Animal species) from the surroundings of singing and Nignot, Nord-TadZikistan, in the Nov-i-guriston-, Vagi5ton-,
Mosrif-and Gurbik valleys ({a, ucxuä in 1950). Such a date is for Karnab, however, on account of them
To exclude rider's representations certainly.
Settlement-archaeological researches in
to bronze-temporal mines. Mining like
Widely agreeing ones produced settlement
Ceramics of the Andronovo Tazabagjab
Culture, and also the available ones
lac data of both Fund.stellen point in this
early one or in the first half of the 2nd mill.
v. Chr. All together four huts dug out were able
become, partly up to three phases of utilisation
allowed to recognise. Obvious
if this place did not become continuous, but
for a longer period away
over and over again visited, what the thought
to seasonal use suggests.
Furnaces, metal findings, arch lumps as well as
Stone hammers, meal stones and others
Tools to the comminution and subsequent treatment
in the neighbouring mining
of promoted tin ore concentrated
itself within the establishment from Karnab-
Siökonöi unambiguously in or around this
Houses around, everybody also stone constructions
aufi, viesen. Possibly acted
it to itself, besides, around pure workshop buildings,
while the numerous fireplaces among other things.
in her sphere the stands of the residential constructions
or have marked lodgings
would be able, maybe only from light zeltoder
to jurtenartigen constructions existed
had. That the tin production in Karnab
by the bearers of the Andronovo TazabagJab
Culture also from more national
Meaning might have been, testifies at least
a fragment of a turntable vessel
baktrischer provenance, and
Bones of horse and camel in the establishment
leave no doubt darzrt,
. the suitable means of transportation
to the Uberwindung of other distances at the possession
had stood.
Nevertheless, the settlement of Karnab-Siökonöi was
in comparison to the mining district remarkably
small, so that several other similar ones
Places in the closer like other surroundings
of the tin occurence of Karnab to
suppose are. The stratigraphische findings
from Karnab-Siökonöi points, why this and
other archaeological sites of those early periods
up to now could not be discovered:
The settlement lay less than more than 1 m of infertile one
Of loess, according to job of the place to
today it was blown up and such stations
so that seals and untraceable
makes, they do not become as it were accidental
Sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali Zzb
by earth movements (road construction, Trokkentäler,
Geologenschurfe among other things) cut,
how this has been here the case. In addition
to the findings in the mines
if this establishment delivered, nevertheless
important insights into the production and
Subsequent treatment of the tin ore during
the first half of the 2nd mill. B.C.
Permanently settled Tells are found
however, also in this region, place only
in spätachaimenidisch-frühhellenistischer
Time one. This is valid for Allah Yor Tepa
just as for the Tepe in the centre
of modern place of Karnab, of that
Layer sequence with the help of two by
the whole hill up to the grown one
Ground to controlled cuts was investigated.
They proved a continuous sequence
from the 4th to the 3rd cent. B.C. (KarnabI) till
12 cent. A.D. (Karnab \1II). Even younger ones
Findings from the high-level Middle Ages and late Middle Ages
and the early modern times are also to be assumed,
how occasional litter findings
confirm, nevertheless, would be allowed by modern ones
Earth movements - the Tell became till the beginning
of 20. Cent. settles - abgerragen. At least
for spätachaimenidische and
bright nesting broad time, for the Ku5an period
as well as for the early Middle Ages up to the islamization
if our excavations delivered in
Tepe of Karnab a detailed developing picture
with several architecture findings
and considerable material amounts, what this
Place on half a way between him
Oases of Bukhara in the west and Samarkand
in the east to an important benchmark
allows to become. A direct connection
this Tells with the tin occurence
with Karnab can be booked, however, is
not to exclude.
From the numerous Kurganen in that
Surroundings of Karnab became all together
four exposed to find out her time position.
As a result can be held on,
that they possibly of the population sequence in the Tell
from Karnab correspond, i.e. the oldest one
passé the 4./3 cent. B.C., the outbalancing one
The majority, however, clearly more recently
in 4.-6. Jh.n. Chr. Chronologically
to hardly fixable petroglyphs 700 m to the east
the bronze-temporal settlement from Karnab-
Siökonöi possibly belong even in
even later time.
Three tests from the settlement Karnab-
Siökonöi, to the Andronovo-Tazabag ' jab
Culture belongs, became in the tac lab Eurasia
Department of the German archaeological
Of institute dates in Berlin. The test pretreatment
occurred after the are {\-Methode270.
After the combustion of the date materials
if became a cleaning
CO2 in a reactor with copper filings
carried out, with 600o for in each case six
Hours. In the methane reactor it occurred
Hydrogenation of the CO2 to methane (CHa) with
Help of the catalyst ruthenium. Methane
it is used as a measuring gas. The laC measurements
occurred in countable pipes from Houtermans-
Oeschger t; p, the Signalverarbeitunq
in an especially developed measuring electronics,
with the computer data acquisition
is coupled. The calculation of the laC-Nters
became under use of Libby
t'C-Halb*.rtszeit of 5568 years and her
in the evaluation period (approx. 4 months) geinessenen
Zero effect and Rezentstandardwerte271
carried out. The laC age becomes
during years before the relation year 1950 in BP
(Before Present) given. The cited one
Measuring mistake results from 1 o-standard divergence
of the single measurements and him
To mistakes with the zero effect and Rezentstandardwertbestimmung.
The öl3C values occurred
in the Leibniz's lab of the university
Kiel under the direction of H. Erlenkeuser.
The measured ö13C values are on the international one
PDB standard covered and
became the correction of the Isotopie effect
with the calculation conventional T*C old., verwendet272. To the Kalibration
of the date results served the computer program
OxCal v3.4273, and they
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
VonJochen village Görs
available 10 annual average curve
uses wurde27a. Circularly
on 10-annual values we give the Kalibrationsintervalle
in, in which the real test age
with a likelyhood from
68.2 % liegr.
The following Ubersicht shows the date results
after the age geordnet275.
Bln-5125 U99-2-24,1%o 44700 + in 1000 BP
Sinter material
Bln-5126 U99-1
1 490 - 1 480 cals BC
1 450 - 1 370 cals BC
\340 - 1 310 cals BC
Bln-5127 U99-3-24,4%0 3476+328P
Charcoal in 1880 - 1 840 cals BC
I 830 - 1 790 cals BC
and the following 780 - I 740 cals BC
The test Bln-5125 shows an unexpectedly high one
Age. It concerns obviously urrr
an of course educated material. This test
could be even older, there already slightest ones
Pollutions with younger material
the age reduce.
The Kalibrationsergebnisse of the bronze-temporal
Dates become as a box diagramme
for the likelyhood from
68.2% (hatched trkästen) and g5,4Vo
(wide Ikästen) shown (fig. 1). Besides
if we also covered two dates from
Tests from the same settlement one
(U99-6: Beta 147274 and U99-7: Beta
147275), in the beta Analytic radio coach voucher
Dating Laboratory Miami, Florida, ausgeftihrt
Few dates do not reach
from, at the settlement duration unambiguously to Be
270 Mook, / coxswain in 1983.
27r village Görs 1990; village Görs / BojadZiev 1996.
272 Stuiver/Pollach 1977.
273 Ramsay in 1995; Ramsey in 1998; Ramsey in 2000.
27a Stuiver among other things in 1998.
275 My technical employees E. Lau and D. I would want castle Tecken for her engaged cooperation in
of the test chemistry and with the FüIIen of the countable pipes thank. My hearty thanks are also valid H. Erlenkeuser
uncl to employees in the Leibniz's lab of the university of Kiel for the ör3C measurements and G. Zajceva for the control
of the cited dates of the lac lab in Saint Petersburs.
Settlement-archaeological researches in the sphere. from Karnab, Lapas and Öangali 227
2500CalBC 2000CalBC l500CalBC 1000CalBC
Fig. 1. Iblibrationsergebnisse of the bronze-temporal dates of Karnab as I {.:istendiagramm for the likelyhood
from 68.2/6 (hatched I {:isten) and 95.4% (wide ICisten).
4000CalBC 3000CalBC 2000CalBC 1000CalBC CaIBC/CalA
Fig. 2nd Comparison of the dates from Karnab with published data for the Alakul '-and Fedorovka phase of her
Andronovo culture, shown as a box diagramme frir the likelyhood of 68.2% (hatched lGisten)
and 95.4% (wide boxes).
-1126 3410*50
+ l-l---l-1128 3900+70
, E-924 3360*508
, E-1196 3360+501
-1142 3210+90
E-614 3500+65B
rJL-213 in 3190 +
around Alakul phase
-5127 3476+328
141274 3280
141275 3170 +
-5126 3130+448
-939 3150+558
-921 3020+60F.
-922 3180+70B
-630 3390+65B
-617 3360+658
uL-610 in 3190 +
-529 291A+708
-632 2760+608
994 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Sut Sintaschta and Potapovo
LE 1 141 3440+601 P ffi@] il
Ki-3360+708 [[@Ft
3420+708 EE@I
Ki 164 3,560+tB0 P
ffi M-l
Ki-57 3160+120E P t-Tffi I
Ki-52 3Bl0+215 P t - ffi il
Ki-58 4100+170E P t ffi I
Ki-50 4160+1058 ffiH I
Ki 53 4200+t00E P
_Mffi_B l
Ox-4265 3510+8 Iep ffilHt
Sur Sintaschta and Potapovo ffi E
Bln-5 27 3416+328P [
Beta I 41274 32B0+4t BP tffil
Beta l 41275 3170+SC
26 3130*448P
'"---1 +! |
5000CalBC 4000CalBC 3000CalBC 2000CalBC 1000CalBC
Abb.3. Comparison of the dates from Karnab with published data for the younger Pliase dcr Sintaita culture, darsestellt
as a box diagramme lirr \Vahrscheinlichkeit from 68.2% (schlaffierte boxes) and 95.4% (breitc I&isten).
are right, however, permit her temporal classification
and show the overlapping of her
Results of Karnab with the published ones
Dates of the Nakul '-and Fedorovka-
Phase of the Andronovo culture (fig. 2) 276. Although
the latter a strong dispersion auf.lveisen,
describe also in fig. 2 of shown ones
Sums of the single dates
in coarse Näherung the temporal situation this
Cultures. For the likelyhood
from 68.2 Vo arise from the sum curves
the Einzeldatiemngen the Kalibrationsbereiche
for the Nakul ' phase from
1 900-1 400 cals BC and for Fedorovka-
Phase of 1700-1100 cals BC. The temporal one
Connection with the dates of her
Sintaita culture, of the literature taken
wurden277, is given in Abh.3.
The date results of Karnab overlap
with the younger phase SintaSta-
276 AeaHecosa l99l
277 Tpurpouoe in 1997
Settlement-archaeological researches in
Sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Cangali
From Norbert Benecke
The excavations in mittelbronzezeitlichen
Settlement Karnab-Siökonöi during the years
In 1998 and 1999 some also have
Animal leftovers delivered, to us for the treatment
were handed over. The results of the regulation
are the object of these short ones
Communication. The condition of the osseous findings
it is predominantly bad.
to most finds are cursorily strong
corroded, probably as a result of the high salinity
in the ground; only the Zälne show one
better preservation on. All together lie
616 findings before. Unberücksicht stay here
Bones of Zieseln (Citellus spec.) from
to the surfaces 59 and S28, the obvious-younger
Interferences explain. With the remaining ones
To findings it concerns quite predominantly
around remains from the utilisation
from animals for food purposes or to
Raw material production. A large part of her
Bone and teeth shows tracks of the combustion
on. These pieces are to one
low part chars and to the outbalancing one
Part calcines.
From 616 findings let themselves 121 Stükke
(19.6 Vo) tierartlich determine closer, against it
if 495 mostly smallest bones remained
vaguely. The biggest part of the determinable ones
Bone is cancelled with 97 pieces on
Sheep and goats. According to the finding frequency
if the cattle with a total of 14 Zaln-or follow.
To osseous leftovers. Five findings belong to kinds
the type Equus. Merely with one
Tooth from the collection 13 (excavation in 1998)
if the affiliation to the horse seems definite
to be. Whether the piece to the game or
House horse belongs, an open question remains.
With other four findings was not to
decide, whether they of the horse (game or
House horse) or half donkey (Equus hemionus)
come. A bone, a right ankle leg
(Os malleolare) from the surface 22 (excavation
1999), the camel (Camelus books
spec.). From animal-geographic view it had to go
itself around the zweihöckrige camel (Camelus
bactrianus) act. Whether the bone to one
Wild camel or house camel belongs, is able in
to the piece are not judged. Three findings
book the Saiga antelope (Saiga tataricrz)
. By a lower jaw of the surface
S11 (excavation in 1999) is still the tiger's polecat
(Vormela peregusna) proved. Details
to the findings, like element affiliation,
Age signs and weight, are in
Appendix performed.
According to the present regulations
if most findings of domestic animals come,
namely from such kinds, for
the care of the settlement inhabitants with
To food mattered.
Sheep and goats as well as to a lower one
They would be allowed to do part of cattle for it primarily
have been to held animal species.
The hunt as a branch of the food acquisition
if only one subordinated ones probably played in Karnab-Siökonöi
Role. Otherwise would have themselves
more rests of wild animals find lasserr
have to go. The single findings of horse and camel
could come from domestic animals and
wrirden therefore the position or the use
from zlvei important transport animals book.
For the centuries of the middle Bronze Age
becomes general with the position of both kinds
calculated in Central Asia.
Appendix: List of the examined animal leftovers
from Karnab-Siökonöi
Ikmpagne in 1998
Collection 1
Sheep / goat, two Incisivi inf., Gew.: 1.2 g; sheep
Goat, two Molarfragmente, Gew.: 1.6 g; sheep
Goat, left Tarsalknochen, Gew.: 1.0 g; sheep
Goat, right Tarsalknochen (calcined), Gew.:
3.69; sheep / goat, Metapodiumbruckstück,
Gew.: 1.4 g; vaguely, 8 pieces, Gew.: 25.6 g
Collection 2
Vaguely, a piece, Gew.: 3.8 g
Collection 3
Vaguely, a piece, Gew.: 3.0 g
Collection 4
Sheep / goat, a fractured rib piece, Gew.: 1.6 g;
Vaguely, 5 pieces, Gew.: 9.1 g
230 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Collection 5
Sheep / goat, a Femurfragment, Gew.: 3.2 g
Collection 6
Vaguely, two pieces, Gew.: 4.5 g
Collection 7
Sheep / goat, a Molarfragment, Gew.: 0.7 g;
Sheep / goat, distales Flumerusfragment (calcined),
Gew.: 3.9 g; vaguely, two pieces,
Gew.: 16.8 g
Collection 8
Sheep / goat, Metapodiumfragment, Gew.: 1.6 g;
Vaguely, 5 pieces, Gew.: 4.3 g
Collection 9
Vaguely, a piece, Gew.: 4.9 g
Collection 10
Vaguely, 6 pieces (calcined), Gew.: 7.5 g
Collection 11
Vaguely, 5 pieces (calcined), Gew.: 1.1 g
Collection 12
Vaguely, a piece, Gew.: 14.0 g
Collection 13
Sheep / goat, rib fragment, Gew.: 1.8 g;
Horse, more surely of loose Unterkiefermolaq Gew.:
38.4 g
Collection 14
Vaguely, two pieces, Gew.: 0.3 g
Collection 15
Vaguely, a piece, Gew.: 2.4 g
Collection l6
Vaguely, a piece, Gew.: 1.5 g
Collection 17
Sheep / goat, left Carpalknochen (calcined),
Gew.: 0.4 g
Campaign in 1999
Surface 51
Vaguely, three pieces, Gew.: 20.9 g
Surface 52
Sheep / goat, right Maxillafragment (M3 with
light Abrasion), Gew.: 23.8 g; vaguely, 14
Pieces (of it a fragment charred), Gew:
15.8 g
Surface 53
Sheep / goat, two left Oberkiefermolaren (with
Abrasion), Gew.: 14.5 g; sheep / Zieee, Unterkiefermolar-
Fragment, Gew.: 3.7 g, sheep / goat,
right Metacarpusfragment, Gew.: 0.7 g; sheep
Goat, Metapodiumfragment (neonat/juvenil),
Gew: 0.7 g; cattle, dental fragment, Gew: 2.6 g; vaguely,
20 pieces, Gew.: 21.7 g
Surface 54
Saiga, two horn-rimmed plug fragments, Gew.: 41.5 gl
Equus spec., dental fragment, Gew.: 1.1 g; vaguely,
15 pieces, Gew.: 12.6 g
Surface 55
Sheep / goat, Humerusfragment, Gew.: 1.2 g! Vaguely,
5 pieces, Gew.: 4.4 g
Surface 56
Sheep / goat, left Talus, Gew.: 5.6 g; vaguely,
9 pieces (of it two calcined), Gew.:
27.4 g
Surface S7
Sheep / goat, dental fragment (calcines), Gew.:
0.1 g; sheep / goat, right Carpalknochen,
Gew.: 0.7 g; sheep / Zieee, Metacarpusfragment,
Gew.: 1.0 g; sheep / goat, Femurbruchstück,
Gew.: 6.3; sheep / goat, right tibia fragment,
Gew.: 13.2 g; cattle, cervical vertebra piece, Gew: 25.4 g;
Vaguely, 25 pieces, Gew.: 30.2 g
Surface S8
Sheep / goat, Zahnfragrnent, Gew.: 0.8 g; vaguely,
three pieces, Gew.: 1.0 g
Surface 59
Sheep / goat, dental fragment, Gew.: 0.8 g; vaguely,
20 pieces, Gew.: 26.6 g
Surface S10
Vaguely, two pieces, Gew.: 1.1 g
Surface S11
Tiger's polecat, zusammengehöriger left and more surely
Lower jaw, Gew.: 4.5 g; vaguely, 5 Stükke,
Cew.: 29.3 g
Surface 512
Sheep / goat, rwei dental fragments, Gew.: 2.1 g;
Sheep / goat, left Maxilla (entire spare set of teeth),
Gew.: 9.7 g; sheep / Zieee, right lower jaw
with M² in the breakthrough, Gew.: 35.1 g;
Sheep / goat, right M3 inferiorly, Gew.: 6.3 g;
Sheep / goat, right distales Humerusstück with
grown together epiphysis, Gew.: 13.8 g; sheep / goat,
Femurfragment, Gew.: 5.6 g; sheep / goat,
Metatarsusstück, Gew.: 13.2 g; vaguely,
26 pieces, Gew.:25,7 g
Surface Sl3
Sheep / goat, Oberkiefermolar, Gew.: 1.1 g
Surface Sl4
Sheep / goat, two dental fragments, Gew.: 1.1 g;
Sheep / goat, Metatarsusfragment, 6.4 g; vaguely,
21 pieces, Gew.: 14.8 g
Settlement-archaeological researches rm
Surface S16
Sheep / goat, nvei dental fragments, Cew.: 1.9 g;
Sheep / goat, Ribbing", Gew.: 5.6 g; vaguely,
20 pieces, Gew.: 33.2 g
Surface Sl7
Cattle, phalanx 1 (proximal grow together, calcined);
Vaguely, three pieces, Gew.: 8.9 g
Surface S18
Sheep / goat, three dental fragments, Gew.: 3.5 g;
Sheep / goat, left Humerusfragment, Gew:
1.7 g; vaguely, 15 pieces, Gew.:7,7 g
Surface S19
Sheep / goat, Metatarsusfragment, Gew.: 3.0 g;
Schrt/goat, radius fragment, Gew.: 3.7 g; Saiga,
right Calcaneus, Gew.: 12.0 g; vaguely,
8 pieces, Gew.: 14.7 g
Surface S20
Sheep / goat, three Lumbalwirbel (final records grow together),
Gew.: 8.8 g; sheep / goat, Sacrumfragment,
Gew.: 18.6 g; vaguely, four pieces,
Gew.: 0.4 g
Surface 521
Cattle, dental fragment, Gew.: 13.9 g; sheep / goat,
two dental fragments, Gew.: 2.5 g; sheep / goat,
Incisivus inf., Gew.: 0.2 g; sheep / goat, the left
proximales radius fragment (epiphysis grow together),
Gew.: 1.3 g; sheep / goat, Tt'biafragment,
Gew.: I, 1 g; sheep / goat, Metatarsusfragment,
Gew.: 0.6 g; sheep / goat, phalanx 1 (proximal
grow together, charred), Gew.: 0.6 g; sheep / goat,
Fragment of the Thorakalwirbel, Gew.: 2.9 g; vaguely,
54 pieces (of it 12 chars and 10
calcined), Gew.: 188.8 g
Surface S22
Cattle, rib fragment, Gew.: 8.0 g; sheep / goat,
two loose Molares sup., Gew.: 2.7 g; sheep / goat,
a left lower jaw fragment, Gew.: 6.2 g:
Sheep / goat, rech tes proximales radius piece
(with grows together to ner epiphysis), Gew.: 1.1 g; sheep
Goat, a right distales tibia fragment (with
grown together epiphysis), Gew.: 5.9 g; Scl; 'rt/goat,
a left Calcaneus (Tuber do not grow together),
Gew.: 1.8 g; sheep / goat, two Metatarsusfragmente,
Gew.: 10.2 g; sheep, a left one
distales Metatarsusstück (with grown together epiphysis,
charred), Gew.: 2.8 g; Camelus spec., the right
Ankle leg, Gew.: 16.4 g; vaguely,
38 pieces (of it a piece calcines and one
Piece chars), Gew: 142.3 g
Sphere of Karnab, Lapas and Öangali 231
And the following] äche S23
Cattle, Humerusfragment, Gew.: 8.8 g; cattle, phalanx
1, Gew.: 0.9 g; sheep / goat, dental fragment,
Gew.: 0.3 g; sheep / Zieee, Metacarpusstück, Gew.:
0.4 g; sheep / goat, proximales radius fragment
(Epiphysis grow together), Gew.: 7.5 g, Sütrt/goat,
Radius fragment, Gew.: 3.5 g; sheep / goat,
Metacarpusstück, Gew.: 0.4 g; sheep / goat, rib,
Gew.: 5.69; Equus spec., left distaler Metatarsus
(Epiphysis grow together), Gew.: 76.8 g; vaguely,
48 pieces (of it 6 pieces charred),
Gew.: 44.5 g
Surface S24
Cattle, dental fragment, Gew.:2,7 g; sheep / goat,
Molar sup., Gew.: 4.0 g; sheep / goat, Molar inf.,
Gew.: 0.8 g; sheep / goat, Femurfragment, Gew.:
4.7 g; sheep / goat, tibia piece, Gew: 1.9 g; vaguely,
12 pieces, Gew.: 19.5 g
Surface S25
Cattle, dental fragment, Gew.: 1.6 g; Equus spec.,
right Carpalknochen, Gew.: 7.3 g; Equus spec.,
Sesame leg. Gew.: 1.4 g; vaguely, 14 pieces,
Gew.: 29.8 g
Surface 526
Cattle, dental fragment, Gew.: 4.9 g; cattle, two Hume's soot malices,
Gew.: 43.9 g; cattle, Metacarpusfragment,
Gew.: 9.5 g; cattle, Pelvisstück, Gew.: 19.5 g;
Sheep / goat, four loose Molares inf., Gew.: 11.5 g;
Sheep / goat, a left Mandibulafragment,
Gew.: 6.5 g; sheep / Zieee, right Scapulastück
(Coracoid grow together), Gew.: 5.2 g; sheep / goat,
left Scapulafragment, Gew. 7.3 g; sheep
Goat, right proximales radius fragment (grown together ones
Epiphysis), Gew.: 1.4 g; Schrt/goat,
Radius piece, Gew.: 2.8 g; Schrt/Zieee, the right
Ulnafragment, Gew.: 1.9 g; sheep / goat, left
Carpalknochen, Gew.: L, 2 g; sheep / goat, mvei
Metacarpusstücke, Gew.: 7.4 g; Schrt/goat, distales
Metatarsusfragment (epiphysis grow together),
Gew.: 2.7 g; sheep / goat, rwei Rippenstükke,
Gew.: 2.4 g; vaguely, 68 pieces, Gew.:
238.7 g
Surface S27
Vaguely, two pieces, Gew.: 1.8 g
Surface S28
Vaguely, 5 pieces, Gew.: 1.9 g
During the archaeological works in
and around Karnab became among other things three coins
discovered, which here closer are discussed
have to go.
In the catacomb grave of the health resort goose
.4403 from Karnab-Abdurachman Ky.r found
itself between the osseous leftovers along
the grave wall two bowl-shaped coins
(No. 1-2), the Fr rr the date this
Arrangement matter.
No. 1. Samarkander Sogdien. Stranger
Ruler. 4.-5 cent. A.D. Weight 0.9 g
(before cleaning), 0.6 g (after cleaning),
Dm 15 rnrn (fig. 1).
No. 2. Samarkander Sogdien. Stranger
Ruler. 4.-5 cent. A.D. Weight 0.7 g
(before cleaning), 0.5 g (after cleaning),
Dm 14 mm (fig. 2).
Both coins exist of inferior one
Silver, what by the plentiful copper oxide
it is indicated. Tracks of a representation
on the arched side are absent (possibly
if they remained on account of the Oxydierung
do not receive). On the concave ones
Side is the schematised picture one
human figure with a curve in
to foresee of the hand. Comparable Münztlpen
are well known in Zenffalasien and
received the name, coins with standing one
Bogenschützert". Their coinage
it is ascribed to the Samarkander Sogdien.
E. Of Zejmal' she divided in four chronological ones
Groups: The first one began in
l. / 2. Cent. A.D., the last closed with him
5. or early 6. Cent. N. Chr.278. During
of this time the representations of her get to know
Bust of a bearded ruler with diadem
on the heads and the figure of the archer
on the lapel changes,
with an increasing pattern
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
From Anvar Ch. Atachodlaev
tisierung and twist of the coin legend
(in Greek, later then sogdisch) to
to their complete disappearance walk along.
In parallel in addition it comes to one
Reduction of the weight, from of her
to attischen drachms (around 4 g) up to 0,2-
0.3 g "N. At the same time also decreases
the diameter of the coins of 10 mrrr
allra h/-ö ^ mm28O
The absence of an inscription on the lapel
and the advanced Schematisierung
in the Ausftihrung of the representation
speak for it, the coins No. 1 and No. 2
to assign to the fourth, latest group,
although the metrical data to older ones
Are close to representatives. Is possibly
to interpret from that point of view this, that
both coins at the beginning of the fourth ones
Group stamped wurden28r. More distant remains
to point out to the fact, that these coins also
after the end of her mint time still in
Circulation remained, on account of stratifizierter
Findings from PendZikent, e.g., till the first one
Half of 7. Jh.282.
A copper coin became with the excavations
in the Tell of Karnab discovered,
namely in cut SI. She is able unambiguously
Population period VII are assigned.
No. 3. Abbasidisch. Samarkand 17721,
788-7Bg N. Chr.283. Weight.?, 4 g, Dm
20 mm (fig. 3). Reading and Ubersetzung
Heads: in the middle - there is no God except
Allah the only one! He has no same";
running around-...wurde this rock in
Samarkand hit... ". Lapel: in that
Middle; of Mohammad Vertreter Allahs.
Really"; running around - this became on
Order stamped al-Amir DLa'far B. Muhammad,
with the help of Masady B. Budchajra
IBuchaira?] ".
2to 3eüra, no in 1978, 208-209.
27see of Zeimal' 1994,249.
2ou 3efira, no in 1983, 27 4-276.
2tt D. Author has himself in this question also to the leading numismatist for the antiquity and the early Middle Ages
in Central Asia, the A-kademiker inc. Rtveladze, skilful. According to his opinion these copies perform official duties
an uncertain local variation of the coin coinage with the representation of an archer,
and her production time would be able in the 4.-5 cent. A.D. lie.
2t2 3eüra, no 1,972.74.
283 t of "Se".uy.en in 1873, 129 No. 1164.
siedlunesarchäologische researches in the sphere of Karnab, r, apas and cangali 2zz
Fig. 1. Sogclische silver coin No.'. 1 from the Kurgan Karnab-Abdurachrnan Kp Arl03, 4., 25. fh. A.D.
Fig. 2. Sogdische Silbermiinze No. 2 from the Kursan Karnab-Abdurachman Kyr A403, 4./5 cent. A.D.
Fig. 3. Kupfcrmrinze from dern Tell of Karnab (cut SI), Pcriode \rII, 7BB-789 A.D.
In the coin inscription become two people
called. D; a'far B. Muhammad is
from schdftlichen springs as abbasidischer
Governor in Chorasan, the eastern circle
of the caliphate? 84 known. Analogous inscriptions
are from Samarkander, rock" überliefert285,
so that one thereby the Prägeclatum
(7BB-7B9) can reconstruct. After
DLa'far B. Muhammad becomes one more s
Person called, from E. To Zambaur
"N A6y Caug lap4rlau in 1991, 47-48.
"and Trr.rr.u1, =eH in 1873, 129-130 No. 1,164.117 g.
286 Zambaur in 1908. 149 n. 36.
287 Oocr.p in 1930, 175.
to a tip of V. G. Tizengauzen as
, Sa'd B. NaddZar "286, from R. R. Fasmer
as a Mas'ad.a B. Jazicl287 read wurd.e.
graphic analysis of this name proved with
to all authors tibereinstimmend, that he from
five letters passes and first as
, min" and last as, cha" are valid, what one
Reading as, Sa'd" for the purposes of Zambaurs excludes.
The reading suggested by Fasmer
hence, is in lvahrscheinlichsten.
Settlement-archaeological researches
in the sphere of the tin laser sites
from MuSiston and Takfon
From Nicholas Boroffka, Mira Bubnova, JusufJakubov and Hermann Parzinger
In denJahren in 1997 and 1998 we led in
two autumn campaigns celebrations and
Test excavations in the surroundings of her
Tin beds of Muiiston and Takfon
in NordwesttadZikistan by, they the settlement activity
in this space and of those
possible relations to the tin occurence
help to clear solltenl. The first bed
lies with Muiiston close PendZikent in
2,830-m height. Here became in seventies
and the eighties a big tin bed
exploited, and one old mining tracks
(Copper and tin) in the area of her
Divide between the brooks Kaznok
(to the east) and Negnob (to the west) in
'cut. Before the beginning of our works had
in this area no appreciable archaeological ones
Researches taken place.
First we undertook area celebrations,
afterwards some became to her
to discovered finding points by Sondagen
closer examines. In addition, led
we still with Öukurak as well as in the Uöko valley
above the village RodZ, both with
PendZikent, in each case one-day prospectus ions
by, because there from montanarchäologischen
Tracks it was reported. In both
Merely some finding points could fell
are registered (T017-T018 probably neolithisch,
T0l9 modern and T020 early-medieval),
nevertheless, for the question
of the project not further from meaning
The meaning ones second to MuSiston
Tin bed is with Takfon, district
Aini, at approx. 1,900-m height. The dismantling
began there during the thirties years and
lasted - with interruptions - till
the eighties in. Already at the beginning
the exploitation during the thirties years
if the geologists had tracks of old mining
announced. The scenery around Takfon is
by narrow side valleys of the phone Darju marked,
itself by very precipitous ones,
often even vertical sides as still
prove more settlement-hostilely, than this with
MuSiston the case was. In this area were
though already two fortresses (Kala Zilöui
and Kala Ziläavian) became known, however
she never examines more thoroughly. Also others
Preliminary works for the settlement history this
Of space there had not been.
The finding points in the surroundings from Mu-
Siston, Cukurak and in the Uöko valley (T001-
T021) as well as in the area of Takfon (8001-
8005) become in a list (Thb.l) overview-like
put together. On account of them
problematic Datierbarkeit him mostly
to scanty surface findings make a distinction
we - as in the space of Karnab, Lapas
1 Eopo

and Cangali - merely old historical ones,
, antique" (4. Cent. V. Chr.-4 cent. A.D.), early-medieval
(5.-10 cent.), medieval ones
(11.-16 cent.) and modern places (1/7-
20 cent.). The finding result was - in particular
ftir the prechristian time - distinct


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