Tuesday, January 04, 2011

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The tin of the Bronze Age
in Central Asia I
The settlement-archaeological researches
in the field Ljm of the tin laser sites
under cooperation of Kabul Alimov, Mira Bubnova, Jurij FOLLOWING Burjakov, JusufJabubov,
Seriously Pernicka and Gerd Weisgerber
with contributions of Anvar AtachodZaev, Norbert Benecke undJochen village Görs
VIII, 328 sides with 174 pictures and 2 tables
The German library - unity admission CIP
Bibliographic information of The German library
The German library registers this publication in the German national bibliography;
specified bibliographic data are on the Internet
.http: / / dnb.ddb. de, retrievable.
O 2003 by German archaeological institute, Eurasia department
ISBN 3-8053-3135-5
Editorial staff: German archaeological institute, Eurasia department, in Dol 2-6, 14195 Berlin
Production: printing house köthen Ltd, Friedrichstrasse Li / 12, 06366 Köthen
Commission distribution: Publishing company Philipp von Zabern, Philipp-von-Zabern-Platz 1-3, 55116 Mainz on the Rhine
INTRODUCTION. From Hermann Parzinger,
Seriously Pernicka and Gerd Weisgerber
. 1
State of the research to the origin
of the tin 1
Medium Asian tin 4
Archaeological basic conditions.....
Objective of the project..... 13
Table of contents
Kurgan KarnabA006. 209
Kurgan Karnab A342a. 273
Petroglyphs with Karnab 276
Representation motives 276
Style and date. 223
Summary. 224
To d.en lac-Duten from Karnab-
Siökonöi. VonJ. Village Görs. 226
To the animal bones from Karnab-
Siökonöi. From N. Benecke. 229
To the coin findings from Karnab.
From A. Ch. Atachodiaev 232
AND TAKFON. From Nicholas
Boroffka, Mira Bubnova, JusufJakubov
and Hermann Parzinger....
Archaeological prospectus ions in
the surroundings of MuSiston and
Excavations in, height sanctum"
from MuSiston.....
Excavations in the fortress and
Grotto of sari Chauz
Excavations in the fortress from
Kala Zilöui
Period Kala Zilöu5 l.....
Period Kala Zilöu5 2.....
Period Kala Zilöu5 3.....
SOGDIENS. From Hermann
Parzinger 260
Research history 260
Neo and Aneolithikum..... 262
Bronze Age 267
Early Bronze Age. 267
Middle Bronze Age. 270
Late Bronze Age... 274
Iron Age and antiquity 276
Alimov, Nicholas Boroffka, Jurij
FOLLOWING Burjakov and Hermann Parzinger.
Archaeological prospectus ions in
the surroundings of Karnab, Lapas
and Cangali.....
Karnab and Lapas.
Excavations in the bronze-temporal
Settlement Karnab-Siökonöi.
To the Stratigraphie.
Concluding remarks
Excavations in the Tell of Karnab.
To the Stratigraphie.
Period Karnab I.
Period Karnab II.
Period Karnab IIIa C
Horizon Karnab IV...
Period Karnab V....
Period Karnab mA C.
Period Karnab \4I...
Period Karnab VIII.
Excavations in Kurganen with
Kurgan Karnab in 4282.
Kurgan Karnab-Abdurachman
Kp in 4403
VI tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Early Iron Age 276 tins in the middle Bronze Age 292
Developed Iron Age or conclusions... 296
Achaimenidenzeit. 277
Bright nesting broad time 2sheet SUMMARY. From Hermann
Sogdische Zeitbzw. Ku5an-Parzinger, Ernst Pernicka and Gerd
Period 284 Weisgerber 297
Early Middle Ages and islamization. 286
From Hermann Parzinger. 287 PE3IOME 306
Chronological basic conditions
Tin in the early Bronze Age 2Bg
Preface of the Flerausgebers
In the years from 1997 to 1999 found with
generous support Volkswagen
Endowment comprehensive interdisciplinary researches
at the beginnings of the tin production
in Central Asia instead of. The area works
besides, concentrated on uzbekischen
and tadZikischen part Zeravlan-
Of valley, to the central area of the antique Sogdien.
The wealth of this region of tin beds
left him for such lJntersuchungen
seem particularly suitable. The first ones
Success positioned themselves also soon
one. Already in the first Projekqjahr in 1997 succeeded
it, in MuSiston above Pend-
Zikent, a mountain region in the northwest
TadZikistans, mittelbronzezeitliche tin mines
the Andronovo TazabagJab culture
to ascertain. A year later were able
those, finally, also in uzbekischen Karnab,
on half a way between Bukhara
and Samarkand, are discovered. As more specially
Piece of luck turned out further them
The fact that it succeeded in Karnab, on
accompanying mountain working-class estate from the first ones
To push half of the 2nd mill. B.C.,
here in greater detail it is published.
Question after the origin of the tin is with it
however, though yet relaxed, does not have for the first time one
concrete background get,
lagerstättenkundlich as well as mining-archaeologically,
itself in the cultural-historical
Development of Central Asia and his
Neighbouring rooms allows to embed.
Present part I of the final publication
, The tin of the Bronzezeitin reports Central Asia"
in detail about the results of her
to settlement-archaeological researches in
Sphere of the tin ore deposits in Uzbekistan
and TadZikistan. To belonged to it surface celebrations
just as excavations
on different settlement places and
to other monuments (2nd B. Kurgane) of her
closer surroundings. Where it from more special
Meaning fur the question
Of project was, the places became extensive
completely exposed (Karnab-Siökonöi).
These works stood under the common ones
Management of the Eurasia department
of the German archaeological institute in
Berlin as well as the institute frir archeology
the academy of the sciences of the republic
Uzbekistan in Samarkand and
Of institute of history, archeology and
Ethnography of the academy of the sciences
the republic of TadZikistan in Duöanbe.
To the managers of these both partner institutes,
man Prof. Dr. T. Sititrou
and, besides, Prof. Dr. R. Masov, is particularly
owed. Without her vigorous support
if this project had not come about.
The success of the common strains
like stimulus for other IJnternehmungen
be in Central Asia.
The detailed representation montanarchäologischen,
and archäometallurgischen works under
Leadership of the German mining museum
in Bochum and the institute of Archäometallurgie
the mining academy University of Technology of Freiberg
follows in part II of the final publication,
is currently in preparation and
also in this row will appear.
Berlin, in summer, 2002
Hermann Parzinger

From Hermann Parzinger, Ernst Pernicka and Gerd Weisgerber
Since in the twenties of 20. Cent.
to carried out analyses is known, that
the metal findings in the 2 stream country from that
Middle of 3. Jt.v. Chr. more and more often from
Bronze pass, an alloy of copper
and tin. In contrast to Central Europe,
where this metal mixture only in
Z.Jt. B.C. appears, therefore, becomes in the Front-Asian
Archeology already this
3. Mill. calls B.C. early Bronze Age.
Since that time the question positions itself for Mesopotamia
after the origin of both metals,
because the country on the Euphrates and Tigris distinct
poor in mineral deposits istl. This
Copper would be able from Anatolia, the Caucasus,
Have been covered Iran and Oman.
Oman is analytically and archaeologically
most probably as the copper country
Magan of the sumerischen cuneiform script texts to
identifizieretr2. Whether also other regions,
in their copper on a large scale from ores
reducing erschmolzen became, as
Copper suppliers are possible, is up to now
still unclearly. Neither from texts nor
from the scientific investigations
if unequivocal tips arise.
Even more in the unclear there lies the origin
of the tin, the sumerische texts also
mention. It is accepted in general,
that the sumerische word AN.NA really
metallic tin means. This
if became the knowledge of the arch reduction vort
M.rhly 1973a; Crawford. In 1974.
2 Weisgerber l98l; Weisgerber in 1991; Dercksen in 1996.
3 Gmelin 1,971.56; Charles in 1975.
a Bartelemy in 1938.
5 Arzruai in 1884; Field/Prostov 1938.
6 Muhty 19? 3B.
7 Sub.t among other things in 1976; Muhly in 1985.
* Muhly 1973B; Dercksen in 1996.
e Mnhly 1973a.
10 Dossin in 1970. rr Waetzoldt/Bachmann in 1984.
pause, because metallic tin good-quality
hardly vorkommt3. Tin ore lets itself in small ones
Stoves relatively easily to the metal reduce,
how ethnographer's broad examples zeigena.
As an ore comes for it primarily Kassiterit
(SnO2) in question, but also Stannin
(Cu2FeSnSa) seems possible. Kassiterit
still today becomes mainly from sediment beds
(Soaps) washed out. Something similar
However, beds are in the other FIELD IJM
Of Mesopotamia not available, neither
in the Caucasus still in Anatolia still in
Iran. All occurence called earlier there
from tin turned out as not existent6.
A bed in Ag1pt.t "r became
in the antiquity apparently not ausgebeutet7,
how generally to itself tin bronze in
Agypt.tr only relatively late in the 2nd mill.
v. Chr. put through.
To clutches considerations to the origin
in Mesopotamia of used tin on
the base of geologic availability
over and over again in the emptiness, so pointed the evaluation
of written springs fast this
the same dilemma on. At the beginning
2. Jt.v. Chr. possibly becomes a tin the commercial metropolis
Kärum Käni5 gebrachts, it
comes from southeast, from Aryrien, but
from where there has reached there, remains puzzling,
even if Susa in Elam after him
Write a certain role close solltee.
Forefather [ches hurries for Marir0 and Eblall. Crazy. ZuZinn
the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
sammenhang with imports from Meluhha
(Rajastan) becomes a B.C. once for the 3rd mill.
Tin genanntl2. However, soap tin seems in
Nordwestindien not vorzukommenl3. It
therefore, stays open, where from the traders
from Meluhha from them delivered ones
Tin had. On the sea way from Rajastan
to the 2 stream country, in any case, they were able
it on the way from no producer loaded more
have, if they then before the Arabian
Peninsula generally somewhere put on.
The dilemma of the research became
also on a relevant conference in
Washington in 7977 apparently, where no clarity
achievedly, not even tips produced
become konntenla. Trace element analyses at that time
made little hope,
to be able to contribute something to the solution
An absolutely new background received
the discussion to the origin of the tin
by since the sixty-year-old's years to found ones
Tin ingots on the coasts of the eastern one
Of the Mediterranean Sea. Unfortunately, a finding was in
to the ship wreck near cape Gelidonia, from
beside numerous ochsenhautförmigen
Copper ingots also a whitish material
came, in which one corroded tin ingots
saw, not so unambiguously. On account of
from unambiguously äglptischem finding material
in the wreck the setting of the commercial freighter is able
in 13. Cent. B.C. referred werden16.
Two 1976 in the harbour of Haifa guaranteed ones
ashlar-shaped ingots (31 x 20 x
3.7 cm, approx. 12 kg of weight) become by
Signs Cypriot minoischer writing in them
Time of 1500-1100 B.C. dates. They are
the rest of a bigger shipload from
Copper ingots and tin ingots, which by them
Finder as a scrap metal sells wurdel7. Late
arrived ingot shows one as
Goddess Arethusa interpreted Gral'ur and hears
in the same Zeit18. A little older it is of her
sensational wreck finding of Ulu Burun
with Kag before the südwestanatolischen coast,
his findings to itself today in the museum vorr
Bodrum consider. The setting
Of ship becomes during the years about 1340 B.C.
dates. Beside more than 300 ochsenhautförmigen
Copper ingots were also found approx.
40 tin ingots, namely ochsenhautförmige
as well as plankonvexeln. Tu.
other cargo of this load yachtsman comes
from so many different areas (the Baltic States,
Greece, Cyprus. Vomited. ÄSypten),
that only loads like this one image
from trade at that time can give.
The interpretation as more ritualized, diplomatic
Gift exchange between
to the rulers of Aglpten and Mykene20
seems as an explanation hardly enough.
We receive no explanation about them
Origin of the tin ingots stowed away aboard.
Though copper ingots become in ox's skin form
in popular usage as Cypriot respected,
but scientific ljntersuchungen2l
as well as the finding of a stone one
Form for such ingots in S1rien22
show, that this at that time the standard form
from 1 talent (approx. 30 kg) metal was. Where from
the tin of the second half of the 2nd mill. B.C.
on the misfortune ship of Ulu Burun
also may come, it became, wherever,
for other trade along
Of the Mediterranean Sea at least partially in one
of the forms usual there poured: big ones
Amounts in ingot of the type IJlu Burun,
smaller in such of the type Haifa or in
level-convex, how most ingots from
Cornwall23. On the base of his, copper monopoly"
would be able to Zlpern, like this
erzlose Dilmun one.] ahrtausend before, dier2
Heimpel in 1987.
13 Chakrabarti in 1979.
Ra Franklin among other things in 1978.
15 Rapping in 1978.
do coach in 1966; bass in 1967.
t7 Galili, zsh-ueli in 1983; Galili and,
18 Aruy in 1983.
Re bass in 1986; bass in 1989; Maddin
20 Kilian in 1993.
2 t Gul. In 1991.
22 Lagarce in 1986.
23 Beagrie in 1985.
a. In 1986; Maddin u.a.7977; Muhly in 1985
In 1989; Kilian in 1993; Gülcur in 1995.
sen trade have pulled at himself, also
if it itself did not dispose of tin. Indeed
if these discoveries from one serve
younger period for the origin
of mesopotamischen tin in the 3rd mill. B.C. only
as background information. Even if we
for this period up to now hardly foresee, where from
the loaded tin came, it was not
only richly available, but it became
also in large quantities about wide distances
Because the most important tin beds already
in 19. Cent. was known, it brought
Research in search of the origin
of this metal already very early them
to classical tin soaps of the British Isles
(Cornwall), the Iberian Halbinsel2a and
Of South-East Asia into the play, even the tin soaps
in Böhmen25 and in the Erzgebirgezu *.r.-
him discusses. But as tin springs for this
3. Jt.v. Chr. had to do them on account of the absence
archaeologically of recognizable relations
rejected werden27, t ttrt to itself also
now for the Erzgebirge bronze-temporal
To draw tin production beginnt2s. So
if only the supposition remained open as a way out
Tin production by miner's ones
Civil engineering. Besides, became even to the small one
Bed in Tuscany gedachtze.
Indeed, is of miner's Tieftrau
on tin ores already for the prehistory and early history
proved, possibly in the Bretagn.
uu. In the sphere of old East, however
if long time was no tin mining bekannt3l.
Nevertheless, finally, one discovered first
In 1987 with Bolkarda$32 and short time later
with Kestel close to Ni$de33 prehistoric ones
Mines in the Taurus which produces tin
should have. On the basis of
from brook sediment analyses with tiny ones
Tin amounts by the geologic
One pushed service of Turkey nearby
from Cellaler in the Taurus mountains on one
Mine, Vererzung tiny tracks
from tin enthielt34. The tin has to go in kleinerr
To crucibles on the nahebei situated Göltepe
erschmolzen word.en sein35. The mine
it was measured and archaeologically
as well as by radiocirque voucher tests in
3. Mill. B.C. datiert36.
While to itself the supposition, BolkardaS
if was a prehistoric tin mine, soon
as unbegründ.et erwies3T and d.anach
from the discoverers does not mention any more
became, was roused in the findings
from Kestel some Time-long a controversial one
Diskussion3s. Compared with scepticism of the calculated ones
Tin production of several hundred
Tonnes bestand'vor to all because of
of low tin salary of the Erze3e, d., to low ones
Grain size of the tin minerals (smaller
as 0.1 mm), the not very meaning ones
Bronze use of this time irn sphere
of the Taurusa0 and other problematic one
To findings. Thus the tin stone meets
with iron ore on, which is why remains unclear, how
without analysis are recognised generally
was able to do, that the iron ore small quantities
from tin included. A reduction of the ore
if at most iron had proved. To the tin production
if was the separation from externally
very similar deep brown Erzminera-
2a fox terrier in 1969.
25 Zinn-Synposium 1969; Dayton 1971; Dayton 1973; Muhly,/Wertime in 1973.
2and M., hly 1973B; Bouzek among other things in 1989.
27 research histories with Muhly 1973B; Penhallurick in 1986.
28 barb homes, / knock down in 1996.
2e Charlon in 1876; Bergeat in 1901; Stella in 1927.
30 clearing in 1985.
3' B.lli lgg1.
32 Yener/özbal in 1987.
33 Y.rle. among other things in 1989.
' N Kuptun in 1980/81.
35 Yener/Vandiver I 993a; Yener/Vandiver I 99 3B.
Of 36 Willies in 1990; of Willie in 1992; of Willie in 1995.
'7 Wagn. among other things in 1989.
38 HallTsteadman 1991; Pernickau.a. In 1992; Sharp,/Mittwede in 1994; Muhlyu.a. l99l; Muhly in 1993; of Willie in 1992;
Of Willie in 1993; Yener/Goodway 7992; Yener/Vandiver 1993a; Yener/Vandiver 1993B.
3e HallTsteadman 1991.
ao Muhly in 1993.
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
lien inevitably. Moreover, became in one
Test of this ore gold found, substantially
been lighter recognizable wäreal.
This conducted itself to the supposition, that it
around a frühbronzezeitliches golden mine
could have acted, and the tin
unnoticed had remained. The discussion
it was broken off without final result.
Even if to itself the tin mining in
Taurus should confirm, he is very likely
not am extensive enough,
around the documented tin need
Of Mesopotamia for the 3rd mill. B.C. to dekken.
In detail the research history is able
of the last decades to the tin origin
in the works from J. Muhly since
In 1973 are pursued. As well as the new findings
from tin ingot proved also anew discovered
Beds in each case other points of view
and led to new considerations.
By geologic investigations became
e.g., tin beds in Afghanistan known
and consequently as tin springs
diskutiertaz. In the situated one more to the north
Medium Asian space the investigations aim,
their results here in one
the first part are presented.
Reports on tin occurence in Central Asia
reach till 19. Cent. zurücka3. Because of
of the inaccessibility of the area became
they, nevertheless, over and over again doubted.
The scientific investigation this
Of space began only, after the Khaganat
from Bukhara in the Russian empire integrated
had become. Still it lasted
still fairly long time, to number and extent
from tin occurence in Afghanistanaa and
in the southern Pamir-Gebirgeas became known.
Now seems to stand out,
the fact that tin appears within two belts,
on the one hand from the Hilmendbecken in
Westafghanistan over Kandahar to
Pakistan and, on the other hand, from Bukhara
the Zeravian valley up to the Issyk-Kul' in Kirghizia
The thought, that Medium Asian tin
for the cultures of old East in
3. Jt.v. Chr. absolutely are possible
would be able, is by no means abwegiga6. Since they
Investigation prehistorically of used tin beds
in Central Asia is not only for
the areas between Amu DarJa and Sp
DarJa importantly, but is able also for them
to early cultures of Iran, Anatolia, Mesopotamia
and be significant the Indus valley.
Bronze-temporal findings of Central Asia testify
from a wide net of distant relations,
with certain appearing ones here
To raw materials hang together. For a long time
if becomes the Lapislazuli occurence of BadachSan
in Nord.ostafghanistanaT as an origin
of the findings of this semiprecious stone in
Iran, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Egypt
angesehena8. Other ones are known less
Lapislazuli beds in Pakistanae
and the Pamir region in the eastern one
TadZikistan, maybe also for early ones
Dismantling are possible. Lapislazuli is further,
even if of lower quality,
from the Bajkal region bekannt50, not
however, on the Iranian highland or
in Anatolia, also not in Aglpten or
on the Arabian peninsula. Particularly
Penhallurick pointed in this connection
on the Lapislazuli and nephrite findings
a1 Muhly among other things in 1991; Pernicka among other things 1g92.
a2 Berthoud in 1980; Berthoud among other things in 1978; Berthoud among other things in 1982; Cleuziou,/Berthoud in 1982; Muhly in 1985; Stech,/Pigott
In 1986; Pigott in 1996; Moorey in 1994.
a3 from bear in 1876.
aa wolf kind / Wittekind in 1980; Cleuziou,/Berthoud in 1982.
a5 Rossovskyu. a. In 1987.
a6 Weisgerber/Cierny in 1999; Parzinger in 2000.
n7 B.ückl in 1936; Nasirilg62; Bariand1979; Kulke1976; Wyartu.a. l9B1
a8 Herrmann in 1968.
49 Casanova in 1992.
50 Casanova in 1992.
in the west, possibly the Axte from Troy IIg.
From wenisen by excavations to opened ones
Occurence from Lapislazuli-
Pearls and some supposed processing kinds
(Mundigak, Sar-e Sochte, Tall-e
Iblis and Tepe Yahya) one tried,
To reconstruct commercial routes, about
such a raw material transport it: 2 stream country,
to Anatolia and to Agypten
would have run be können5r.
This distant trade seems in the 4th mill. B.C.
to have begun. Regrettably, is
on account of the defective research state
a little about the Medium Asian ones
Partner of these contacts known. Since that
Stagnation of the archaeological research
in Iran these were particularly lJntersuchungen
on the Arabian peninsula, which
the connections of this peripheral region
of old East laid the table to Central Asia.
.Steatitgefäße of the 3rd mill. B.C., possibly
from United Arab Emirates,
if exact parallels own such in Sarazm
in the upper Zeravian, TadZikistan, and exist
from apparently identical dark one
Material, that in their Medium Asian one
Origin are hardly doubted kann52.
Also pearls from Lapislazuli come in
Nordostarabien before, indeed, in very low ones
Stückzahlen53. In both cases becomes
one, however, hardly to a direct import
want to think. Rather is to be gone out from it,
that the way about mediator in Mesopotamia,
Iran or India ran. So
if few Lapislazuli pearls in were able
The Persian Gulf the relations in the Indus
Culture reflect, where the blue one
Semiprecious stone never to bigger meaning
came. In intensive trade between
India and Arabia in 3. and 2. Jt.v. Chr.
is not to be doubted, in any case, any more. Vice versa
if import objects also, however, reached
from Mesopotamia, Iran and him
Indus valley to Mittelasien5a. Particularly
impressive example for this puts this
Relief with the doppelköpfrgen queue
from Soch in the Fergana, Uzbekistan,
which in the historical museum to Ta5-
Kent is issued and on elamischen models
The ways of these far-reaching connections,
Central Asia since the earliest time
pass through and the cultural rooms with each other
connect, lay on account of the strong ones
natural-spatial arrangement of the sceneries
between Karakum in the west and
Taklamakan in the east always firmly.
Tin and probably also the golden beds
in the Tien Shan and in the Pamir formed
at least in the Bronze Age one
important attraction. Before became
on it pointed out, that in Mesopotamia
and Anatolia beside rare semiprecious stones
also gold and tin bronze within
of a relatively short period almost all of a sudden
and at the same time auftauchen56. This
Combination of the raw materials tin, gold and
Lapislazuli exists on the Eurasian ones
Land mass only in Central Asia.
. Strangely enough was nearly to all
Uberlegungen to the origin of the tin one
Communication of the Russian archeologist
B.A.Litvinskij of 1950 entgang.nuT, d.,
from apparently prehistoric tin mines
in Central Asia berichtetess. Only
R.D.Penhallurickse had the tip in
to his standard work taken up, was able
him, however, in the absence of detailed information
not enough bewertenoo. The investigations
nevertheless, from Litvinskij led
in the Zerav (in valley. With the today's research state
if fertile ones concentrate there
Tin mineral deposits as well as tracks to old ones
Of mining basically on two areas:
Karnab with Öangali and Lapas on
half a way between Samarkand and Bu-
51 Sarianidi in 1971; Tosi l974; Majidzadeh l9B2; Pinnock in 1988.
52 stewards in 1985.
and' F.if.lt l99t, 112 fig. 247.
5 t Capuu:n g in 1976; Masson in 1992.
55 Brentjes in 1971.
56 M.rhly 1973B.
^ "turrrrcx" ü
In 1950; AurertHcxuü 1954.
58 Pyaa "o* in 1979; captain / Weisgerber in 1985.
5e Penhallurick in 1986, 25-28.
uu Cf. M., hly in 1987.
Tin of cler Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Fig. 1. Iiarte of the Zeravian valley with in the Rahrnen of the Prcrjekts untcrsuch.tcn tin mineral deposits.
chara in Uzbekistan as well as Muöiston in him
To mountains southeast from PendZikent in
TadZikistan (fig. 1). Both districts are
clearly covered to the Zeravian valley.
The tin occurence already grasped by Lit\-inskij
vo:n Karn&Ц is a part possibly
Northwest southeast running zone with
Zinnmineralisationen, to itself after southeast
there in the Zirabulak mountains continues.
The bed formed in the area
Of contact of granite broads Intrusir "of body
upper cirque voucher broads of age (magma tablemaker
Complex of Karnab) to Devon broads to limes.
The bed is only in the eastern area
openly, i.e. ores step here
zuta € of Fe, to Südu, Estonians and \A / Estonians there
if she becomes of younger chalk sediments
(Overlays conglomerates and tone).
open area with the old Pingen
applies etrva 1.5 km in Ost-Westund
0.5 km in Nord-Süd-Richtr-rng. The whole one
Area n'urde in progress from investigation works
since forties. |ahren intensely
Karnab is a surely q'pisches example for
a tin bed genetically engaged in granite.
Tin comes here as a mineral
Kassiterit (tin stone, SnO2) above all in
To quartz ways in the granite before. Are present
primarily only the Qrrarzgänge in the area
the peripheral zone of the Granitintrusion
tin-leading, so that in contact nearness.
Quartz ways in gröl3erer Entfernuns to
Konrakt are deaf. The thickness of the ways
sways in rveiten borders from r, r, enigen
To centimetres up to several metres, however
if she exceeds with zinnfr-ihrenden
To ways apparently hardly 1 m. Bigger ways
leave themselves in prank direction partly
several 100 m pursue. Occurring is
always very precipitously, mostly more than 70". Often
if the ways step in more or rveniger parallel ones
Crowds together on, the general one
Prank direction varies between the east
\{est and Nordost-Siidwest. Beside this
Qr-rarzgängen r, r'urden by the modern ones
Prospektionsarbeiten still tin enrichments
in the contact with the marble festival introduction
put. For the old miners this played
Arch type, however, probably no role, in any case
if such ores were able in aufseschlossenen
Area of the bed not ascertained
Though the tin-leading ways exist
predominantly from fine-grained quartz,
Horn-rimmed stone resembles, however, besides are still
a row of other pace minerals than
To call Nebenbestandteile: Plagioklas,
Mikroklin, Turmalin and Calcit. Tin stone
however, is also distributed in the ore mostly well, often
in situations arranged and with the naked eye
to recognise hardly. Generally is the ore
very insignificantly and unobtrusively - completely
in the contrast, e.g., to copper ores - and
to make a distinction hardly from deaf way quartz.
The size of the tin stone crystals
lies in the examined tests under
0.2 mm'
Accompanying to in Karnab to carried out ones
to geologic prospectus ions in 1946
if Litvinskij tracks of old mining looked in
Zirabulak-and Zijaddin mountains, where he
from in my opinion Masson and V. E. Porjakov sent
had become. These mountains lie to the south
the today's motor road of Samarkand
to Bukhara, the next principal place
if Navoi is called. At that time it was about the question,
whether it to the numerous copper beds
also tin occurence for the Medium Asian one
Bronze Age and her artefacts rich in tin
would give. Though Liwinskij was able to do this question
finally do not clear, however, he stumbled
two places on tips, the prehistoric ones
Tin mining let suppose. Both
Occurence existed from precipitously to standing ones,
to tin-containing quartz ways in the granite. One
lay in a level-hilly, steppe-like
Scenery, by endless vermouth undergrowth
is covered, the other in the precipitous one
Slope of a small valley.
The district of Karnab lies 2.5 km northeast
from the place of the same name entferntol.
The area with the old pits spreads
itself about an area of approx. 1,500-m length
and 500-m width on a sea level
from approx. 450-500 m. According to verbal practicing.-
6r Weisgerber/Cierny 1999.
^ "Ru" rr.r. "ü
In 1950; AzrezHcxzü 1954.
63 S.ir Re Schlitzpingen.
^ut*rrrrcx "ü
1,950.57 following
delivery at the place became the bed
In 1944 discovered, in the follower's year began
the Prospektionsarbeiten, was diminished
from 1951 to 1958. Other prospectus ions
and apparently also found production
in the eighties sratt. A coarse one
Processing was carried out at the place,
from the arrangements there stand only the foundations
in the steppe, while it on the edge
of the place a shaft headframe gives.
In the first years geologists had possibly
20 groups with old Pingen maps and
partly examines.
He these area works from more archaeological
View begleirende Litvinskij divided that
Mining relics, day constructions and deep constructions, in three
Tlpen auf2: Entanglements or Grabenpingeno3,
Entanglements with querschlägigen dismantling places
as well as unterday dismantling widenings. Moreover
from Litvinskij appealed 140 m
long opencast mining presents itself as 3-m-deep, 20 m
wide, covered depression similar to valley to the south
to recognise of the main way, which one
at no more mining activities looks.
Geologists led them in 1948 on committed a crime ones
subterranean dismantling hollow cavities back, in such a way
the fact that it concern a day break
would become. This is able without costly investigations
today are not confirmed any more.
In the sphere of the mining tracks found
Liwinskij numerous stone hammers, and he
four different Gezähetlpen distinguished.
6a: with the hand to be led ppamidenförmige
Hammer from Quarzitgeröllen,
formerly geschäftete groove hammers, small ones
Anvil stones as well as narrow stone wedges. Except
from him properly as preislamic respectable ones
Steingezähen became that occasional
found ceramics as medieval
appealed. After the observed ones
Cinder layers in the Tiefbauerr
if fire putting was able as a prepropelling method
have been addressed, how this with
Granite recommends. Unfortunately, these were able
Layers at that time are not dated.
Also close to Karnab
situated tin district of Lapas (fig. 1) remained
LiMnskij unknown and became ersr in
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Frame of this project random check-like
examines. Against it he committed approx. 9 km
to the north of the place Ingiöka in the southwest
from Kattakurgan situated bed from
Cangali (fig. 1). Because it to itself with the area
around a quite precipitous slope acts,
by rezente Prospektionsschürfe damages
became, draw themselves by erosion
and Verschwemmung many of the diminished ones
Veins no more than ditches or
Trichterpingen from, which is why this district
less clear than in Karnab it is.
To Liwinskl the production found as an opencast mining
in from 0.70 to 1.20 m wide entanglements
instead of, length 20 m and more with Teufen
from up to 12 m could amount, how
single Sondagen proved. On tin slags
if he bumped at that time in the close
Bach65. With the geologic Prospektionsarbeiten
found hammer-like
Stone tools pointed as in Karnab
on prehistoric mining, however
became in the area of the Pingen just as
in 800 m to the west of the today's village
Öangali situated settlement hill only
medieval shards discovers.
Compared with the tin districts Karnab, Lapas
and Cangali in the south of the middle Zeravian
if this is on approx. 3,000 m in the Hochgebirge
southeast from PendZikent situated occurence
from Muiiston (fig. 1) by far more difficultly
accessibly. The mountain massifs around Mu5iston
around are part of the Hissar mountains, in
to this area from mighty paläozoischen
Sediment sequences is built up, stratigraphisch
from the Ordovizium till the untercirque voucher
reach. MuSiston is a hydrothermal one
Bed, and numerous, but relatively
low-mighty veins the Nebengestein
put through. The area is tectonic in
several blocks analyzes and the block building
in two phases in the untercirque voucher and
Perm to law occurred. The bed education
stands in connection with the younger ones
tectonic Phase66.
Mu5iston takes under the Medium Asian one
Tin beds a certain special position
one. The specific feature lies in it,
that here copper and tin in the ore together
appear and it to themselves not only around one
small Mineralisation, but around one
big occurence acts. With the smelting
of such ores is a copper with high ones
To tin shares, so as it were one
to expect natural tin bronze. This
if MuSiston makes in archäometallurgischer
Regard especially interesting.
The main mineral in the primary ore, i.e.
to the ore, with the origin of the bed
it was formed, is Stannit (tin gravel,
Cu2FeSnSa), in the ways mostly
crude masses forms and from quartz accompanied
becomes. For the old miners they were
Primary ores probably without meaning,
since Mu5iston is by a distinctive one
Oxidation zone marked.
In surface nearness become the primary ones
Sulphides by oxygen decomposes and it form
itself secondary minerals. Still V <-rr.
handenen and practicable old constructions are
everybody in the oxidation zone of the bed
invested. Tlpische products of this conversion
if the copper minerals are malachite
(Cuz [(OH) 2lCO3]), more seldom also Azurit
(Cus [(OH) 21 (COq) z]) and the tin minerals
Kassiterit, Varlamoffit (SnO2. nH2O)
and Muschistonit (CuSn (OH) 6), to a mineral,
after this bed named
In August, 1994 the bed was able
are visited by Mu5iston for the first time.
geologic expedition in TadZikistan had
they erstwenigeJahre before by drillings
and Prospektionsarbeiten opened and
on an arch reserve of about 70 millions
Tonnes respected. These rezenten searching ditches
if old pit constructions an67 also cut.
With the short inspection of the bed
In 1994 several old ones also were able unterday
Constructions are observed. They lay in one
modern tunnel 60 m away in the mountain and
were grasped in crosscuts, which in
Direction to the day surface driven
were. After statements of geologists befin-
AureHHcxrzü 1950, 53-57.
The geologist Dimitri A. Stariinin, DuSanbe, took part in the expedition. The information provided here comes
basically from him. For his auxiliary readiness and the excellent cooperation is to him in
this place particularly owed.
67 Cierny in 1995.
itself in this district other 150 old ones
Pits and smelting leftovers. The description
of the bed occurred through Soviet ones
Geologists mainly in internal reports,
archaeological IJntersuchungen
did not take place till then. The rich ore deposit
and the archaic Ausseherr
of the constructions formed the occasion, in these pits
To carry out excavations.
Mu3iston is not the only bed
in this area. About 1 km farther to the east,
on the other side of the Kaznok brook,
if another occurence with copper lies
and tin. Indeed, superficial ones are absent here
Erzausbisse and an oxidation zone,
which is why only a miner's explanation
by modern tunnels is possible. Hence
if no old mining observed was able here also
If one compares now both most important ones
Tin occurence Karnab (Uzbekistan)
and MuSiston (TadZikistan), so is Mu-
Siston what concerns the metal salary, absolutely
the richer one. This statement becomes
but by the inaccessibility and height
of the bed qualifies, what the arch dismantling
absolutely has complicated. The Bauwrirdigkeit
today hangs as well as in former times
not only from the metal contents and
to the stocks from, but above all also
from the loeistischen relations, in
Karnab absolutely more favourably *ar. r6u.
The meaning of Central Asia is by his
geographic situation between Kaukasien,
To Iranian highland, Siberian steppe,
Indus valley and northwest China causes.
At the different times it came
for noteworthy cultural developments,
as for example to extensive protourbanen
Settlements of the Bronze Age or
to the later bright nesting broads town foundations.
On the distant relations visible in the finding material
it was already expelled on top.
Important chronological questions of the prebright nesting broads
However, cultural result are first
partial cleared. Dependable radiocirque voucher data
do not stand yet for all prehistoric ones
Periods in sufficient number to
Possession and Stratigraphien, with those
itself the finding material in a temporal array
allows to bring, there is, however, the extensive one
Material is at most in extracts
publishes and with it only causes auswertbar6e.
The clearest progress with the investigation
of the prehistoric periods
were achieved in Südturkmenistan,
namely in the foothills of the Kopet Dag as well as
in the area of the mouth deltas of TedZen
and Murghab (Margiana) further to the east. First ones
Excavations in a settlement hill
Of Neolithic period and the Bronze Age found to
Beginning of 20. Cent. in the Tell of Anau statt7O,
and one already relations to the Iranian
Highland recognised. Since the Second World War
if Russian and Turkmen ones reached
Archeologists by in many places extensive
carried out investigations
(2. B. Namazga, DZejtun, Altrrn-Depe, Geoksjuq
Gonur, Kelleli, Togo locomotive among other things) a considerable one
Improvement of the Kenntnisstandes71.
A.rsschlaggebend for the coppers and
bronze-temporal development in this region
became in the Tell of Namazga entwikkelte
and complemented with findings of other places
Step result of the Frühäneolithikum
(Namazga I) up to the late Bronze Age (Namazga
VI). In the meantime, these stages are partial
also with new, calibrated tnc-Duten
of versehent'.
u8 Alimov among other things in 1998, 163 following; Alimov among other things in 1999. - A further representation laserstättenkundlichen and
to montanarchäologischen researches by E. Pernicka and. |. Lutz as well as G. Weisgerber undJ. Cierny becomes in
the second volume of the final publication occur: The tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia II.
6e Hiebert in 1994; Parzinger L997a; Parzinger 1997B.
70 Pumpelly in 1908.
7 t X-to.rrr, in 1964; Hlopina in 1972; Iftlopina l98l; cabbage l98l; cabbage l9B4; cabbage in 1992; Masson 19Federal Railway; Masson,/Sarianidi
1972and a.
72 cabbage in 1984; KohI 1992.
10 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
In the other parts of Central Asia lies
the research state far behind it back,
what also hangs together with the fact, that prehistoric ones
Settlement hill, not under
to metre-high depositions more antique and
of medieval time are buried, in Baktrien
relatively late start (the late
Namazga V or Namazga VI), in Sogdien
or Chorezm even completely are absent. In Baktrien
if places let themselves, at least, like Sapalli,
DZarkutan or DaIlyT3 with concurrent ones
Establishments in the Margiana to, Bactrian-
Margiana Archaeogical Complex
(BMAC) "zusammenfassenT4, internal one
Chronology with the steps Kelleli, Gonuq
Togo locomotive and Tachirbaj basically on
horizontally and vertikalstratigraphischen
Observations in the Margiana beruht75.
The development in Baktrien hangs closely
however, in in Südturkmenistan, places clearly
later one. Therefore, it seems as if had
the cultures of the Kopet of Dag foothills,
where the oldest Tells since the Neolithikurrr
continuously were settled, during
the advanced Bronze Age about them
Margiana along the Amu DarJa direction
The east with lasting effect on Baktrien had an effect
and there a basic change of her
Cultural relations causes, in the separation
of the neolithisch stamped and hardly
Ceramics leading Hissar culture by
the already protourbane arrangements Enclosing ones
Sapalli culture is expressed.
Nevertheless, the details of this process are
to work out even closer in future.
The area northwesterly from Baktrien, so
the old Sogdien with in the Zerav5an valley
to situated centres Bukhara, Samarkand
and PendZikent, where also the tin beds
from Karnab, Öangali, Lapas and Muiiston
lie, one offers no signs
similar development. Prehistoric ones
Tellsiedlungen are up to now extensive there
unknown, how generally archaeological sites
of the Bronze Age remain scanty. The earliest ones
Finding places with ceramics belong
there to the Kel'teminar culture, beside impression-decorated
To sound vessels and neolithischen
To stone devices very much also isolates first ones
Copper objects liefertTo. The spreading area
of this culture lets itself clearer
outline as her chronology: It is enough
from the lower Zeravian to the east of Bukhara
to Chorezm in Lake Aral as well as to far
to Kazachstan.
As the most important finding groups sogdischen
Early Bronze Age are valid in the ZeravSan valley
in the west Zamanbaba near Bukhara and
in the east Sarazm between Samarkand and
PendZikent. The Zarnanbaba culture is in
to several places books, however, it lacks
up to now in comprehensive excavations and
Material presentations, which is why to itself a clear content one
Picture of this culture sketch only hard
leaves. The corresponding is valid for them
ChronologieTT, and to itself relations to Narr'azga
V indicate. These contacts are
not only from chronological, but
also from cultural historical significance, because
they book, that the development in Südturkmenistan
not without effect on them
Relations was in Sogdien, although
there no development comparable with Baktrien
started. Even more clearly
if this southern influence in draws itself
upper Zeravlan from, where Sarazm liegt78. This
close to PendZikent and with it
not too far from the tin bed Mu-
Siston remotely discovered finding place puts
though nobody, classical" Tell, because to itself
the settlement main focus shifted several times
seemed to have, however, offers several
overlapping construction layers, one
Arrangement in four periods (Sarazm
I-IV) of the second half of 4. and the first ones
Half of 3. Jt.v. Chr. allow,
and is unsafe, whether still mittelbronzezeitliches
Namazga V was reached.
Ceramics and metal objects from Sarazm
if her parallels not only in Südturkmenistan find,
but also in Sistan, Baluöistan
and in the area of the Harappa Kul
73 A.n up, Ru in 1973; Acxapoe in 1977; Litvinsky,/P'yankova in 1992 among other things.
7a Hiebert in 1994.
75 cabbage in 1984; cabbage in 1992; Hiebert in 1994.
? o ly, norou among other things in 1966.
77 Acnapoe in 1981.
78 Isakov in 1981; trIcaxon in 1991; Lyons net in 1996.
Introduction 11
tur7e. Developed architecture (clay brick houses
with complicated plans) and
functionally conditioned construction forms (silo, sanctums,
Meeting constructions and ä.80) make
Sarazm within the ZeravSan valley
up to now to a unique place. In Sarazm
if processes also took place metallurgist's broad,
how fragments of pots in the there one
Museum show. Whether the tin occurence
this region already during Zamanbaba
and Sarazm were exploited,
and whether at this time for the first time in Zerav-
5an-valley to so clearly visible southern influence
maybe even causally with these
Beds hang together, lets itself
currently, however, still hard abschäzen.
Zamanbaba and Sarazm followed her
mittelbronzezeitliche Andronovo circle,
in the steppe and forest steppe space between
Then the Urals and Whether originated and themselves
on the one hand to the east up to the Enisej, on the other hand
after the south to Tien Shan, Lake Aral
and Zerav5an widespread and there regional ones
Groups trained (2.8. TazabagJab in
Chorezm and Sogdien) 8 l. Also Baktrien
and Südturkmenistan were reached.
About the reasons for the fact, that groups of her
West-Siberian-kazachischen steppe zone theirs
Living space on the connecting ones to the south
Areas expanded, lets itself only
presume. In the world protourbanen
Oasis cultures Südturkmenistans it came
besides, absolutely to a certain coexistence,
how findings from Gonur in the Margiana
show, where both Tells Gonur-
The north and the Gonur south a concurrent station
with Andronovo ceramics subtended,
by an irrigation canal of it getrennt8z.
Everywhere in Central Asia, in I {azachstan83
just as in Sogdien and Nordbaktrien84,
if the documents are for considerable metallurgist's broad
Activities Andronovo-
Groups numerously, namely from the mining
up to the subsequent treatment of the ores, in such a way
the fact that to itself the question puts, whether urge
after the south not also with the rich ones
Copper occurence and tin occurence of this region
could hang together. The exploitation
from copper beds by bearers of her
Andronovo culture is protected, the use
from tin let itself up to now only on indirect one
Ways prove, namely by
Spectral analyses in Andronovo bronze,
the almost generally high tin shares aufwe.
be to be examined r sen8 "5 '.-b, see wrrd, to what extent
Zinnvererzungen, e.g., the background for
Tombs of the Andronovo culture in the upper one
Zeravian could have formed, where
the valley strongly narrows and only more
very much restricted economic possibilities and pasture possibilities
The meaning of the Zeravian valley lies in
of his favorable traffic-geographic
Situation, because north south routes cross
here with important east west connections.
Protourbane cultures of the south work
to the north and bump here on in
reverse direction of the north after
The south to pressing Andronovo groups
from the steppe. Sogdien lies between these
Worlds and is influenced by both.
To what extent this area in between also
his own cultural forms of expression
finds, lets itself for the Bronze Age on account of
of the bad research state presently
still hard estimate. Zerav-
San valley brings with it for Central Asia in such a way
to characteristic contrasts between movable ones
Steppes and established oasis cultures
already for the Bronze Age clearly
in addition, to the expression, is, however, also
one of the most important east west halls,
by at all times distant ways from
Nordwestchina up to the Caspian Sea ran.
And lie just in this region
the important tin beds of Karnab,
Öangali, Lapas and Mu5iston, the object
of our researches were.
It requires no further grounds,
that the possession of tin as well as they
8 l
I4caxoe 1991.
The correctness of this interpretation once presumed
Parzinger 1997B.
Hiebert in 1994.
Ka4up6aee / Kypuanxy.ton in 1992.
Avanessova in 1996.
Chernykh in 1992.


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