Tuesday, January 04, 2011

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Besides there are scanty tips, that
already in this early time for the first time Kurgane
a rider-nomadic stamped population
were possibly put on,
from the steppe areas Kazachstans
here had immigrated. Only in the following ones
developed or achaimenidisch
she kicks influenced Iron Age with one
bigger number in hills clearer in appearance,
however, the beginnings would be able
go back absolutely already to even former time.
Thus Obel'öenko from mentions
Kurgan 27 of Chazara, region Bukhara,
a vessel, in forms of the late 2./
early l. Mill. B.C. in the Margiana as well as
in Begazy-D in dybaj forms Zen tr alkazaclv
Stans erinnerte8; regrettably, this is
Pot does not publish, so that none
closer check of this statement is possible.
From the hills 12 and 16 of Chazaraliegen
however, stone horse pieces of jewellery
with two strong Mittelrippe.r vo.'n, Tu.
exact parallels in ArLan besitzenlOo and
n7 ilI "-r." rra among other things 1,985,277.
" O6e, nouerxo in 1992, 66.
'and O6ear, qeHno in 1992, fig. on the p. 126 on top on the right.
rou G4-nou 1984, fig. 12,2-4.
'or G4urtrou 1984, fig. 32,1-6.
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 277
with it in the outgoing 9. or beginning ones
B.Jh. B.C. should belong. There is nobody
Reason for the acceptance, that this
Pieces Sogdien late have reached
would be able, because they themselves in nordpontischen
Space already at that early time (Novoöerkassk-
Horizon) auftreten10l. It has to go
therefore, in Sogdien already in one
Time Kurgane have given, those of the foundation
of the Persian's empire and the beginning
of achaimenidischen influence on Central Asia
clearly leads the way.
Ewrwrcxnrr ErspNzerr Or.
In the following period handed Sogdien
under stronger and stronger growing influence
Of Persian's empire, what also in the material ones
Culture becomes clearly visible. This development
culminated, in the end, in the integration
of the space between Oxus and Jaxartes,
belonged to the also Sogdien, as
16. Satrapie in the Persian's empire. The end
of this stage meant historically looked
the conquest of Maracanda (Samarkand)
imJahre 329B.C. by Alexander
the tallness. During this period, -
because dates historically - relatively dependably with
the time between 6. and 4. Cent. B.C.
it can be connected, it seems to one
clear population growth in Sogdien
to have come. Numerous new ones
Siedlungspläae which start only in this time,
were grasped by the research,
there the forming big comes more urban
Centres, at the latest in this phase
can be proved. It becomes
supposes, that the city of Afrasiab (period
Afrasiab la/B) already nearly her whole one
later surface (at least 218 ha) took,
a huge size, in the end
to explain only by a kind of Synoikismus
is, so by however
organised Zusammensiedlung up to now
not of linked places to the removal one
, capital", then, in the end, the whole one
bring near like other environs politically, juridically,
militarily and economically dominated.
Already at that time was Afrasiab
walls and owned - comparatively
small (0.5 ha) - Zitadclle in the Innerenr0z.
Several smaller settlements in the closer
like other surroundings come,
however, they are hardly judgeable in her structure,
because it in flat excavations
Though Afrasiab was one of the biggest urban ones
Centres of this time in Sogdien, however
not the only one. Thus it is accepted,
that also Erkurgan in the southern Sogdien
in that period (Erkurgan 111) already one
Surface of 34 ha had taken,
walls *arl0*. A little are easy to grasp
the relations presently in the oasis from
Bukhara, where apparently during this period
also already a whole series in
To places it existed (Bukhara, Varach5a, Kuzmantepe,
Kumrabad I and IL.u.) ro5, and
but her size, meaning and structure
as stay open as the question, to which
Time within the developed ones
Iron Age or the achaimenidischen period
they started. If we lay up to now compiled
Division into periods of the finding complexes
and layer results from the oasis Bukhara,
thus lets itself the oldest one currently clearly
defined population phase, the so-called. Gzllsang-
Stage (complex Ramii 1), only with
to the end of this period (in the 4.-beginning of 3 cent.
v. Chr.) possibly tie together, what in Afrasiab
Step Ib entsprichtl06. Ahttli.h. Relations
drew themselves also on from us in
Frames of the project examined Tell from
Karnab from, where the oldest grasped population period
Karnabd directly on him
grown rocks lay or partially in
these eingetieft was, completely to the end of her
Achaimenidenzeit dated.
Basis of the absolute date and
the comparative chronology of the different ones
Places with Stratigraphie in him
Tin of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
to different parts Sogdiens are the ceramics,
as a clear continuation already in that
preliminary early Iron Age begun
Form trends and ornamental trends are evaluated
is allowed. There comes, in the meantime, very much
very become achaimenidischer influence.
As leading types are valid different variations
from vessels with cylindrical to easily
to concave body and very deeply lying one
and really to square layout,
then either directly leads to the ground,
or in conical to concave drag
goes over. There there come different ones
Great vessels and pots with outwardly thickened
or turned edge lips.
All these forms already placed alike
in the early Iron Age one. Further in the south,
in the Margiana and in Baktrien, they leave
inJaz III, Kyzyl III and Kuöuk 4 find again,
Settlement periods, also there
marked by strong achaimenidischen influence
During this developed Iron Age
if the archaeological tradition is made up
now clearly tangibly in two finding categories,
most probably also two
different sections of the population Sogdiens
perform official duties which point, nevertheless - this
already the findings - in narrow contact
and exchange stood with each other. Once
if it concerns an established population,
particularly in the oases, that
on top closer to described establishments
inhabited and economic one
Activity apparently, primarily, on agriculture,
Craft and trade straightened
was; possibly became in the sphere of her
Settlement places also cattle breeding done.
Now on the other hand become clearer for the first time
Groups tangibly, apparently as nomads
and not in firm establishments
as well as mainly lived on cattle breeding and
her deads in Kurganen buried.
These Kurgane lie preferentially on the edge
of the oases. On account of this situation, remotely
from the towns and villages in the Flussto2
Hennrle*a in 1969; (Dz, raHoezq in 1969; llluruxusa tt.a.1985,277.
103 Ycrurroua Ifl, pecstucxaa in 1974.
1 0a Cy, reürrrauoe / Type6exoe 1 978; Type6eroe I 982.
ro5 Axpapoe/YcMauoea 1978.
tnu [Irutx "tta among other things in 1985, 286.
r "7 LIcu* AAtr-roelCy;reünanosl9B4,30f.Abb.15-22;lllnurxrrHau.a.1985,285;287 'laf.l30; 132.
to valleys, as well as on account of delivered by them
Funeral customs and additions,
the clearly northern relations in the steppe space
Of Eurasia express, holds
one it for sure, that it to itself, besides, not
around grave arrangements of the oasis population,
but from the north of immigrated nomad's groups
particularly acts, although
the ceramic vessels discovered in these graves
and later also coins a connection
to the towns produce. One
Population left only her towns
and villages and we do not know, where they
her deads beerdigtelOS, the other
merely the tombs for her dead people.
These circumstances remain for the other history
Sogdiens like other parts of Central Asia
for the time being characteristically. This
however, causes also, that for the Kurgane one
separate chronology is to be compiled,
then with the Stratigraphien of the settlements
and the general historical ones
Development would be to be tied together.
Kurgangräberfelder are in completely Sogdien
in big number represent. It was above all
the salary of Obel'öenko, several of it
to have exposed. His excavation activity
concentrated predominantly
aufden space Bukhara and the area around
Samarkand, so that we it concerning them
examined hill with the east and one
West group deal and this
but are only research-conditioned and not
a historical reality return. Regrettably
published Obel'öenko
about his extensive works,
he already in the early fifties years
began, exclusively short preliminary reports,
the hardly material offer, closed grave inventories
are absent almost completely] Oe, so that
itself on this base, in the end, no chronology
sogdischen Kurgane compile
leaves. In it also changed his in 1992 appeared ones
comprising study to the cure
Main features of the prehistory and early history Sogdiens 279
ganen in the space of Bukhara nothing, because he
though detailed Bemerkunsen to division into periods,
Funeral custom, grave construction and
Beieaben offers, but once more only single ones
Pieces illustrates; moreover, his relative one remains
Chronology very much grob110. If we want
the Kurgane in our pattern vorund
early-historical cultural development
Sogdiens integrate, this is able necessarily
only kursorisch happen.
From the findings from Kurganen, bislans
known from the area Samarkand
became, Kurgan 8 of Agalyksaj would be allowed to come along
the oldest ones up to now have delivered.
not very high hills a catacomb owned,
about in the grown ground struck ones
Steps was to be reached. From him
Additions became only some golden tins
publishes. From special interest is present
a winged predator with an upraised one
Front paw and turned back one
Head; this golden metal was in the edges
punched and originally on one
Base, probably on the clothes, aufgenähtr11.
This piece betrays achaimenidische
Trains and would be allowed from general stylistic ones
lJberlegungen possibly in the time
6. / 5. Be to be dated cent. B.C. A few,
what from the hills near Bukhara up to now known
became, seems predominantly jüngea
however, Obel'öenko speaks of inventories,
itself on the basis of connections to
Tasmola culture Zentralkazachstans and to
to sakischen finding associations in Semireö'e in
7./6.-5./4. Cent. B.C. allows to date
(Chazara74, 27, 22 and 37, Kyzyltepeb
, r.u.) tt2. Nevertheless, this is not able closer checked
become, because the corresponding ones
Grave ensembles are unpublished.
It is clear with the fact, that during them
developed Iron Age or achaimenidisch
influenced period Sogdiens already
a bigger Zahlvon Kurganen invested
became, however, more exact statements moreover
t08 Lt ead. - connection the theory appears for the first time, that the inhabitants of the oases Zoroastrier
could be what on account of for these tlpischen dead person's customs and traditions the absence of graveyards explain
wrirde: llluuncrzHa among other things in 1985, 2Federal Railway.
tuo O6e, ^o "ettxo in 1962; O6e, u.reHKo 1966; O6earveuno 1967; O6e.u.renxo in 1969; O6e, uveuxo in 1972; O6e, rsqeuxo
In 1973; O6e, rruenxo in 1981.
tto O6., nu "enxo in 1992. ttt O6e, no.tettxo in 1981, fig. on the p. 22 on top on the left.
ttz O6., no".nxo in 1992, 66following
280 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
Bukhara Navoi-Karnab Samarkand PendZikent Kaöi period
UöaSöi 131
Neolithic period
(6 fr. Jt.l
Kel'teminar K.
Daöazakyr l ll
Sazagan K.
Sazagan 1-2
D2angal 1
Tepakül 2
Sarazm l lV
Gissarl (.
Neo-and Aneolithikum
(Middle 6.-
The Mtte 3rd mill.)
Zamanbaba {.
? Tugai rusal t?
Early morning
Bronze Age
(-2400 - IN 1850
v. Ghr.)
Tazabag'jabJ (.
Malyj Tuzkan
Bol'Soj Tuzkan
Kyzylkyr ll
Tazabag'jab K.
Tazabag'jab K.
Tazabag'jab K.
Da5ti Kozi
Zardöa Chalifa
Middle one
Bronze Age
(-1850 - IN 1500
v. Chr.)
? Karnab Afrasiab 0'? Erkurgan I
Late one
v. Ghr.)
, (fEi=NSF
? Lolazor I
Kurganöa I 2
? Erkurgan ll
Early morning
Iron Age
(-900 - 600
v. Chr.)
oü N-lo
Afrasiab I an I
? Erkurgan lll
Iron Age,
(6.-sp. 'following cent.
v. Chr.)

Romi5 I
Kamab I
Afrasiab I B 3
Afnsiab ll-1
(sp.4. mine 3. Cent.)
Erkurgan lV
(3.-2 cent.) bright nesting broad
(sp.4. - End
't. Cent. B.C.)
Romis il fa N
(3. 2. Cent.) ss
6 t
ts sY
Karnab ll
(3.-2 cent.) d
At d
of oG'
Afrasiab ll-Zlll
nomis rrr 5 {$! (Mitts3 end l. Cent.)
12.-r. 1 '.1 i1$
Karnab lll
(2.-1 cent.)
Erkurgan V
(2.-fr.1 cent.)
Romis lV
(1.-2 cent.)
"c3. Si.
Karnab lV
(1.-2 cent.)
r (
:öqr äG
('l.-5 fr. Cent.)
Efturgan Vl-1
(1.-3 cent.)
or Ku5an time
(1.-4 cent.
DL.; E
RomiS V
(2.-3 cent.)
Karnab V
(2.-4 cent.)
Erkurgan Vl-2
(3.-4 cent.)
NG e'ä
XF 89
RomiS Vl
(sp. 3.-4 cent.)
Erkurgan Vl-3
(4. see. Cent.)
Romi5 Vll
(5. cent.)
Vl a-c
(from 5. Cent.)
E $
€ $
(from 5. Cent.)
(5. cent.)
Fig. 1. Chronological overview of prehistorical and early-historical monuments and cultures from Sogdien.
Main features of the pre and Früheeschichte Sogdiens 28 t
are not possible up to now. Relations to
Material culture of skythisch-sakischer trunks in
Zentralkazachstan and Semireö'e give at least
the direction in, from this
Rider's nomad's groups have immigrated
would be able.
Hnr, r-rNrsrrscHE PULL
With the suppression of the Persian's empire
by Alexander the tallness also began
in Central Asia a new time. In the year 329
if he conquered Maracanda (Samarkand) and
if was of use afterwards during two years the capital
Sogdiens as an operation base for enterprises
against the Transoxanier.
We know Maracanda, that at least once
had to be recaptured by him
and, besides, suffered substantial Zerstörunsen.
Maracanda was not also any more a principal place
of the new Satrapie Sogdiana-Bactrien.
After Alexander, nevertheless, soon direction
The Indus a wide-pulled was, won Sogdien
bit by bit again in independence, although
it from now on under strong influence
Of Graeko-Baktrischen empire in Baktrien, bordering ones
To parts of Afghanistan and in the area
of the northern Indus valley stood. In particular
the material culture Sogdiens was to
this time - in spite of local and achaimenidischer
Traditions - strongly from hellenistischem
Style and time taste stamped,
what all areas of the material legacies
The number of the known monuments this
Period took towards of the preliminary ones
however, once more to, still remains
too slightly, around more exact images
the population relations and cultural relations dieset
To be able to develop time in Sogdien.
The life to Afrasiab/Maracanda went -
in spite of the destructions by Alexander -
further, however, mediate the present researches
still nobody enough detailed
Picture of the town during the bright nesting broads
Periodell3. Nevertheless, became obvious
a new Befestigunesmauer errichtet114.
This bright nesting broad time, irn area
from Samarkand also as an Iron Age 4called,
is able on account of stratigraphischer findings
are subdivided into Afrasiab more finely.
There particularly they are valid A sharp hellenistisch
Population periods Afrasiab 11 and Afrasiab
III and II become still bipartite
kannrl5. Afrasiab II-1 pretends as it were
the B_eginn of the bright nesting broads time
or the Ubergang from achaimenidischen
to the bright nesting broads period in Sogdien
and becomes with the time between him
late 4. and the middle of 3. fh. B.C. verbundenllG.
Afrasiab II-2 and III enclose
then the time span from the middle of 3.
up to the end of l. Cent. B.C. for the ceramics
of these layers are in particular
dünnwandige mugs and cups as well as
State ring bowls with turning edge
or outwardly more thickened or umgeboeener
Lip charakteristischllT, in all
closer to investigated places Sogdiens between
to the outgoing 4. and the end
l. Cent. B.C. returns. Afrasiab offers
for the first time also information to the animal bone findings,
for the reconstruction
the economic manner of this time from extraordinarier
Meaning are. In one
Layer of the beginning bright nesting broads
Time countless animal bones were discovered there,
consisted as follows:
65% of cattle, 25Vo sheep / goat and rc % nbrige
Domestic animals (pigs, camels, horses,
Dog) ttu. Di.r underlines the meaning
the Rinderzucltt, in particular in the sphere
of urban centres pursued like Afrasiab
must have become. Which meaning
besides, nevertheless, in the Kurganen this
Time buried nomad's population played,
whether she controlled perhaps this branch of industry,
or cattle breeding basically
from the inhabitants of the oasis towns pursued
became, cannot be judged closer.
r13 Ka6a "o" in 1969; Ka6anos 1973a; flluurxzna in 1969; llluurxu:aa).974; Heuqeea in 1969
ttn ilI "-*n" and among other things in 1985, 278.
r15 lllururzua in 1974.
r16 UlNurxzna among other things in 1985, 285.
t17 LUr-xrrna among other things in 1985, Taf. 130.
118 ilIzumusa among other things in 1985, 283.
282 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
In the südsogdischen KaSkadarJa area
still offers Erkurgan the best ones
Insights. During hellenistischer time experiences
the town her other removal,
in particular in an other wall ring
Expression finds, present umgibt11e.
An other urban establishment
at that time seems in the neighbouring KeS
been based to seinl20. As d.er
to the most prominent centres beside Erkurgan
nevertheless, is valid Ilalai-Zachoki-Maron from him
2.-1 cent. B.C.: The really systematic one
Arrangement owns in the middle quadrati
sche stronghold of approx. 60 x 60 m of base,
those of three concentric wall struggle
will surround. The extreme wall
if a surface of about 1,500x surrounded
1,500 m. With a surface of 225 ha was
this establishment greater than Afrasiab
and Erkurgan. Regrettably, it is
Inside cultivation widely uninvestigated one,
so that we hardly something about the structure
this town wissent2t. D.r stratigraphische
Basic scaffolding of this time in Ka5kadarja-
Nevertheless, region delivers the sequence of Erkurgan.
Both population periods
Erhurgan 17 and Erkurgan V perform official duties
there the bright nesting broad period, and they
Breaks differently were laid than, e.g., in
Afrasiab. He [V becomes because to the 3.-2 cent.
v. Chr. assigned, while He V of the later one
2 cent. B.C. up to the beginning one
1 cent. A.D. have continued soll122. In
the basic simultaneousness from
Erkurgan IV/V with Afrasiab II,/III is able
however, be no doubt, how in particular
on top already mentioned bowls, Becherund
Cup forms, but also the remaining ones
Vascular types underline, in both
If largest correspondence locates
These forms permit it also,
Bridge to the Ajaktepe step in the oasis from
Bukhara in the west Sogdiens zLt hit"
trt2n. The preliminary phase Romi5 I
have to do there still the beginning
3 cent. B.C. have reached. Afterwards
if just that Ajaktepe step, follows about
up to the turn of an era continues and itself in
two stages Romii II (3.-2 cent. B.C.). and
Romii III (2.-1.Jh.v. Chr.) allows to share,
with Erkurgan N/Y and Afrasiab II/III with
partly easily changed absolute-chronological
Breaks too see; 'rrchronisieren are.
Also in the area of Bukhara become numerous ones
new places founded, thus z. B.Jakkatal,
Aktepe I-II, Urtatepe I-II, Ko5k1r I-II,
Cektepe I-II and several places around Ba5tep.
ttu. Regrettably, were the excavation surfaces
at almost all places very much restricted,
so that the meaning of the single ones
Establishments it is only hardly judgeable.
A separation still seems to itself in
more central settlements as well as in those
of rather more village character in her sphere
to indicate.
Quite a similar development like they
Region around Bukhara also seems the settlement chamber
from Karnab taken to
have. During the preliminary periods,
when, e.g., in Afrasiab and Erkurgan
and at other places already big and
important towns had originated, leaves
itself in the closer like other sphere of her
Tin beds of Karnab, Lapas and
Cangali nothing comparable ascertain.
On the contrary, we have it here rather with one
Finding and - provided that here no Trugspiegelung
of the monument continuance is given -
to act also with a population gap.
The Tell of Karnab beginntjedenfalls after
Identity card of our stratigraphischen cuts
only by the end of the developed Iron Age
or achaimenidischen period; period
Karnab I would be allowed in the course of 4. Cent. B.C.
used and probably still the early one
3 cent. B.C. we have reached, what alike
also for the Gulisang step or Romii
I phase of the oasis of Bukhara accept
have to go. The period Karnabll corresponds
tls tr4ca* g*1 uon/Cy.reüuanoe 1,984.42following; lllurrrxunau.a. 1,985.27BTaf. 124.
t2o Kpa-e "" t+ulrcoea in 1968.
r21 Type6.t ou in 1979; Type6er In '22 \4ca. 44.noe / Cy, teürraaHos in 1984, 42 following
r23 Ul" - * "rra among other things in 1985, Taf. 130; 132-133.
of t2' ilIrr-x "" an among other things in 1985, 286 Taf. 134.
t25 ilIrl-*r.r, in 1956, 163following; Lllulrnus1963, l39ff.; Myxane4:ranoe1978,27ff.; MyxaveglnaHoBu.a. In 1982; l9BB.
Main features of the pre and
then quite exactly RomiS II, the early phase
the whole bright nesting broad time
comprehensive {aktepe step, as well as Erkurgan
fV in the south Sogdiens; all these population segments
become in possibly in this
3.-2 cent. B.C. dates. Then on it follows
with Karnab III the younger bright nesting broad
Stage, in the course of 2. Cent. B.C. uses
and shortly before or shortly after the turn of an era
ends. You also belong the phases
Romi5 III and Erkurgan V in. Also
if can be argued against the fact, that
we in this on half a way between Bukhara
and Samarkand situated region
sounded out just only one Tell, so underpin
however, also the results of ours
Prospectus ions in this area the thesis,
that local-engaged life and with it linked
the forming of residential hills
there only clearly late as in KaikadarJa-
Area or in the surroundings of Samarkand
began, because even the surface findings
nowhere reach before period
Karnab I back and also remain in this
Time still meagerly.
The number of the Kurgane seems in the bright nesting broads
To grow strongly time. Also
is to be observed, that in the finding property to
to recognising relations in the neighbouring to the north
Steppe space bit by bit more meagerly
become and at most still on determined
Parts of the arming and Pferdeschirrung
restricted remain, while they
to remaining additions, in particular the ceramics,
extensively with from the settlements
in the oases to known materials
agrees. This trend becomes in
of the following time strengthen even further.
If towns and villages on that had to go
an one and Kurgane on the other side
really different sections of the population
of divergent origin reflect,
thus seems to itself in the area of the material ones
Culture a more and more clearly bulging one
To draw Angleichun g. It
wrirde go too far, all Kurgane
} to enumerate i'ier, the Obel'öenko to this
126 O6e, no.re "xo 19sheet; in 1992; Manae, tsurau in 1992, l08ff.
tzt O6., nu".ttxo 1,992.66following; Man4e, trurau in 1992, 108.
tzo O6e, no.te "xo in 1992, fig. on the p. 28; 30; 31.
tzo Mon. ", norrrroe in 1992, 254 following-faf. 106.69; llureulr4una
130 O6e, no.remco in 1992, fig. on the p. 229 on top; 231 below.
Early history Sogdiens 283
Period assigns, because the finding property anyway
not published ist126. From the area
from Samarkand, e.g., they let themselves
Kurgane 9 and 10 of Agalyksaj and hill
4 of AkdZartepe state, iron one
Ring handle swords, iron daggers, dreiflügelige
Iron heads of the arrow etc. the best analogies
in sarmatischen finding associations of her
Prochorovka period (4./3 cent. B.C.). own,
how this also for from us to dug out ones
Kurgan A2B2 of Karnab is valid,
also in this time belongs. Complexes
like Kurgan 5 of Agalyksaj point against it
rather in later time (beginning mittelsarmatische
Period, 2.-1 cent. B.C.) 127.
Suitable heads of the arrow, swords and
Daggers of iron also meet in grave-mounds
from the area of Bukhara, in such a way
e.g., in the Kurganen 2 and 6 of Kyzyltepe
or in inventories from Kujumazar and
Ljavandak, where they with fine-ceramic cups
among other things Form unite,
elsewhere the settlement layers this
Time cltarakterisierenrz*. Vo.r more specially
A meaning are further broken through worked ones
Belt records, often with animal or.
Animal fight representations, further in
The east of Eurasia Hun-temporal finding associations
in Zabajkal'e and in the Minusinsker
Washbasins (Tes' step of the Tagar culture) mark,
there, however, dependably in them
to both last centuries of B.C. dates
become könnenl2s. The corresponding one
Pieces leading Kurgane Sachrivajron 2
and Ljavandak 16130 would be allowed with it also
in a late segment of the bright nesting broads
Period Sogdiens belong. Whether this
Relations to Innerasien on a possible one
Origin in this Kurganen buried
point, can be hard estimated,
because from these graves, in the end, only that
Unique pieces were published, without
that we next about that wrißten. Practice "rr ^-
nevertheless, schen it did not have to go, because it in that
Action from 2. Cent. B.C. to ample ones
Population movements in Central Asia
come waq outgoing from him
1,992. 224 following Taf. 93.55: 94.7 0-7, 8.
284 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
To trains of hunnischer groups to the north
and the west, in result also other Internal-Asian
Trunks westwards shifted
became (2nd B. the Wusun to Südostkazachtsan
and Kirghizia among other things). To what extent
within the scope of this the ethnic relations
in Central Asia to cataclysmic changes
also new groups to Sogdien
they ventured and which role there
played, lets itself with the present publication state
at most when formulate question,
but do not answer.
The period of the turn of an era or from
early 1. Cent. A.D. up to the end of 4. Cent.
A.D. also becomes in Sogdien by economic ones
Blossom and other growth
of the urban centres marked.
The number of the archaeological sites takes in the whole one
Area clearly to, what not only with
to the research state or the preservation terms
it can be explained, but
certainly also with an actual population growth
and a more intensive one
Aufsiedlung of the open country hang up together
would be allowed. Sogdien lay to that Zeitan
the northern periphery in Baktrien
and further southeast spread Ku5an-
Of the empire to which it never belonged though, from
nevertheless, it was strongly influenced, what
the material culture Sogdiens during
of the first centuries A.D. to the expression
brings. Most clearly this becomes with
the ceramics, but also with small plastic,
Terracotta among other things obviously. Further reached
KuSan-Mün Zen in big number in this region.
This is also the reason dafur, that now and then
from KuSan-, time" or, period"
the speech is, although Sogdien not a part
of the KuSan empire was. In addition, play
but also connections in the direction of north
in the Kaunöi area TaSkent-
Oasis an important role.
In Afrasiab this time becomes by the population periods
Afrasiab 17and V performs official duties,
still the early 5.] H. A.D. erreichtenl3l.
During this period came
it to an other removal of the town,
t3t T.p.tto*run in 1950; Ka6aHoe 1973a; in 1992; (you, r.anosu.r
r32! pe6exoe l9BI. l6ff.
t33 fllrr-r.rrrra among other things in 1985, 278. t'n Ka6aror 1977; in 1981.
t35 tr4. u*.gg uoo/Cy, teüuanos in 1984, 68following
t'u Ka6a "ou in 1977, 93following; flluurxuna among other things in 1985, 279.
137 Heqegoe in 1990.
also of the Fortifikationsanlagenr32.
Knowledge about the population relations
in the environs improved towards him
to preliminary periods only slightly.
Though several archaeological sites are known, however
if they let themselves - because only by celebrations
or at most Sondagen examines - in theirs
Meaning do not interpret closer.
Certainly seems only, that the Zal:l of the fastened ones
Towns with stronghold and systematic cultivation
has increased (Kurgantepe
Sanökul'skoe, Durmantepe, Kumy5kent, Aktep.
e Bulungurskoe etc.) r33.
We meet Ahnliche relations in südsogdischen
Ka5kadarJa area in, where they
to most present places further settled
become, at the same time there originate several new ones
Establishments, in particular in the 3.-4 cent.
if lets itself a clear increase beobachten134.
Stratigraphisches basic scaffolding of her
Division into periods of this region remains furthermore
Erkurgan, where this Zeitraurn Erhurgan
V1 into three phases is subdivided (He
VI-1 - 1.-3 cent., He \rI-2 - 3.-4. Jl:., He \4-3 -
4.-5 cent.) r35. With the settlements are able
different Tlpen made a distinction werden136.
As central places acted certainly
Places like Erkurgan or Kalai Zachoki
Maron with a fastened stronghold in
Centre and several wall struggle, from what
it in the Kalkadar'ja region zu.jener
Time more than 20 have given soll137. Besides
if are some bigger, town-like settlements
known with rectangle plan, in
one of her corners about a stronghold
Main features of the pre and
add (2nd B. Mudintepe) r38. Rectangular to
square places without stronghold or other
mighty fortifications are
though already since the bright nesting broads time in
to this area books (TaStepe), take
now, however, supposedly increases to (Pirmatbabatepe,
Uötepe, KoStepe). At the same time find
itself from the 3.-4 cent. A.D. for the first time small ones,
roughly round residential hills (Palvantepe,
TeSiktepe), in the early Middle Ages
(5.-7./8 cent.) then especially typically
A similar, Hierarchisierung" of her
Settlement places interprets itself also in the area
the oasis of Bukhara ares, where massively
new establishments are founded
(Ba5tepe, Kyzylkyr I-II, set alc. I-II, Nortepe,
.r.u.u.tn0. Beside bigger and fastened
To places more and more smaller ones also step,
unfastened residential hills during this
Time in Erscheinungral. Besides strikes,
that there particularly by the end of this period
(3.-4. J} of i'. A.D.) strengthens fortresses
on the edge of the oasis are put on (Sachrivajron,
Karaultepe among other things), they these fertile ones
Regions against external menaces
schgtzen solltenla2. Bukhara itself was
at that time apparently. unbefestigtla3.
Ceramics show narrow Ubereinstimmungen
with Afrasiab and Erkurgan, so that to itself them
Layer results - provided that Materal publishes
became - easily parallelisieren leave.
With Afrasiab IV V and Erkurean VI
(1-3) let themselves the phases Romii IV
(1.-2 cent. A.D.), Romii V (2.-3 cent. A.D.)
and Ramii VI (3.-4 cent. A.D.). slnchronisieren,
from those both older (Romi5
lV and V) of the so-called. Romii step belong,
while RomiS \{I an early stage of her
in the early Middle Ages reaching in l$zylhyr-
Step darstelltl aa.
On the open country between the old ones
Centres of Sogdiens in Afrasiab, Erkursan
Early history Sogdiens
and the oasis of Bukhara there stand the researches
only at the beginning. A new one
important point forms thanks to our researches
in the settlement chamber of Karnab
the residential hill of this place, that
Periods Karnab N (1.-2 cent. A.D.). and
Karnabv (2.-4 cent. A.D.). in this period
belong. The finding property lets itself
well with Afrasiab tV V, Erkurgan V and Romi3
IV-VI correlate, how on top already in greater detail
it was demonstrated (see above) IJnsere
Celebrations in the closer like other ones
Surroundings proved to be more distant that though isolates
still other Tellsiedlungen in
of this time were founded (2nd B. Allah
Yor Tepa), remains, however, the number of the archaeological sites
from 1.-4. Jh.n. Chr., nevertheless
unexpectedly slightly. To a clear one
Increase comes it around Karnab, Lapas and
Cangali as well as with MuSiston and Takfon
only after 5. Cent. A.D.
Most dug Kurgane Sogdiens
belong in this time between him
1. and 4./5. Jh.n. Chr. In the space of Samarkand
if we know grave-mound of this period
from AkdZartepe, Agalyksaj, Mirankul', Sazagan
u.v.a., in the area around Bukhara from
Clt azara, Sachrivajron, Kyzyltepe, Kujumazar,
Ljzvandak etc. r45. Their finding property resembles
besides, more and more to that of the establishments
in the oases, in particular what they
Ceramics concern, with help most
Kurgangräber generally are dated
are able. The connections to the north
in the steppe space strongly decrease
and foreign elements become clearly rare,
a trend, already in hellenistischer
Time was to be observed. Within the scope of
of our project examined in Karnab
Hill (in 4403, in 4006 and A342a)
belong even, z to the end of this period
or to the beginning of the early Middle Ages
(4.-6. Ih.).
to8 Ku6utt.ru 1,977.93.
l3e Illrr-xrrra among other things in 1985, 279.
tno Yput, Ru in 1982; Aarr, noe in 1983.
ra1 micron "are4xa*os in 1978, 77.
r42 ilIIzrllxr.rsa among other things in 1985, 278 following
ra3 Type6enon 1,981.11.
tn* ilIrr-rr "rru among other things in 1985, 286 Taf. 130; 133; 135.
145 O6e, no "errxo in 1992, 90following; Mau4e, trurrau in 1992, l0Bf.
286 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
The next period of the early Middle Ages
already lies outside from us
more thoroughly of looked period, which is why
we with some final remarks
want to end. Almost all central ones
Places (Afrasiab, Erkurgan etc.) become furthermore
she settles nothing of theirs, and
Meaning lose. This is also valid for
the Tell of Karnab, now one within
his settlement chamber more important fortress place
seems to have become (period
KarnabM). Another centre originates
with the old PendZikent, of that up to now
confessed the oldest layers to him
Beginning of 5. Cent. A.D. go back. rtn6.
Since the middle of the 2nd mill. B.C. (necropolis
Daiti Kozi and grave Zardöa Chalifa) proved
itself this area up to the foundation from
PenZikent extensively as finding-empty, what, nevertheless
might be research-conditioned. Nevertheless
if the relations to that changed
Time in this respect, when now for the first time really
more intensive Aufsiedlung archaeologically tangibly
becomes. This concerns on the one hand the real one
Zeravian valley, how our celebrations
in the settlement chambers from
Karnab and Cangali appear, where for this
5.-7./B.Jh. suddenly a massive increase
tn6 Ee "gate"., in 1953; Mapurax in 1961; I'Icaron 1977; CeneHoe 1996.
of the archaeological sites draws. Besides, it would be allowed
itself around no regional, on the environs
from Karnab trade restricted phenomenon,
because similar also in other Resionen to
observe is. Just our prospectus ions
in the mountain regions of Musi5ton
and Takfon showed, that even extremely settlement-unfriendly
and hardly accessible ones
High mountain valleys now increasingly visited
became, even if the there ones
Silver of lead occurence a certain attraction
should have owned.
This time between 5. and early one
Then, however, B.Jh. brought for Sogdien like
for whole Central Asia serious and
momentous political, ethnic and economic ones
LJmwälzungen. These changes
began with the penetration
hunnischen Hephthaliten in 5. and
Then 6 cent., increased with To add
of West-Turkish family groups, and culminated
finally, in the Arabian conquest
and the islamization resulting from it
this region, in the early B.Jh.
began, after Kutaiba ben Moslem in
Year 711 Samarkand had conquered.
Tin in d, he Bronze Age of Eurasia
From Hermann Parzinger
lJnsere researches pointed, that the dismantling
of the tin mineral deposits examined by us
in the Zeravian valley exclusively from
To bearers of the Andron ovo TazabagJab culture
today it was pursued, namely in
uzbekischen Karnab, Lapas and Öangali as
also in tadZikischen Mu5iston. Singles
Though groups of the Andronovo culture had
narrower contacts with the protourbanen oasis cultures
the late Bronze Age in Südturkmenistan
and Baktrien, however, further after
The south up to the Iranian highland, Mesopotamia
or they passed Anatolia
Connections not. If the Medium Asian had to go
Tin from Sogdien till the front
East has reached, is able to do this only
about mediator or, intertraders" happen
be, what currently, however, speculation
bleiben'muß, as long as the so-called chemical one
Fingerprint such connections
is not able to prove. Andronovo-
Culture ist.jedoch part of a cultural respect network,
this points to the north:
In the steppes between the Urals and Whether lay
her origin, from there widened them to her
Area at a later time on the one hand
to the east direction Enisej and, on the other hand
after the south to Kazachstan, Kpgyzstan,
Fergana, Sogdien and, in addition
from. In the whole spreading area
of the Andronovo culture tin bronze played
already early an important role, so that
the production of this metal in Central Asia
also in this context are seen
is able, because from the steppe belt
to nearest tin ore deposits are
from the zentralkazachischen wild tap dance zone
as well as from the mountain ranges between
to upper Irtyi in the east and Zeravian
known in the west. Therefore, it seems right,
with arguments on the role
of the Medium Asian tin the look not
only after the south, but also to the north
to richtenl.
Between the Urals and Enisej came the use
from metal only bit by bit in way.
As frühmetallzeitlich is valid in the Minusinsker
Washbasins, in Tuva and in the Altaj Afanas'evo-
Culture, predominantly by
Grave findings books istz. These lead above all
Ceramic additions as well as Silex and osseous tools
in neolithischer tradition,
against which easy metal objects,
e.g., pearls, awls or small daggers,
only now and then seem, always, however, from
to pure copper of existence. The Afanas'evot
Si.h. moreover also: Parzinger in 2002.
2 Ba4.t1t aa in 1986, 15following
3 Chernykh 1,992,183.
4 3aü6epr in 1993.
5 MarrouruH 1982.
Therefore, culture is assigned to the Äneolithikum.
Further in the west she lets herself with
the Botai culture in Nordkazachstan4 and
with the Surtandy culture in the southeast one
Ural-Vorland5 rymchronisieren, still less
Copper findings produced. In the north Black Sea space
corresponds to this horizon
of the late 4. and early 3. Jt.v. Chr.
the pit grave or Jamnaja culture. In ours
sogdischen scope of work let themselves
in the lower Zeravsan the latest and only
if ftihrende stage isolates copper objects
288 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
of the Kel'teminar culture connect, possibly
if the final phase of the so-called also goes.
Sazagan culture with it in parallel, although
they up to now still no copper objects
delivered. Certainly, however, correspond to this time
the layers II-fV of Sarazm, with outgoing one
Namazga II as well as with Namazga
III and N are to be correlated, what one
with Afanas'evo to basically agreeing ones
Beginning in the second half of 4.
and the first half of the 3rd mill. B.C. proves
speak (see above) for this linking
not only the laC data, sond.ern in him
upper Straten of Sarazm meet even
Vessels, styling and ornamental art
in late Kel'teminar as well as
in Afanas'evo comparable finds (see above).
nächs {üngere period is valid between
The Urals and Enisej already as an early Bronze Age.
Of Zujener time existed in the Minusinsker
Washbasins the Okunev-Kulturo, the also Tuva
to the south of the western Sajan reached, during
in the Altaj the Karakol '-and in the West-Siberian
Forest steppe Krotovo-as well as
the Samus' culture were spread. In the eastern one
The Petrovkaund let themselves Urals foothills
SintaSta group anschliessen7, one
early developing stage Andronovo-
Culture show, in the nordpontischen space
if it already corresponds to this period
Catacomb grave culture. \A'eiter in the south
if lets itself this horizon with immediate
on the population end of Sarazm to the following
Time correlate, by him
Place by Tugai is represented, where Namazga
V forms with tlpischen vessels Petrovka-
Culture nationalises sind8. Also
the Zarnanbaba culture in the lower Zeravlan
fi-rgt to itself in this cultural network, because they on the one hand
clear connections with Namazga
V in Südturkmenistan gives to recognise,
on the other hand, owns elements, in him
to frühbronzezeitlichen cultures of Petrovka
or SintaSta (club heads, Silexpfeilspitzen
with drawn base) and Okunev
* Ba4eqxar 1986, 27following
7 M.rl.r.litt in 2001.
8 Ar'anessova in 1996.
e village Görs among other things in 1998, 73following
to M.rl.r.li.r in 2001. rr Görsdorfu. a. In 1998, 73following; Hiebert in 1994, 68following 75following
12 M.rl.r.lir-r in 2001.
(Censers) return, how we
on top already in greater detail discussed. Absolute-chronologically
if rac data expel them
in this horizon to involved cultures in
the later 3. and in the beginning one
2. Mill. V. Chr.e.
In the further development during
of the middle Bronze Age it comes between the Urals
and Enisej to a strong standardization
of the so clearly distinctive ones till then
Regional phenomena. The research
hence, speaks of one, *A, ndronovo-Kulturgemeinschaft'lo,
a concept, clearly
should make, that one during entwikkelten
Andronovo culture (Andronovo Fedorovka
Step) in west and Südsibirien also
how in parts of Central Asia (Andronovo-
Tazabag'jab) to an agreeing one
Use of forms found, like they in former,
but also of later Zeitnicht reaches more
became. This uniformity does not concern
only the material culture, so ceramics, Steinund
Bronze devices, but also grave customs
and settlement forms and is able with it more radically
not be. Further to the west corresponds
to him the beam grave or Srubnaja-
Culture. During this time, in them
Tin production in the ZeravSan valley started,
if large parts of Central Asia are able for the first time to one
equally also the northern ones
Steppe areas comprehensive society
are added, in Südturkmenistan
Namazga \4 and in Nordbaktrien
the Sapalli culture corresponds. The developed
Andronovo lets itself just as Namazga
\4 and Sapalli of the time between approx. 1850
and in 1500 B.C. zuweisenlr.
These relations disintegrate during them
the following late Bronze Age again in clearly
distinguished regional phenomena,
to those, e.g., the Karasuk culture in
Of Minusinsker washbasins, the Irmen ' culture in
the West-Siberian forest steppe or they
MeZovo culture in the eastern Urals foothills
gehörenlz, before to itself there in the practicing. gutrg r., t
Tin in the Bronze Age of Eurasia 289
Early Iron Age on account of the arising one
Reiternomadentums absolutely new cultural relations
put, not only concerning
of the material the beginning of a new one
Epoch mean. In Central Asia are during
the Siberian late Bronze Age already
früheisenzeitliche cultures with hand-made,
of painted product spreads (faz I,
Kuöuk I, Tillja I, Öust, Burguljuk etc.),
assert themselves apparently also in Sogdien,
how scanty findings this there distinct
confirm badly occupied time, and
this region after the middle of 2. up to
Beginning of l. Jt.v. Chr. again stronger in
the south already bind, how this
during the early Bronze Age the case was.
It seems as if was the ZeravSan valley
only during mittelbronzezeitlichen
Andronovo-Tazabag' jab culture so strongly with
to the northern steppe space been tied together,
so exactly during that time, in
the bearers of this culture in Karnab, Lapas,
Cangali, Mu5iston and probably also in
to other places of this region diminished tin ore
and from it for the bronze production
so won determining metal.
In Südsibirien tin steps for the first time during
the frühbronzezeitlichen Okunev culture on,
so around the turn of 3. to the 2nd mill. B.C.
Ahnli.h like äneolithische Afanas'ev <-r-
Culture, the oldest metal objects -
all of copper - this region delivered,
if the following Okunev culture is also in
the first line by grave findings represented,
the prevailing majority okunevzeitlichen
Metal tools produced.
Besides, Tlpisch are necropolises with several
from stone records existing grave enclosures
different size, to
to 15 funerals in stone boxes contain
are able. The dead people became as a Rückenhokker
buried, the additions enclose sound vessels
as well as pieces of jewellery, devices and weapons
of stone, bone, horn and copper
or bronze. Just the stone industry and osseous industry
if it makes clear most clearly
to older traditions from the Siberian one
Neo and Äneolithikum, also during
of the Okunev time are still effective.
With the ceramics it comes in this respect to eirrer
Break in the styling, when now for the first time
exclusively flachbodige vessels appear,
in particular easy pots and Näpfe,
however, also meet more complicated forms
(2.8. Smoked bowls). The ceramics mark
further almost the whole vascular surface
covering ornamental art from
To impressions and Ritzungen, the too different ones
to geometrical patterns arranged
wurden13, a product, to itself well with that
Krotovo-and Samus' ceramics in Westsibirien
allows to compare.
Compared with preliminary Afanas'evo-
Culture appear metal objects
now, however, though more often, belong furthermore
not to control-like grave equipment,
but are added only now and then.
4 square awls are proved
and awls, Aneelhaken, level hatchets or.
Chisel, very much flattens, in the cross section ellipsoids
Daggers, now and then already with more set off
Clutch tongue, pearls as well as easy ones
rundstabige arm rings with open Endenla.
To emphasise particularly are one
Dagger blade with rhombischem cross section
and a slit Tüllenlanzenspitzer5;
both forms are able only in two-part
Moulds have been produced, those
Use also in the area of the concurrent ones
Samus' culture in Whether proved
Spectral-analytic investigations in
To metal objects of the Okunev culture
showed, that one a part of the pieces furthermore
made out of pure copper. Besides
if there is, however, astonishing-wise also one
even, ze row of tin bronze, to him
oldest in the Eurasian steppe space gehö-
13 Ba4erlxar 1986, 30following; Aasaperoe in 1997, Taf. 1-10.
t Bu4.t1*u" in 1986, Taf.3,3-9; Koea, ree in 1997, Taf. 11,1-25; Äasaperoe in 1997, Taf. 13,1-16; flo4o, tr, cxzü in 1997,
Fig. 5,1-5; Chernykh in 1992, fig. 65
15 Chernykh in 1992, fig. 65,7.10
290 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
renl6. The bearers of the Okunev culture are valid
since that time as, pioneers" in the production
from tin bronze, woftir up to now, however, only of her
analytic proof can be produced,
since copper mines or tin mines, smelting places
or metallurgist's broad workshops
from the early Bronze Age are up to now
not known. The used raw material,
at least the copper ore, would be able from Sajan
and Altaj come, where it corresponding ones
Beds gives. Their exploitation is
currently, nevertheless, at the earliest for the late Bronze Age
nachgewies.trlT. Occasional tips
on old dismantling places with ancient
Stone hammering from the Altaj, afanas'evozeitlich
be sollenrs, are a little
plausibly. Further the question is open, where from
the metallurgists of the Okunev culture this
Tin could have covered, because documents
fur frühbronzezeitlichen dismantling of tin ore
presently are nowhere found.
In connection with the earliest ones
Tin use in Eurasia is on one
to enter other finding group, date
in the research long controversially
was, in the meantime, however, for good reasons
are assigned to the early Bronze Age
is able: the bronze of the Tlpus Sejma Turbi
, rotn. From 353 of E. N. Öernych spectral-analytically
to examined objects exist
at least 169 (more than 47 Vo) from qualitatively
high-quality Zinnbronre2o. Tu tin shares
besides, lie between 5 and 15 Vo, rr'ehrheitlich.
however, around 70Vo2\. Appear more seldom
Copper arsenic (Bb piece) and
Kupfer-Arsen-Antimon-Legierungen, single ones
Objects exist of pure Kupfer22.
The phenomenon, Sejma-Turbino" describes
in the end, nothing else than one
with the help of some metal forms defined
Therefore, form circle and is able
as an archaeological culture are not valid. Typically
if are clutch tongue daggers with erner
Widening in the Ubergang to the blade,
Schaftlochäxte, decorated spout hatchets, lance points
with slit spout or closed one
with final bulge and a Öse, see <-rg.
forked lance points as well as knives and
Daggers with animal-decorated clutch. A mapping
of these pieces points, that they of Nordchina
and Südsibirien till the eastern Baltic area
scatter, and two clear ones
Concentrations come out: One
lies in the east between middle Enisej
and Irty5, the other in the western Urals
Foothills. Possibly is this distribution
by the situation most important at that time already
to used beds bedingt23. Besides
strikes further particularly, that the spreading
of the findings of the type Sejma-Turbino
to the steppes and forest steppe belt
extensively leaves blank, from few exceptions
seen. Instead of this there lie most
Finding points in the connecting ones to the north
With the majority of the Sejma Turbino
Bronze it concerns single findings,
or the pieces come from old-dug
To graveyards without observed finding connections.
Settlement findings were absent
till recently almost completely. Because the history
of the bronze-temporal cultures of Eurasia
and their sequence, primarily, on theirs
Ceramics are based, Sejma Turbino bronze
long time, however, never with unambiguously dateable ones
To sound vessels were nationalised,
if they always fell by the chronological grid,
and the argument of her time position
was put out to countless speculations. In
of the Russian research long time existed
from that point of view correspondence, Sejma-
Turbino circle between 16., 215. and
14 cent. to attach V Chr. and with it on one
very much restricted time span einzuengetr25. In
16 Chernykh 1,992,185.
t7 Cytt.ry.autee in 1975, 15following; Chernykh in 1992, lB5.
18 Kr, rsaacoe in 1965.
ls Parzinger 1997C, 223 ft.
20 Chernykh 1,992,222.
21 gepur, rx / Ky3r, MLrHbrx 1989, 279 following
22 gepnsrx / Ky3r, MuHr'Ix 1989, I 63 following; Chernykh in 1592, 222 t.
23 Parzinger in 1997 C, 224 fig. I.
2a gepurrx/KysrMuurlx 1989.
25 Yepur, rx. / Ky3bMuHbrx 1989, 256following; Chernykh in 1992, 194. - Also I myself held - to these arguments after -
a beginning at the middle of the 2nd mill. B.C. first for conceivable: Parzinger 1997C, 235.
Tin in the Bronze Age of Eurasia 291
nevertheless, between has to go of it gone out
become, that Sejma Turbino bronze clearly
earlier date.
Moulds for Sejma Turbino bronze
were found in inventories of the necropolises
Sopka 2 and Rostovka, Krotovo-or.
Samus' culture assigned werden2u, w.rtr-tgleich
in the concerning graves
no direct nationalisation this Stükke
with Krotovo-or Samus' ceramics was given.
For it numerous moulds come for
Sejma Turbino bronze from the settlement Samus'
fV, so that in the linking from
Sejma-Turbino with Krotovo and Samus'
any more are not doubted kann27. On account of
of new, calibrated lnc-Dut.tt fur them
with Krotovo and Samus' concurrent Okunev-
Culture has to go this frühbronzezeitliche
Horizon possibly to the turn of 3. to
2. Mill. B.C. highly passély werden28. In the meantime
if direct linkings also lie
between Sejma-Turbino and Okunev before:
In südsibirischen Mul'ga one hit
Sejma Turbino bronze (decorated spout hatchet
and forked lance point) in one
Settlement of the Okunev-Kultur2e. Typically
bef, rndet to itself this place not in
to the steppes and forest steppes of the Minusinsker
Of washbasin, but further to the east in
the taiga; also here is the occurence from
Sejma Turbino bronze again to him
Forest belt engaged.
Another new finding of a Sejma Turbino
Bronze, the document most southeast up to now
for this form circle, comes from that
Northwest-Chinese province of Qinghai. It
concerns a Lanzenspize with glum one
Process in the spout, in one
Settlement of the Qlia culture in Shenna with Xining
to the prelight kam30. The Qljia culture
leaves above all with the bronze objects
certain connections with Okunev recognise.
In this direction also point the newest ones
t*C-Date.r for Qijia, also to them
Turn of 3. lie to the 2nd mill. B.C.
With it no more doubt can exist,
that it between Sejma-Turbino and Okunev
a chronological connection
gives: Both phenomena date in the outgoing one
3. and beginning 2. Jt.v. Chr.
Where from the tin to the production Sejma-
Turbino bronze comes, however, is open.
The spreading area of the Sejma Turbino
Of circle this excels to the Okunev culture
however, around a multiple, still delivers
no so early copper mines or tin mines
with dependable date, which is why
itself other considerations to the origin
of these raw materials during the early Bronze Age
put aside. Fact is abeq that a tin bronze
vrr of the turn of 3. lashes
2. Jt.v. Chr. in Eurasia already widespread
were, namely in the Steppenund
To forest steppe areas as well as particularly
in the forest belt.
The latter surprises in this respect, because they
Cultures of the taiga in certain manner as
, were valid more behind" and always behind
to the clearly quicker developing rhythm
of the open steppes and forest steppe areas
stayed behind. This concerns
but apparently not the production from
Tin bronze. In this connection is
also findings from the Siberian tundra
immediately to the south of the polar sea knowingly.
During the Z.Jt. B.C. was there
the Ymfachtach culture spreads, of those
Produced more sluggishly though ceramics, otherwise
but merely about stone tools and osseous tools
disposed and still mesolithisch-
to neolithischen life forms and economic systems
were obliged. Although
Hundreds of finding places this Ymfachtach-
Culture from ganzJakutien and Cukotien
did not deliver a metal object,
lies from Abylaach I of the Tajmp peninsula
close of the mouth of the Enisej in this
Polar sea the workshop of a bronze caster
before. Besides, one bumped into crucible, moulds
as well as the fragment of a bronze one
Of spout hatchet, on account of his decoration
to the Sejma Turbino circle assigned
can become. The spectral analysis this Gesenstandes
proved, that he from tin bronze
26 Chernykh 1,992,218.
27 Ko.upe. 1,974.7lff. Abb.9-17.
28 Görsdorfu. a. In 1998.
2e unpublished findings in the museum of Minusinsk, for the tip A Leont'ev would be owed.
uo Wang Godao in 1995; Zhongguo in 1997.
292 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
with a tin portion of 7% existed. On account of
of this discovery was even supposed,
whether the tin not just here on that
Tajmyr peninsula have been diminished
would be able, around it then further after the south to
expel where bigger need existed,
since in the area of the Ymljachtach culture pleased
itself metal as can be proved of no big ones
Beliebtheit3l. Whether it to itself, however, really
thus could have held back, speculation remains,
as long as findings like Abylaach I
Isolated cases remain and the accompanying ones
Mines of that time are not localised
be able.
During the following middle Bronze Age
between approx. 1850 and 1500 B.C. take
the different groups of the big one
Of Andronovo Fedorovka circle widens parts
West and Südsibiriens as well as Central Asia
one. For them all are page-shaped put a tread
Pots with ausschwingendem funnel edge
and a rich decoration from differently
inferred to hatched triangles,
Mäanderhaken, to zigzag tapes
and corner patterns characteristically. Also
the spectrum of the bronze objects provides
to sickle-like devices, developed clutch tongue daggers,
2 flight leagues heads of the arrow,
Lock struggle, to bracelets with Tutulusenden,
To earring with a trumpet-shaped
End etc. his own mittelbronzezeitlichen
Leitrypen. Level Erdkurgane
with stone circles are valid as typical ones
Grave arrangements, and one the deads
when stool buried in pits, side walls
either by small, stacked ones
or bigger, vertically put ones
Stone records strengthens wurden32.
The spätfrühbronzezeitlichen groups
Petrovka and SintaSta take in dead person's ritual,
Grave construction, ceramic ornamental art or bronze one
Form treasure already several signs
the Andronovo Fedorovka time beforehand,
then in the middle Bronze Age develops
became. One is able with good ones
Found of the fact go out, that it to themselves with
Andronovo-Fedorovka around a cultural appearance
acted, during the early Bronze Age
between southeast Urals foothills
and Whether originated, around himself then considerably
to spread out after the south and the east. In
The east became the Minusinsker washbasin in
middle Enisej reaches, where Andronovo them
Okunev culture removed. This change signs
itself in all areas of life as clear ones
Break from, so that To add with one more anew
Sections of the population from Westsibirien
in the Enisej must be calculated. About that
out there penetrated the bearers Andronovo-
Culture also after the south before, where her tracks
in the steppes and half deserts west,
Are central and Ostkazachstans are tangible.
Also Chorezm, the Kyzylkum desert and
the Zerav5an valley were reached, where they
with Andronovo-Fedorovka closely used
Tazabag'jab culture entstand33. For the western one
Part of the Fergana there speaks the research
from a so-called. Ikjrakkum variation
the Andronovo-Kultur3a. As the most southern documents
if are valid Andronovo findings or finding places
in Südturkmenistan in the sphere protourbanen
Oasis settlements of the Namazga \4-
Zeit3 \, in Baktrien36 as well as in the northern one
Part of the Northwest-Chinese province of Xinjiurrgu7.
Nevertheless, in all these areas it came
not more to an exhaustive one
Aufsiedlung, but the bearers Andronovo-
Culture seeped there in culturally
absolutely differently disposed sphere one, them
differently than in the Minusinsker washbasin, in Zentralkazachstan,
Chorezm or Sogdien not
to überschichten were capable.
31 X, no6utct "tt in 1987, 336; 338.
and? Marc "renxoe in 1978, Taf.l-41: Bageqxar 1,986.43following Taf.4.
33 Kysur "tta in 1994 l4ruwa in 1977.
un, \. Ru ncx.ü among other things in 1962.
35 Hiebe.t 1s94,27 following
36 Vinogradova in 1991, 289 following
37 Mei 2ooo, 9B fig. 2.23.
During the Andronovo Fedorovka time
if it came to the first real blossom of her
Metallurgy, from not only the clear one
Increase of the number of the bronze objects
all together report also puts away, but they
in an extensive copper production and tin production
above all in Westsibirien and Kazachstan
it becomes visible. If these were in Okunev-
Culture still some tin bronze, so rose
her shares in the Sejma Turbino circle already
on 47%. nre metal objects Andronovo-
Fedorovka culture exist against it
to the prevailing part (90-l00Vo) from
high-quality tin bronze, and the tin portion
as a rule between 3 and 70%
schwankt38. This forms deutlicherr
Contrast to with Andronovo-Fedorovka
to concurrent, but to the west of the Urals spread
Srubnaj a culture, where Kupfer-Arsenund
Copper antimony alloys dominate
and tin bronze only in rare exceptions
vorkommenun. I-area Aba-
Sevo culture tin bronze is nearly total
unknown. The Srubnaja culture wesrlich
and the Andronovo Fedorovka circle
to the east of the Urals are to very soaking off ones
metallurgist's broads traditions obliges,
more differently could not be.
On the causes can speculate only,
and the tip, the bronze craftsmen
the Andronovo Fedorovka culture
reached on metallurgist's broad Erkenntnisqe of her
Okunev time back, the Zinrlbronzen for the first time
produced, is able as an explanation hardly
be sufficient.
Certainly the differences have between
Srubnaja and Andronovo also something with
to do to the available raw materials. Hinsich
tlich de see mittelb r of onzezeitlichen copper ore dismantling
if the tips are numerous, during
our knowledge about the tin production
of this time is still exceedingly scanty
38 Chernykh 1,992,21.3.
3e Chernykh 1992,2I3.
*u Crno "" xor in 1967, fig. 41.
" Approx., norrrn Ru 1,967,177.
42 V.prrur* 1,970.40following
no Vep "o", 1,972.77.
(Dopro. Ru in 1951, l18f.
a5 gepHsrx in 1970.
46 Kyror "rra in 1962; Kyarlruua in 1965.
a7 Yepnrrx in 1970.
48 Ky:ur "" an in 1994, fig. 28.1.
Tin in the Bronze Age of Eurasia 9qq
and clear documents is without. Thus they would be allowed
Beds of the southeast Urals foothills
and adjoining parts Westkazachstans one
important role with the copper care
the Andronovo Fedorovka culture played
have, however, about tin nothing is known there.
In the area of the upper reaches of the Urals,
Uj and Uvel'ka became numerous copper ore deposits
and old dismantling shafts gemeldet4o,
so, e.g., in Bakr rJzjakbei Magnitogorsk,
in Uöalin by the river Uj as well as in the mountain
Tuskan in the Uvel'kaal. The ore from this
at last called bed has to go supposedly
in the Andronovo settlement of Öernjaki III
books seina2. In Bakr Uzjak one hit
big, round-oval Pingen,-2 surfaces 35-55
took and up to 3-m depth reached;
they are supposed mittelbronzezeitlicha3.
Although after the first attempts
from A. A. Formozova4 in particular Öernych
in the late sixties years to itself äen
Copper occurence of the Urals area dedicated,
while he took systematically samples and
this has to do metallurgist's broad groups bildeteas,
Area immediately southeast of the Urals
Of main ridge concerning the earliest copper mining
all together when still investigates badly
be valid.
Against it lie from the area him to the south
neighbouring westkazachischen part group
of the Andronovo culture (sucked. Type
KoZumberdy) more data before, and it particularly
around the districts of Elenovka and
U5katta southeast from Orsk already goes, where
in the late fifties and sixties years
Researches durchgeftihrt wurden46,
the Öernych later fortsetzteaT. It is able
no doubt exist, that in Elenovka and
Ulkatta during the Andronovo time copper ore
diminished wurdea8. For it there are different ones
Clues: Andronovo ceramics
and found suitable stone devices
294 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
itself in the area of the pits and neighbouring
Settlements, arch lumps and slags
came to Andronovo establishments of the same
Microregion to the prelight, and in
of the necropolis of Elenovka the grave enclosures have to go
with stone lump from the old ones
Pits been based sein4e. Further
if spectral-analytic investigations proved,
that about 50.4% of the metal from
to the western area of the Andronovo culture
from copper ore of the beds from
Elenovka and USkatta should have passed.
However, not only the east was supplied:
24.6% of the Srubnaja bronze covered to her
Copper also from this Quelle50. This
Copper ore was promoted there in the opencast mining,
and to itself very big (37-50 m², to
4 m deep) and smaller (diameter
5-10 m) round-oval pits as well as very long,
wide ditches (to 130 m long and
72-20 m wide) make a distinction lassen5r. Although
the present publications this
Researches only few detailed results
return, still seems except question
to stand, that the area KoZumberdy-
Group southeast from Orsk to him
to early centres of the copper ore production
Of Eurasia belonged, the wide parts
Westsibiriens and Nordkazachstans as well as
the areas to the west of the Urals supplied. Whether
there at that time, nevertheless, also tin won
became, avoids our knowledge.
Further to the east in the area upper and
there is middle I5im, Nordkazachstan,
also tips on prehistoric ones
The mining which hardly investigates, however, still
is. With Uro-Tjube and Aööily discovered
one old pits to the dismantling from
Copper ore, with which stone groove hammers
lay, to themselves also in a neighbouring
Andronovo settlement fanden52. One
mittelbronzezeitliche copper production is
there probably, but not certainly
The zentralkazachischen areas northward
of the Balcha5 lake form beside the region
around Orsk certainly another early
Centre of the Eurasian copper metallurgy,
how observations of Soviet geologists
in the time before and shortly after him
Second World War proved. A. Ch. Margulan
intensified these researches later,
and became clear, that the beginning
Of copper ore dismantling in the Andronovo Fedorovka
Time must have started, how shard findings
from waste dumps beside the old pits
as well as suitable findings from neighbouring
Settlements, in which this
Copper ore was processed (cf. Atasu,
MyrZik among other things), point. If it handles, nevertheless
the exact date of concrete findings,
thus a sure separation is between means
and late Bronze Age on account of the present ones
Publications hardly möglich53.
To the andronovozeitlichen centres
of the early copper mining in Zentralkazachstan
if the districts belong around Kenkazgan54,
DLezkazganuu, Alq - T1. be56, Karkaralyut
r.a. The copper ore deposits there
are valid as exceedingly rich, copper lumps from
to several quintals are no rarity.
Several pits and Pingen became
measured and in types jointed. Thus leave
itself big, round-oval pits and kleire,
funnel-shaped Pingen, but also
narrow, long ditches and unterday mining
unterscheidens8, everybody bronze-timewise
might be, without, however, a more exact one
Differentiation means and spätbronzezeitlicher
For findings it would be possible. In addition
are from this region also Kassiteritlagerstätten
famously, also with tracks
though did not date, but certainly to old ones
ae Ooplroson in 1951, l18f.; KysrtrtzHa 1962; approx., trurlnoe in 1967, 275.
5 t' gepHrrx in 1970, 38following
ut gepnut* 1,572.77; KyarlauHa 1994, fig. 28.1.
52 g.ptl, tror in 1948, 20following
53 Ka4r, rp6aee / KypuaHry, toe 1 992.
5a A, rexceee / Ky3HerroBa 1980, 4following
55 Ba, ryxzHcxnü in 1950; Mapry, taH in 1973; Mapry "t ouch in 1979, 233 following
uo and pttot* f970,), 7.
u7 vyÄpou in 1950, 50; Mapry, come on in 1972.
5 t Mup.y, na*t among other things in 1966, 267 following
5e Map.yrraH 1,972.25.
With regard to the processing of the Kuptererzes
if became the first step, from chopping up
and sorting out existed, still
at the place of the production, so in more immediate
Nearness of the mines carried out, in any case
are found for it inDLezkazgan
as well as in Kenkazgan Anhaltspunkteo0. Whether
supposedly to the Aufstauung of high water
for the arch laundry at different places
in the surroundings this zentralkazachischen
Nevertheless, districts established dams
really served this purpose and andronovozeitlich
are, lets itself against it
hard postmanner groove. Major key chopped up and
then washed ore became in settlements
brought, apparently on the subsequent treatment
of the copper ore specifies wa-
. 162. In addition belong, e.g., Atasu and
MpZik63. In hut 4 of Atasu were found
beside a three-part cooker copper slag,
Copper blocks (up to 5 kg of weight),
Moulds, crucibles of stone and
Tone, stone hammers and pestles. Beside this
Construction copper furnaces came to
Prelight: It concerned 0,8-1,4 m
deep and up to 1.6 m of diameter taking ones
The pits which passed by with loam
were and owned blower canals; they warerr
partly still with copper ore and slag
fills. Several other Poluzemljanki in
Atasu produced similar findings; now and then
if were living area and workshop
also of each other apart invested, then
but by an eingetieften hall with each other
verbunden6*. The presumably accompanying one
Bed lay approx. 80 km of Atasu
Zentralkazachische findings offer
all sorts of clues, for the middle Bronze Age
the way of the copper ore from the dismantling
in the bed up to the end product,
in settlements of the closer like other ones
Tin in the Bronze Age of Eurasia 295
Surroundings were poured to go over,
even if still many questions stay open.
About the possible dismantling from
Tin ore is against it once more practically nothing
Also in the areas in the upper Irtyö
in the today's Ostkazachstan tips are found
on andronovozeitlichen mining. So
became, e.g., with Karöiga in the area one
Copper mineral deposit several Saying 'du' old one
Pingen discovers, in surroundings
Stone devices and Andronovo shards situated
have sollen65. Besides would be allowed in this
To districts, however, also tin ore diminished
have become, how entsgrechende shafts
with Mynöunkur and Cerdojak point, where
one among other things grooves and Kerbschlägel as well as
Andronovo ceramics fand66. Besides, left
itself apparently Pingen as well as more properly
Unterday mining unterscheid.en67.
Further becomes from Kassiterit-soap beds
in the Irty5 berichtetos. Öernikov pointed on account of
of these discoveries rightly on it
there, that to the areas in the upper IrtyS
because of his rich copper mineral deposits and tin mineral deposits
particular importance came up.
It would be able to do itself around up to now only confessed
Area in Eurasia trade, in
to him copper as well as tin apparently
already during the Bronze Age won
Zuleat would be in this connection
still to call the Zerav5an valley, in
our own researches took place.
Differently than in abovementioned mittelbronzezeitlichen
To mining districts of the southeast one
Urals foothills in the west up to
upper Irtyi in the east plays hierjedoch copper ore
no role, next occurence
in the southern Kyzylkum lie, where
one on andronovozeitliche slag places
and presumably prehistoric mountain constructions
60 Map.yaart among other things in 1966, 268.
ut Map.y, natt in 1979, 263following
62 Mapry.ra" 1,979,237.
63 Ka4up6aee / KypuaHry, ros in 1992.
6N Map.y, natt among other things 1,966,209following; Mapry, tan in 1979, 179; Ka4rrp6aee / Kypr, ranxy, noe 1,992.25following; Kysr, uuna in 1994,
Fig. 28
6and Vep "t *ou in 1949, 38following; gepurlron in 1960, 118.
uu g.ptr "t ou in 1949, 10following-laf.7; I2,3.4; 13.
u7 9 "p".*ou in 1949, fig. 2; B; Vepuuxos in 1960, 118following Taf. 69-76.
ut t {.ptr "t ou in 1960, 135.
6e Vep "rrou in 1960, 136.
296 tins of the Bronze Age in Central Asia I
stiess7o. However, instead of this is rich tin occurence
famously, and we in the districts
from Karnab, Lapas and Öangali in Uzbekistan
as well as in MuSiston in the northwest
TadZikistans an andronovozeitliche exploitation
of these beds prove
were able. It concerns, on this occasion, around
the oldest ones up to now dependably to passé tin mines
Of Eurasia, which probably still on top
mentioned districts from Ostkazachstan aside
are to be put, where detailed researches
the actual time position, however, only
will still have to clear. In Karnab bumped
we, besides, also on an accompanying one
Mountain working-class estate in the Siökonöi-Saj,
with the exploitation of the tin bed and
to the first processing steps of the won one
Of ore stood in connection.


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